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Dogs know when people are lying
A study of 260 dogs found that, in some cases, dogs can tell when people are lying. The experiments involved giving dogs information about the location of food. The majority of the dogs did not follow false suggestions when they knew humans were lying. Is humanity's best friend catching on to our shenanigans? Researchers at the University of Vienna discovered that dogs can in certain cases know w
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The MyPillow Guy Really Could Destroy Democracy
When you contemplate the end of democracy in America, what kind of person do you think will bring it about? Maybe you picture a sinister billionaire in a bespoke suit, slipping brown envelopes to politicians. Maybe your nightmare is a rogue general, hijacking the nuclear football. Maybe you think of a jackbooted thug leading a horde of men in white sheets, all carrying burning crosses. Here is wh
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Why Managers Fear a Remote-Work Future
In 2019, Steven Spielberg called for a ban on Oscar eligibility for streaming films , claiming that "movie theaters need to be around forever" and that audiences had to be given "the motion picture theatrical experience" for a movie to be a movie. Spielberg's fury was about not only the threat that streaming posed to the in-person viewing experience but the ways in which the streaming giant Netfl
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The Earth's Interior Is Sucking Up Huge Amounts of Carbon, Scientists Say
Big Suck Our planet is sucking up way more carbon from the atmosphere than previously thought, according to new research. We're not out of the woods yet, however — though the research could help us make more accurate projections about a drastically changing climate, and even perhaps provide clues about how to artificially remove carbon from the atmosphere and lock it beneath the planet's surface.
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Astronomers detect light behind black hole for first time
Telescope picks up unexpected 'luminous echoes' – smaller, later and of different colour to bright flares Astronomers have detected light behind a black hole deep in space for the first time. Bright flares of X-rays were spotted bursting from a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy 800m light years away, which is relatively normal. Continue reading…
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What Simone Biles Understands About Greatness
Central to Simone Biles's appeal as an athlete, even to viewers only flimsily acquainted with the rules and rituals of her sport, is the clarity of her gift. You do not have to know the specs of the original "Biles," a double layout with a half twist and blind landing that distinguishes her floor routine, to wonder over her straightened limbs blurring and her equilibrium compensating. By the same
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Simone Biles's Critics Don't Understand This Generation of Athletes
Simone Biles was expected to be the story of the Tokyo Olympics because of her long series of jaw-dropping performances up to now. Instead, she's become the story of these Olympics because she's not performing. Citing her mental health, Biles removed herself from the women's gymnastics team final after one rotation on Tuesday night. A day later, she withdrew from the individual all-around competi
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She risked everything to expose Facebook. Now she's telling her story.
The world first learned of Sophie Zhang in September 2020, when BuzzFeed News obtained and published highlights from an abridged version of her nearly 8,000-word exit memo from Facebook. Before she was fired, Zhang was officially employed as a low-level data scientist at the company. But she had become consumed by a task she deemed more important: finding and taking down fake accounts and likes t
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Eternal Change for No Energy: A Time Crystal Finally Made Real
In a preprint posted online Thursday night, researchers at Google in collaboration with physicists at Stanford, Princeton and other universities say that they have used Google's quantum computer to demonstrate a genuine "time crystal." In addition, a separate research group claimed earlier this month to have created a time crystal in a diamond. A novel phase of matter that physicists have strived
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Non-linear effects in coupled optical microcavities
Scientists from the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have demonstrated exciton-polariton lasing and parametric scattering of exciton-polaritons in a system of coupled optical microcavities. The results have been published in the prestigious journal Nanophotonics.
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Italian astronomers discover new star cluster
Astronomers from Italy report the detection of a new star cluster as part of the YMCA (Yes, Magellanic Clouds Again) survey. The newly discovered stellar grouping, designated YMCA-1, may be an old and remote star cluster of our Milky Way galaxy. The finding is detailed in a paper published July 21 on the arXiv pre-print repository.
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Small proteins discovered to be regulators of the aging process
Scientists have discovered that the protein ubiquitin plays an important role in the regulation of the aging process. Ubiquitin was previously known to control processes such as signal transduction and metabolism. Prof. Dr. David Vilchez and his colleagues at the CECAD Cluster of Excellence for Aging Research at the University of Cologne performed a comprehensive quantitative analysis of ubiquitin
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Prominent behavioral scientist's paper earns an expression of concern
A journal has issued an expression of concern for a 17-year-old paper by one of the world's most prominent behavioral psychologists after it partly failed a statistical stress test conducted by a group that has been trying to reproduce findings in the field. The 2004 article, by Dan Ariely, of Duke University but then at … Continue reading
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The mortality cost of carbon
Nature Communications, Published online: 29 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24487-w Climate change is expected to have impacts on human mortality, e.g. through increases in heat waves. Here, the author proposes a new metric to account for excess deaths from additional CO2 emissions, which allows to assess the mortality impacts of marginal emissions and leads to a substantial increase in the soc
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Vanderbilt engineer the first to introduce low-power dynamic manipulation of single nanoscale quantum objects
Led by Justus Ndukaife, assistant professor of electrical engineering, Vanderbilt researchers are the first to introduce an approach for trapping and moving a nanomaterial known as a single colloidal nanodiamond with nitrogen-vacancy center using low power laser beam. The width of a single human hair is approximately 90,000 nanometers; nanodiamonds are less than 100 nanometers. These carbon-based
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Postmenopausal women can dance their way to better health
Women often struggle with managing their weight and other health risk factors, such as high cholesterol, once they transition through menopause. A new study suggests that dancing may effectively lower cholesterol levels, improve fitness and body composition and in the process, improve self-esteem.
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Nearly half of surveyed female surgeons experienced major pregnancy complications
Researchers surveyed 1,175 surgeons and surgical trainees from across the U.S. to study their or their partner's pregnancy experiences. They found that 48 percent of surveyed female surgeons experienced major pregnancy complications, with those who operated 12-or-more hours per week during the last trimester of pregnancy at a higher risk compared to those who did not.
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New Paper Warns That Environmental Collapse Will Lead to "Untold Suffering"
Dying Earth The ecological vital signs of the planet are in dire shape, according to an updated report endorsed by almost 14,000 scientists. Even before it came out , we knew that the paper would present a grim outlook for the future of life on Earth. And now, the very first sentence of the study, published Wednesday in the journal BioScience , points out that the panel of scientists declared a c
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Three Americans create enough carbon emissions to kill one person, study finds
The analysis draws on public health studies that conclude that for every 4,434 metric tons of CO 2 produced, one person globally will die The lifestyles of around three average Americans will create enough planet-heating emissions to kill one person, and the emissions from a single coal-fired power plant are likely to result in more than 900 deaths, according to the first analysis to calculate th
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Crisis Briefly Spins International Space Station Out of Control
Russia's brand new Nauka module, which docked to the International Space Station today, unexpectedly fired its thrusters just hours afterward — prompting a serious crisis on board the orbital outpost. "The crew was never in any danger," NASA said in a statement, according to the Houston Chronicle . "We do not know why the Nauka thrusters began to fire. That is not clear at this point." The entire
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Elon Musk Employees Are Instructed to Tell People He's "Awesome" and "Inspiring"
Dear Leader If you take a ride on Loop, Elon Musk's underground tunnel transportation system in Las Vegas, you might get a bizarrely rosy portrait of the enigmatic megabillionaire during your journey. That's because The Boring Company provides drivers — yes, the high-tech underground transportation of the future is no different than driving through a tunnel — with a specific script to help them f
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Renewables Overtook Coal and Nuclear Power Generation in the US Last Year
Number Two For the first time in US history, renewables became the second-most prevalent electricity source in 2020 after natural gas, according to the US Energy Information Administration (EIA). In 2020, renewable energy sources —including wind, solar, hydroelectric, and geothermal — accounted for 21 percent of all the electricity generated in the country. Coal represented just 19 percent, while
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Extreme weather will be the norm and UK is not prepared, scientists warn
Last year was first to be in top 10 for heat, rain and sunshine, as scientists say UK's mild climate is at an end Extremes of weather will strike the UK more frequently owing to the climate crisis, scientists said after data showed that last year was one of the warmest, as well as one of the wettest and sunniest, on record. Last year was the first to figure in the top 10 for heat, rain and hours
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Elon Musk Reportedly Demanded to Be Made CEO of Apple
Power Play According to explosive allegations in a new book, Elon Musk once demanded to be made CEO of software megacorporation Apple — prompting Tim Cook, the actual CEO, to hang up the phone in disgust. Here's how things went down during a 2016 call, according to the Los Angeles Times ' synopsis of " Power Play: Tesla, Elon Musk and the Bet of the Century ," by Wall Street Journal reporter Tim
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Founder of Tesla Wannabe Charged With Fraud for Lying About Hydrogen-Electric Truck
Hot Seat The US Justice Department charged Travis Milton, the founder of the controversial electric and hydrogen automaker Nikola, with fraud today. If you've been following along then you already know that Nikola, the name of which is a not-so-subtle jab at Elon Musk's rival automaker Tesla, has already had a spectacular fall from grace. In February 2020, Nikola unveiled and made bold claims abo
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Scientists Surprised by Objects of "Complex Organic Matter" in Asteroid Belt
Red Rocks A team of astronomers have spotted two mysterious objects in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter that appear to be loaded with organic matter, possibly including the building blocks of life on Earth, The New York Times reports . The two rocks, dubbed 203 Pompeja and 269 Justitia, showed up as glowing red in astronomical observations, far redder than any other known object in the
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Australia Covid live update: 2 million in western Sydney face tougher lockdown as some construction resumes
Residents of eight local government areas banned from leaving hotspots unless they are essential workers; tradespeople now allowed into clients' homes. Follow all the day's news Just 39% of NSW residents over 70 are fully vaccinated NSW restrictions ; NSW hotspots ; border restrictions Vic hotspots ; Vic restrictions ; border restrictions Qld hotspots ; Qld restrictions ; border restrictions Vacc
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Experimental Male Birth Control Is Magnets That Heat Up Your Testicles
A team of scientists from China's Nantong University just completed animal tests for an interesting new approach to male birth control — but you probably won't enjoy hearing how they got there. The one-simple-trick involved injecting mice with magnetic nanomaterials, using external magnets to guide the particles into their testicles, and then using another magnetic field to heat their you-know-wh
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Indiana Prepares To Test New Roads That Charge Electric Vehicles
Free Charge A German company called Magment has partnered with the Indiana state government and Purdue University to test out new, high tech streets that automatically charge the battery of any electric vehicle outfitted with a special receiver that's driving down them. The roads rely on magnetic particles mixed into concrete which, when electrified, can transfer power with 95 percent efficiency,
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China Is Building Even More Nuclear Missile Launchers
Silo Madness Last month, reports emerged of China constructing 119 identical missile silos in a desert near the city of Yumen in northwest China. Satellite images showed a massive desert expanse pockmarked by individual silos. Now, the Chinese government is digging a second field of an additional 110 silos for launching nuclear missiles, The New York Times reports , a worrying sign that China may
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Russia Says Don't Worry, It's No Big Deal That We Threw the ISS Into a Tailspin
Shrug It Off On Thursday, Russia docked its new Nauka module to the International Space Station — and, just three hours later, sent the entire orbital facility careening off course when it suddenly and unexpectedly fired up its thrusters . Now, the Russian space agency Roscosmos says that a software glitch is to blame, Reuters reports . Apparently the module received the command to "withdraw," se
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Down With Morning People
Tim Lahan This article was published online on July 30, 2021. M e, I can fake it. Stale as I may be from the night before, one foot—one leg—stuck in the underworld, I can still crank up the sociability. I can manufacture perkiness at an early hour. Good morning! Good morning! Am I even faking it? Perhaps not. It is good to wake up. I do rejoice in the restoration of consciousness, the grand democ
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Germany Found a Way to Reduce Polarization. Could It Work in the U.S.?
W hen Edmund Schechter, a Viennese Jew who fled the Nazis, arrived in postwar Germany in 1945, he encountered a "wasteland"—not just physically, he said, but "psychologically." All newspapers had ceased publication. Radio stations were destroyed and devoid of their Nazi staff. The "silent" media landscape provided "virgin territory" to "do all sorts of things really from scratch," recalled Schech
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Women participate less at conferences, even if gender-balanced – study
Exclusive: small changes in conference design can make big difference to female inclusion, say researchers Women are less likely to participate in proceedings at medical and scientific conferences, even with gender-balanced delegates, although simple interventions in conference design sparked a significant improvement in female inclusion, a study has found. Medical and scientific conferences are
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Elon Musk Shows Off Pic of Monstrous Super Heavy Booster Engine System
Musk's Monster It's no secret that SpaceX's Starship Super Heavy Booster will be an absolute beast. The rocket stage, meant to launch the also-huge Starship spacecraft into orbit, will be sporting an outrageous number of individual rocket engines — 29 to be exact — making it one of the biggest rocket boosters in history. A photo shared by SpaceX CEO Elon Musk today on Twitter shows the sheer scal
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Why information is central to physics and the universe itself
The most important current topic in physics relates to a subject that hardly seems physical at all — information, which is central to thermodynamics and perhaps the universe itself. The "dataome" is the way human beings have been externalizing information about ourselves and the world since we first began making paintings on cave walls. The dataome is vast and growing everyday, sucking up an ever
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Why So Many Millennials Are Obsessed With Dogs
Jason Fulford and Tamara Shopsin This article was published online on July 29, 2021. S ince the beginning of the coronavirus pandemic, I have asked one question more than any other. It's come up time and again, day and night, as frequently in my post-vaccination spring and summer as it did in the dark moments of the pandemic's first wave: Are you my booboo? The question is never answered by Midge
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The Lines of Connection
Updated at 8:07 p.m. ET on July 29, 2021 In the opening pages of her new memoir, Somebody's Daughter, the writer Ashley C. Ford describes growing up with an incarcerated father, who was sentenced when she was just 10 months old. He would spend the next 30 years in prison; he was released in 2019. In the book, part of what Ford writes about is how so much of her life—and the lives of those around
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Making memories actually involves breaking our DNA, study shows
The urgency to remember a dangerous experience requires the brain to make a series of potentially dangerous moves: Neurons and other brain cells snap open their DNA in numerous locations — more than previously realized , according to a new study — to provide quick access to genetic instructions for the mechanisms of memory storage. The extent of these DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in multiple k
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How Did It Come to This?
The CDC's color-coded coronavirus case map , if you can find it, is easy enough to read. It's a county-by-county snapshot of viral transmission—the agency's new fallback for advising fully vaccinated people on whether they need to don a mask indoors. The parts painted in those scary shades of orange or red are areas of substantial or high transmission, respectively; they're the places where you s
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Space Station Astronauts Threw Their Own Zero-G Olympic Games
Space Olympics The Olympic spirit has become so infectious that even astronauts stationed on board the International Space Station were inspired to put on their own microgravity games — a heartwarming example of international camaraderie . "Today the Olympics start in Tokyo, but we held the very first space Olympics last week," European Space Agency astronaut Thomas Pesquet wrote in a caption of
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Weapon grave of Suontaka, Hattula in Finland reveals flexible gender roles in the early Middle Ages
The modern re-analysis of a weapon grave found in Suontaka, Hattula in Finland over 50 years ago challenges the traditional beliefs about gender roles in the Iron Age and Early Medieval communities and reveals information about the gender expressions of the period. The grave also functions as a proof of how non-binary people could have been valued and respected members of their communities.
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We're Talking About Vaccines All Wrong
So far this year, freshman Representative Marjorie Taylor Greene has outraised all of her GOP colleagues in the House, raking in $4.53 million in the first six months of 2021. (Among congressional Republicans, only Senators Ted Cruz and Josh Hawley have raised more.) Yes, Greene is paying quite a bit to raise those funds, but it remains a staggering amount for an incumbent in a safe red district,
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Congressman Proposes Four-Day Work Week
Three Day Weekend If US Congressman Mark Takano has his way, most Americans will end up working four days — that's just 32 hours — instead of the more-or-less universally accepted five day, 40 hour week that we have today. The Californian Democrat introduced new legislation on Tuesday that, if enacted, would change the threshold for overtime work throughout the country, according to a press relea
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Nikola's Fake Hydrogen Truck Was Actually Plugged In During Demo, According to Lawsuit
One-Way Trip Nikola became the laughingstock of the automotive world last year when it emerged that it had rolled its (purportedly) hydrogen-electric semi truck down a hill in a high-profile demo because it couldn't actually drive yet. Now, though, it turns out the ruse may have been even more pathetic — federal prosecutors in the new fraud charges levied against Nikola founder Trevor Milton now
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Delta Is Ruining the Summer, and It's Anti-vaxxers' Fault
"Just think back to where this nation was a year ago," an ebullient Joe Biden said on July 4 , as he gave remarks billed as a celebration of U.S. independence—and independence from COVID-19. "Think back to where you were a year ago. And think about how far we've come." You might not have to work very hard to remember. Across the country, summer 2021 is starting to look distressingly like summer 2
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Hundreds of AI tools have been built to catch covid. None of them helped.
When covid-19 struck Europe in March 2020, hospitals were plunged into a health crisis that was still badly understood. "Doctors really didn't have a clue how to manage these patients," says Laure Wynants, an epidemiologist at Maastricht University in the Netherlands, who studies predictive tools. But there was data coming out of China, which had a four-month head start in the race to beat the pa
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Russia rocket mishap briefly nudges International Space Station out of position
After several 'hiccups' on the journey to the ISS, the Nauka lab module accidentally fired its rockets after docking Russia's troubled Nauka laboratory module has caused a fright when its rockets accidentally fired after docking the with the International Space Station, briefly throwing the station out of position. A few hours after docking, Nauka's propulsive devices unexpectedly fired, forcing
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A Baby Was Born With Her "Parasitic" Twin Inside Her Stomach
Earlier this month, doctors were alarmed by a baby girl who was born with an unusually enlarged stomach. When the doctors took a closer look, they found a partially developed human embryo resting inside, The Times of Israel reports — likely a sign of what could have been a twin sibling that got absorbed during prenatal development. The phenomenon, called fetus in fetu — literally "fetus in fetus"
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More carbon emissions will kill more people; here's how many
A just-published study coins a new metric: the "mortality cost of carbon." That is, how many future lives will be lost—or saved—depending on whether we increase or decrease our current carbon emissions. If the numbers hold up, they are quite high. The study was published today in the journal Nature Communications.
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Tiny Neuralink Rival Wins Race for Approval To Test Brain Implant in Humans
On Wednesday, a small neurotech startup called Synchron was granted regulatory approval by the FDA to start testing out its brain implant on human volunteers. The news puts the upstart Synchron way ahead of rival companies in the industry, including Elon Musk's lavishly-funded Neuralink, which has yet to make the jump from experimenting on animals to humans. With that go-ahead, Synchron announced
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Photos of California's Dixie Fire
The Dixie Fire, which started two weeks ago in California's Plumas County, has grown to become the state's largest wildfire this year, burning more than 215,000 acres so far. Thousands of residents are under evacuation orders as the blaze has burned several dozen buildings, and threatens thousands more. Gathered here are images of the residents and firefighters working to save what they can and s
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Study: These Countries Are Most Likely to Survive Collapse of Civilization
Civilization Collapse While Australians are fighting over rat carcasses in a "Mad Max" scenario, it might be pretty much business as usual in New Zealand. At least, that's the conclusion of a new study by researchers at the UK's Anglia Ruskin University, who examined which places on Earth would be best prepared to deal with breakdowns in global supply chains, financial structures, and other compl
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95% of British adults still wearing a mask when out, says survey
Figure same as before legal requirement relaxed, while most still feel that complying with other Covid safety measures is important Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Only one British adult in 20 is no longer wearing a mask outside of their homes despite the relaxing of legal mask-wearing requirements earlier this month, according to the first official survey on complyi
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Lil Nas X, DaBaby, and the Incoherence of Homophobia
One big reason HIV/AIDS remains a deadly crisis despite the existence of lifesaving drugs is stigma: Fear of shame and ostracization discourages people from accessing testing, preventive measures, and treatment. In other words, a factor causing needless suffering is people like DaBaby, one of the hottest names in hip-hop . Performing in Miami this past weekend, the rapper asked fans to raise thei
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Fire Breaks Out at Tesla Battery Power Station
Battery Blaze On Thursday night, a Tesla Megapack battery system burst into flames at a facility in Australia. It's still not entirely clear why the massive energy storage unit caught fire, according to Electrek . But the fact that the blaze happened while running initial tests on the batteries suggests that there are still kinks to sort out before Tesla is fully able to help stabilize Australia'
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Israel to offer Pfizer Covid booster shots to people over 60
Announcement makes Israel the first country to offer a third dose of a western vaccine to its citizens on a wide scale See all our coronavirus coverage Israel's prime minister has announced that the country would offer a coronavirus booster shot to those people over 60 who have already been vaccinated. The announcement by Naftali Bennett makes Israel, which launched one of the world's most succes
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Experiment with working poor in India finds no impact from more night sleep
Subjectively, getting more sleep seems to provide big benefits: Many people find it gives them increased energy, emotional control, and an improved sense of well-being. But a new study co-authored by MIT economists complicates this picture, suggesting that more sleep, by itself, isn't necessarily sufficient to bring about those kinds of appealing improvements.
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AstraZeneca sales of Covid vaccine triple to $1.2bn in first half of 2021
Not-for-profit pledge sees British firm's sales revenue fall significantly short of US rival Pfizer Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage AstraZeneca's Covid-19 vaccine has brought in $1.2bn (£900m) in the first half of this year, with sales tripling in the second quarter from the first – but its earnings remained significantly below those of its US rival Pfizer. Britain's
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Machine-learning technique used to pinpoint quantum errors
Researchers at the University of Sydney and quantum control startup Q-CTRL today announced a way to identify sources of error in quantum computers through machine learning, providing hardware developers the ability to pinpoint performance degradation with unprecedented accuracy and accelerate paths to useful quantum computers.
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The second-coldest imaged exoplanet found to date
Astronomers have discovered thousands of exoplanets—planets beyond our solar system—but few have been directly imaged, because they are extremely difficult to see with existing telescopes. A University of Hawaiʻi Institute for Astronomy (IfA) graduate student has beaten the odds and discovered a directly imaged exoplanet, and it's the closest one to Earth ever found, at a distance of only 35 light
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'How Does One Process Defeat?'
A few days ago I heard from a former student of mine, whom I will refer to as Scott. He began by assuring me that he, his wife, and their three children were all well, and filled me in on his career since a period of extended service in Afghanistan as a civilian. He wrote the following: You might have seen the news earlier this week that Spin Boldak, the Afghan border town in Kandahar, is now und
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What Immigrants Know About Happiness
" How to Build a Life " is a weekly column by Arthur Brooks, tackling questions of meaning and happiness. The most vitriolic immigration debates tend to be unhappy affairs all around. One side favors looser restrictions on immigrants, typically because of the misery they endure in their home country and in their hardships during migration. The other side argues that they will cause unhappiness am
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Nasa's InSight lander reveals internal structure of Mars
Analysis of marsquakes captured since probe landed in 2018 shows the Martian crust is between 12 and 23 miles thick Nasa's InSight lander has revealed the depth of Mars's crust and the size of its central core by using data from dozens of marsquakes captured since the probe landed in 2018. The Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) is a dome-shaped instrument that sits on the surface of
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Israel begins investigation into NSO Group spyware abuse
Israeli government officials visited the offices of the hacking company NSO Group on Wednesday to investigate allegations that the firm's spyware has been used to target activists, politicians, business executives, and journalists, the country's defense ministry said in a statement today. An investigation published last week by 17 global media organizations claims that phone numbers belonging to
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Genetic engineering test with mosquitoes 'may be game changer' in eliminating malaria
UK scientist says gene-drive study rendering female insects infertile may lead to 'self destruct mosquito' field tests within 10 years Scientists have successfully wiped out a population of malaria-transmitting mosquitoes by using a radical form of genetic engineering to render the females infertile – in the most advanced and largest ever test of use of the technology to fight the disease. As wel
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Interoception: how to improve your "gut feeling"
Our surroundings contain far more information than our conscious minds can process. Our non-conscious minds are constantly gathering information and identifying patterns. By being interoceptively attuned — that is, aware of the inner state of the body — we can tap into what our non-conscious mind is trying to tell us. The following is an adapted excerpt from the book The Extended Mind . It is rep
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Scandal-Plagued Robinhood Suffers Worst IPO in History
New Record! The scandal-ridden stock trading app Robinhood went public on Thursday with a record-shattering IPO. The only problem? It broke the record in the wrong direction. Robinhood's IPO is officially the worst-performing out of all 51 American companies that raised at least the same amount of money, according to analysis from Bloomberg . Trading began at $38 per share in the company, which w
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Why Do We Look Down On Lonely People?
Excerpted from Seek You , by Kristen Radtke. Copyright © 2021 by Kristen Radtke. Excerpted by permission of Pantheon. All rights reserved. Last month at a bar, a man called me a bitch. I had let him sit with me at my table and he was peppering me with questions. I was working on a deadline and snapped at him, uncharacteristically. He seemed genuinely hurt. Women, he said, always gave him an openi
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American imperialism: fat-shaming Uncle Sam
In the years before 1900, the United States was experiencing a spectacular spurt of growth. Not everyone approved: many feared continued expansionism would lead to American imperialism. To illustrate the threat, Uncle Sam was depicted as dangerously or comically fat. Detail from "Charge of the 24th and 25th Colored Infantry, July 2nd 1898", depicting the Battle of San Juan Hill – a turning point
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Nearly 14,000 Scientists Warn Against Ignoring Climate Change
(Image: Luca Bravo/Unsplash) (Photo: Luca Bravo/Unsplash) According to a panel of 14,000 scientists, ignoring our current climate crisis could lead to "untold suffering." Their warning comes in the form of a paper published in the scientific journal BioScience and undersigned by experts from around the world. The paper, published Tuesday, emphasizes the need for "short, frequent, and easily acces
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New research helps explain diversity of life and paradox of sex
There are huge differences in species numbers among the major branches of the tree of life. Some groups of organisms have many species, while others have few. For example, animals, plants and fungi each have over 100,000 known species, but most others—such as many algal and bacterial groups—have 10,000 or less.
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Do Olympic-Level Achievements Make People Happy?
The appeal of the Olympics is that they decide who can claim the title of best in the world. They also, less gloriously, decide who can claim the title of second best in the world. Despite beating out every competitor on Earth but one, silver medalists can feel a special type of disappointment. In a study that analyzed footage from the 1992 Olympics in Barcelona , they were consistently judged to
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Study of nature preserve reveals more than 1,000 species and signs of changing oceans
Blue Cavern Point on the eastern edge of Santa Catalina Island, some 25 miles off the coast of San Pedro, California, is a hotbed of life. In the shallow edges of the water cling starfish, sea urchins and sea cucumbers. Farther out in deeper seas, bright orange garibaldi and giant sea bass the size of pianos make their home in rippling forests of giant kelp reaching hundreds of feet from the ocean
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Why Sweat Is A Human Superpower
Sweat is an "evolutionary marvel," says Sarah Everts, the author of The Joy of Sweat. In her new book, Everts delves into the science of perspiration and how this trait has enabled humans to thrive. (Image credit: Cavan Images/Getty Images)
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The Invisible Tech Behemoth
The problem, as the Biden administration tech-policy adviser Tim Wu might say, is the bigness . This month, President Joe Biden signed an executive order to attempt to undo some 40 years of growth-at-all-costs economic policy, targeting various kinds of monopolies, including airlines, meatpackers, hearing-aid manufacturers, and, of course, technology firms. "Capitalism without competition," he de
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The Return of Hypocrisy
Governments, even democratic ones, are often ineffective or simply bad. Elections sometimes produce uninspiring results, particularly when a patchwork of parties forms an unwieldy coalition government that struggles to get much of anything done. This doesn't mean it should be overthrown. Nor should the United States ignore coup attempts staged in the name of bypassing the messiness of democracy.
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The best vaccine incentive might be paid time off
Free doughnuts. Tickets to see the Los Angeles Lakers. Video visits with loved ones for people in prison. The chance to win a million-dollar lottery. States, cities, and private companies are dangling anything they can think of to convince Americans to get a covid-19 vaccine. The idea is to nudge people who are open to a vaccine but just need an extra push—but so far, there's little evidence thes
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The magnetic field in the galactic outflow of M82
Messier 82 (M82) is a luminous infrared galaxy about twelve million light-years away from the Milky Way. Its burst of star formation powers the radiation and drives a bipolar superwind that originates near the core of the galaxy. The wind extends perpendicular to the galactic plane out into the halo and intergalactic medium; ionized gas in the wind traces a continuous structure that is about thirt
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'Less than 1% probability' that Earth's energy imbalance increase occurred naturally
Sunlight in, reflected and emitted energy out. That's the fundamental energy balance sheet for our planet — and for decades, it has been out of balance. The extra energy manifests as higher temperatures, rising sea levels, floods, droughts, more powerful blizzards and hurricanes, and deadlier extreme events. Not only is the imbalance growing, but there's a 99% chance that the growth is due to hum
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An endlessly changing playground teaches AIs how to multitask
DeepMind has developed a vast candy-colored virtual playground that teaches AIs general skills by endlessly changing the tasks it sets them. Instead of developing just the skills needed to solve a particular task, the AIs learn to experiment and explore, picking up skills they then use to succeed in tasks they've never seen before. It is a small step toward general intelligence. What is it? XLand
2h
Time for Covidnomics
First Canada overtook the United States in the vaccination race. Now the European Union has done so. Even poor European countries such as Greece, Lithuania, and Poland have surpassed vaccine-resistant U.S. states such as Ohio, Arkansas, and Missouri. Why is this happening? Facebook exists on the other side of the Atlantic as much as it does on ours. Europeans do not lack for far-right political p
2h
Remains of ancient dogs found among early human ancestral remains in Georgia
A team of researchers from Italy, Spain and Georgia has found the remains of ancient hunting dogs at a dig site in what is now modern Georgia. In their paper published in the journal Scientific Reports, the group describes the fossils they found, their attempts to classify them and the possibility of the dogs interacting with early human ancestors.
7h
Astronomers Directly Image Planet Just 35 Light Years Away
In the hunt for exoplanets, astronomers are only rarely able to look upon a world directly with even the most powerful telescopes. So, it's always notable when we can actually see a new exoplanet. Scientists from the University of Hawaii report they have spotted a new exoplanet only 35 light-years away , and we can see this one because it's enormous and very far from its host star. In fact, it mi
8h
Scientists create UV-enabled flexible wearable technology
To enable the development of wearable devices that possess advanced ultraviolet (UV) detection functions, scientists from NTU Singapore have created a new type of light sensor that is both flexible and highly sensitive.While invisible to the human eye, UV rays surround us in our environment, and excessive exposure can cause health issues including skin cancer and premature skin aging. The intensit
1d
Berkeley Lab's CAMERA leads international effort on autonomous scientific discoveries
Experimental facilities around the globe are facing a challenge: their instruments are becoming increasingly powerful, leading to a steady increase in the volume and complexity of the scientific data they collect. At the same time, these tools demand new, advanced algorithms to take advantage of these capabilities and enable ever-more intricate scientific questions to be asked—and answered. For ex
1d
Non-native species cost Europe over 116 billion Euros from 1960 to 2020
Together with an international team, Senckenberg scientists have investigated the costs incurred by invasive species in Europe and Germany. In their studies, published today in the scientific journal NeoBiota, they show that in European countries, non-native species caused damage in excess of 116.61 billion Euros in the period from 1960 to 2020. In Germany, the figure for the same period is an est
1d
'Digging' into early medieval Europe with big data
During the middle of the sixth century CE a dramatic transformation began in how the people of western Europe buried their dead. The transition from 'furnished' inhumation (those with grave goods to include jewellery, dress accessories, tools and personal items etc) to 'unfurnished' (those without grave goods) was widespread and by the early eighth century an unfurnished inhumation was by far the
12h
Godzilla and mushroom clouds: How the first postwar nuclear tests made it to the silver screen
As I sat in a darkened cinema in 1998, mesmerised and unnerved by the opening nuclear bomb explosions that framed the beginning of Roland Emmerich's Godzilla , it felt like I was watching the most expensive special effect in history. Vast expanding clouds and fireballs eclipsed their surroundings and smothered everything in their path, dropping radioactive material that gave rise to the title mon
5h
Ocean microbes reveal distribution of nitrogen-fixers at a global level
Nitrogen is one of the major building blocks of life. It makes up 80 percent of Earth's atmosphere and it is described as one of the most important growth-limiting nutrients for both land and marine plants. This is because the most abundant form of nitrogen—dinitrogen, or N2—is particularly stable and resistant to chemical reactions, meaning that it cannot be assimilated by most organisms. Given t
1d
'Leave the Rest to Me'
For raw emotional content, Tuesday's hearing of the new House select committee to investigate the January 6 insurrection was nonpareil. Four police officers who fought to hold back armed hordes seeking to disrupt Congress told stories of physical injury, racist abuse, and post-traumatic distress. Even for Americans who paid close attention to the crisis, these stories added new texture and horror
42min
This Picture Has Major Moon Potential
The cosmos has a knack for making something out of very little. It molds stars from clouds of dust and gas, planets from the residue left over from the creation of stars, and moons from the scattered fragments around newly glazed planets. The universe spins cosmic matter around, guided by the forces of gravity, shaping the celestial figures that fill the expanse. Astronomers, with the help of tel
1d
New method to detect impact of sea level rise
University of Adelaide scientists have developed a new simple, inexpensive and fast method to analyze sulfur isotopes, which can be used to help investigate chemical changes in environments such as oceans, and freshwater rivers and lakes.
1d
Why animals recognise numbers but only humans can do math
Counting feels utterly effortless to adults, who are unlikely to even remember when or how they picked up this useful, apparently automatic skill. Yet when you think about it, counting is a remarkable invention. It helped early humans to trade, apportion food and organize fledgling civilisations, laying the foundations for life as we know it today.
1d
UK appears to defy dire 'freedom day' predictions as Covid cases fall
Government will not say they believe worst is over, but cases fell for seven consecutive days this week Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage As England's "freedom day" dawned on 19 July, Boris Johnson was grumpily confined to his 16th-century grace-and-favour mansion, humiliated by the row over a bungled quarantine exemption. Cases were at more than 46,000 per day as all
3h
Astronomers discover how to feed a black hole
The black holes at the centers of galaxies are the most mysterious objects in the Universe, not only because of the huge quantities of material within them, millions of times the mass of the sun, but because of the incredibly dense concentration of matter in a volume no bigger than that of our solar system. When they capture matter from their surroundings they become active, and can send out enorm
6h
Russian space module mishap pushes ISS out of position – video
Russia's troubled Nauka laboratory module caused a fright when its rockets accidentally fired after docking the with the International Space Station , briefly throwing the station out of position. A few hours after docking, Nauka's propulsive devices came on unexpectedly, forcing personnel onboard the ISS to launch thrusters on the Russian segment of the station to counter the effect Russia rocke
10h
Testosterone in women's athletics – podcast
Genetic advantages in sport tend to be celebrated, but that isn't always the case when it comes to women's athletics. At the start of July, two female runners from Namibia, Christine Mboma and Beatrice Masilingi, were told they couldn't compete in the 400m race in the Tokyo 2020 Olympics unless they reduced their naturally high testosterone hormone levels. Shivani Dave speaks to Katrina Karkazis,
1d
Researchers develop 'dimmer switch' to help control gene therapy
In a major advancement in the field of gene therapy for rare and devastating diseases, researchers have developed a "dimmer switch" system that can control levels of proteins expressed from gene therapy vectors. The system is based on alternative RNA splicing using an orally available small molecule and works effectively in tissues throughout the body, including the brain.
1d
'I Would Go Tomorrow to Get the Third Shot'
And just like that, it's Groundhog Day. The news from the CDC is bad. Yes, we have vaccines—and they are miraculously effective at preventing serious illness and death from COVID-19. Thank goodness for that. But the CDC now says that when vaccinated people are infected, they may spread the coronavirus just as easily as the unvaccinated do. On top of that, the Delta variant is tremendously contagi
42min
Plant reproduction: Unraveling the role of a new membrane within pollen grain
While the reproduction process of flowering plants has been known for more than 120 years, there still remain many mysteries to unravel. Researchers from INRAE, ENS de Lyon, CNRS and Limagrain characterized a new membrane within pollen grain that surrounds the two sperm cells. In a publication in Journal of Cell Biology on 29 July 2021, the scientists show that this membrane is key to guarantee th
7h
Remember more by taking breaks
We remember things longer if we take breaks during learning, referred to as the spacing effect. Scientists gained deeper insight into the neuronal basis for this phenomenon in mice. With longer intervals between learning repetitions, mice reuse more of the same neurons as before — instead of activating different ones. Possibly, this allows the neuronal connections to strengthen with each learning
19h
Neanderthal and Denisovan blood groups deciphered
The blood groups of three Neanderthals one Denisovan have been determined by a team including a palaeoanthropologist, population geneticists, and haematologists. Their research provides new data for understanding the origins, history, and health of these extinct hominin lineages.
1d
Natural mineral hackmanite enables new method of x-ray imaging
Researchers from the University of Turku have discovered a new method of X-ray imaging based on the coloring abilities of the natural mineral hackmanite. The international group of researchers also found out how and why hackmanite changes color upon exposure to X-rays.
5h
No particular risk of infection of SARS-CoV-2 from cash, study finds
How long do coronaviruses remain infectious on banknotes and coins? Is it possible to become infected through contact with cash? Researchers developed a method specifically to test how many infectious virus particles can be transferred from cash to the skin in real-life conditions. Conclusion: under realistic conditions, the risk of contracting SARS-CoV-2 from cash is very low.
20h
Scientists Trace Origin of Dinosaur-Killing Asteroid
Credit: NASA The age of the dinosaurs lasted more than a hundred million years, which is an unfathomable long time compared with humanity's mere 300,000 years on this planet. Most species of dinosaurs met their end about 65 million years ago when a large object smacked into the Yucatan peninsula. A team of scientists from the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) is trying to identify the source of
1d
Pressure transforms 'squishy' compound in bizarre ways
Remarkable things happen when a "squishy" compound of manganese and sulfide (MnS2) is compressed in a diamond anvil, researchers report. "This is a new type of charge transfer mechanism, and so from a science community point of view this is very, very exciting. We are showing remarkable physical transformations over a very, very short range of parameters, in this case pressure," says Ashkan Salam
33min
A sleep study's eye-opening findings
Getting more sleep, by itself, does not change work productivity or overall well-being for impoverished workers in India. Naps or better-quality sleep at night may have a bigger impact, according to a new study.
47min
Your phone's dark mode may not actually save much battery power
Your phone's dark mode feature is unlikely to make a big difference to battery life, according to a new study. When Android and Apple operating system updates started giving users the option to put their smartphones in dark mode, the feature showed potential for saving the battery life of newer phones with screens that allow darker-colored pixels to use less power than lighter-colored pixels. And
47min
Fli1+ cells transcriptional analysis reveals an Lmo2-Prdm16 axis in angiogenesis [Physiology]
A network of molecular factors drives the development, differentiation, and maintenance of endothelial cells. Friend leukemia integration 1 transcription factor (FLI1) is a bona fide marker of endothelial cells during early development. In zebrafish Tg(fli1:EGFP)y1, we identified two endothelial cell populations, high-fli1+ and low-fli1+, by the intensity of green fluorescent…
1h
PolyG-DS: An ultrasensitive polyguanine tract-profiling method to detect clonal expansions and trace cell lineage [Genetics]
Polyguanine tracts (PolyGs) are short guanine homopolymer repeats that are prone to accumulating mutations when cells divide. This feature makes them especially suitable for cell lineage tracing, which has been exploited to detect and characterize precancerous and cancerous somatic evolution. PolyG genotyping, however, is challenging because of the inherent biochemical…
1h
Clinical evidence that a dysregulated master neural network modulator may aid in diagnosing schizophrenia [Neuroscience]
There are no validated biomarkers for schizophrenia (SCZ), a disorder linked to neural network dysfunction. We demonstrate that collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP2), a master regulator of cytoskeleton and, hence, neural circuitry, may form the basis for a biomarker because its activity is uniquely imbalanced in SCZ patients. CRMP2's activity…
1h
The effects of graded calorie restriction XVII: Multitissue metabolomics reveals synthesis of carnitine and NAD, and tRNA charging as key pathways [Physiology]
The evolutionary context of why caloric restriction (CR) activates physiological mechanisms that slow the process of aging remains unclear. The main goal of this analysis was to identify, using metabolomics, the common pathways that are modulated across multiple tissues (brown adipose tissue, liver, plasma, and brain) to evaluate two alternative…
1h
Cell-free reconstitution reveals the molecular mechanisms for the initiation of secondary siRNA biogenesis in plants [Plant Biology]
Secondary small interfering RNA (siRNA) production, triggered by primary small RNA targeting, is critical for proper development and antiviral defense in many organisms. RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RDR) is a key factor in this pathway. However, how RDR specifically converts the targets of primary small RNAs into double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) intermediates…
1h
Microbiota-derived metabolites inhibit Salmonella virulent subpopulation development by acting on single-cell behaviors [Microbiology]
Salmonella spp. express Salmonella pathogenicity island 1 Type III Secretion System 1 (T3SS-1) genes to mediate the initial phase of interaction with their host. Prior studies indicate short-chain fatty acids, microbial metabolites at high concentrations in the gastrointestinal tract, limit population-level T3SS-1 gene expression. However, only a subset of Salmonella…
1h
UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2, a regulator of glycogen synthesis and glycosylation, is critical for pancreatic cancer growth [Medical Sciences]
UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (UGP2), the enzyme that synthesizes uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose, rests at the convergence of multiple metabolic pathways, however, the role of UGP2 in tumor maintenance and cancer metabolism remains unclear. Here, we identify an important role for UGP2 in the maintenance of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) growth in…
1h
Gram-negative outer-membrane proteins with multiple {beta}-barrel domains [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Outer-membrane beta barrels (OMBBs) are found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria and eukaryotic organelles. OMBBs fold as antiparallel β-sheets that close onto themselves, forming pores that traverse the membrane. Currently known structures include only one barrel, of 8 to 36 strands, per chain. The lack of multi-OMBB chains…
1h
A functional mammalian display screen identifies rare antibodies that stimulate NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity [Immunology and Inflammation]
Therapies that boost the antitumor immune response have shown a great deal of success. Although most of these therapies have focused on enhancing T cell functions, there is a growing interest in developing therapies that can target other immune cell subsets. Like T cells, natural killer (NK) cells are cytotoxic…
1h
Specific electromagnetic radiation in the wireless signal range increases wakefulness in mice [Neuroscience]
Electromagnetic radiation (EMR) in the environment has increased sharply in recent decades. The effect of environmental EMR on living organisms remains poorly characterized. Here, we report the impact of wireless-range EMR on the sleep architecture of mouse. Prolonged exposure to 2.4-GHz EMR modulated by 100-Hz square pulses at a nonthermal…
1h
GHB analogs confer neuroprotection through specific interaction with the CaMKII{alpha} hub domain [Pharmacology]
Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II alpha subunit (CaMKIIα) is a key neuronal signaling protein and an emerging drug target. The central hub domain regulates the activity of CaMKIIα by organizing the holoenzyme complex into functional oligomers, yet pharmacological modulation of the hub domain has never been demonstrated. Here, using a combination…
1h
Dopaminergic modulation of human consciousness via default mode network connectivity [Neuroscience]
Decades of preclinical studies indicate that dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain modulate animal behavior and cognition (1). The role of dopaminergic VTA neurons in wakefulness, and hence consciousness, emerged more recently from VTA stimulation experiments utilizing pharmacologic (2, 3), electrophysiologic (4), optogenetic (5, 6),…
1h
One Day of Greenland's Ice Melt Could Submerge Florida
It shouldn't be surprising by now to learn that the Arctic is melting at an alarming rate thanks to worsening climate change — and spelling bad news for the rest of the planet. But sometimes it can be hard to conceptualize the vast scale of the problem , or how big of an impact it'll have on the rest of us, thousands of miles away. Well, new World Meteorological Organization data may help paint a
1h
Amygdala found to have role in important pre-attentive mechanism in the brain
Researchers have shown how the amygdala, a brain region typically associated with fear, contributes to prepulse inhibition (PPI) by activating small inhibitory neurons in the mouse brain stem. The discovery advances understanding of the systems underlying PPI and efforts to ultimately develop medical therapies for schizophrenia and other disorders by reversing pre-attentive deficits.
1h
eDNA effective in the calculation of marine biodiversity
For almost 20 years, researchers have conducted detailed censuses of the majestic kelp forests off Santa Barbara. By counting fish species and placing them in the context of their environmental conditions, coastal marine ecologists can look at the effects of human activity and natural drivers on kelp and its ability to maintain the kelp forest communities.
1h
What Misspellings Reveal About Cultural Evolution – Facts So Romantic
Stable cultural forms do not have to result from close replication; they can emerge continuously out of subtle changes. Illustration by VectorMine / Shutterstock Something about me must remind people of a blind 17th-century poet. My last name, Miton, is French, yet people outside of France invariably misspell it as "Milton"—as in the famed English author, John Milton, of the epic poem Paradise Lo
1h
Applied science facilitates the large-scale expansion of protected areas in an Amazonian hot spot
Meeting international commitments to protect 17% of terrestrial ecosystems worldwide will require >3 million square kilometers of new protected areas and strategies to create those areas in a way that respects local communities and land use. In 2000–2016, biological and social scientists worked to increase the protected proportion of Peru's largest department via 14 interdisciplinary inventories
1h
Van der Waals epitaxy of nearly single-crystalline nitride films on amorphous graphene-glass wafer
Van der Waals epitaxy provides a fertile playground for the monolithic integration of various materials for advanced electronics and optoelectronics. Here, a previously unidentified nanorod-assisted van der Waals epitaxy is developed and nearly single-crystalline GaN films are first grown on amorphous silica glass substrates using a graphene interfacial layer. The epitaxial GaN-based light-emitti
1h
FAN1-MLH1 interaction affects repair of DNA interstrand cross-links and slipped-CAG/CTG repeats
FAN1, a DNA structure-specific nuclease, interacts with MLH1, but the repair pathways in which this complex acts are unknown. FAN1 processes DNA interstrand crosslinks (ICLs) and FAN1 variants are modifiers of the neurodegenerative Huntington's disease (HD), presumably by regulating HD-causing CAG repeat expansions. Here, we identify specific amino acid residues in two adjacent FAN1 motifs that a
1h
Sedimentary ancient DNA shows terrestrial plant richness continuously increased over the Holocene in northern Fennoscandia
The effects of climate change on species richness are debated but can be informed by the past. Here, we generated a sedimentary ancient DNA dataset covering 10 lakes and applied novel methods for data harmonization. We assessed the impact of Holocene climate changes and nutrients on terrestrial plant richness in northern Fennoscandia. We find that richness increased steeply during the rapidly war
1h
Predicting non-state terrorism worldwide
Several thousand people die every year worldwide because of terrorist attacks perpetrated by non-state actors. In this context, reliable and accurate short-term predictions of non-state terrorism at the local level are key for policy makers to target preventative measures. Using only publicly available data, we show that predictive models that include structural and procedural predictors can accu
1h
North Atlantic Oscillation in winter is largely insensitive to autumn Barents-Kara sea ice variability
Arctic sea ice extent in autumn is significantly correlated with the winter North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) in the satellite era. However, questions about the robustness and reproducibility of the relationship persist. Here, we show that climate models are able to simulate periods of strong ice-NAO correlation, albeit rarely. Furthermore, we show that the winter circulation signals during these
1h
Single-cell analyses unravel cell type-specific responses to a vitamin D analog in prostatic precancerous lesions
Epidemiological data have linked vitamin D deficiency to the onset and severity of various cancers, including prostate cancer, and although in vitro studies have demonstrated anticancer activities for vitamin D, clinical trials provided conflicting results. To determine the impact of vitamin D signaling on prostatic precancerous lesions, we treated genetically engineered Pten (i)pe–/– mice harbor
1h
Bird neurocranial and body mass evolution across the end-Cretaceous mass extinction: The avian brain shape left other dinosaurs behind
Birds today are the most diverse clade of terrestrial vertebrates, and understanding why extant birds (Aves) alone among dinosaurs survived the Cretaceous-Paleogene mass extinction is crucial to reconstructing the history of life. Hypotheses proposed to explain this pattern demand identification of traits unique to Aves. However, this identification is complicated by a lack of data from non-avian
1h
Looping-in complexation and ion partitioning in nonstoichiometric polyelectrolyte mixtures
A wide variety of intracellular membraneless compartments are formed via liquid-liquid phase separation of charged proteins and nucleic acids. Understanding the stability of these compartments, while accounting for the compositional heterogeneity intrinsic to cellular environments, poses a daunting challenge. We combined experimental and theoretical efforts to study the effects of nonstoichiometr
1h
Metabolic control of nitrogen fixation in rhizobium-legume symbioses
Rhizobia induce nodule formation on legume roots and differentiate into bacteroids, which catabolize plant-derived dicarboxylates to reduce atmospheric N 2 into ammonia. Despite the agricultural importance of this symbiosis, the mechanisms that govern carbon and nitrogen allocation in bacteroids and promote ammonia secretion to the plant are largely unknown. Using a metabolic model derived from g
1h
SARS-CoV-2 antibody magnitude and detectability are driven by disease severity, timing, and assay
Interpretation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurveillance studies is limited by poorly defined performance of antibody assays over time in individuals with different clinical presentations. We measured antibody responses in plasma samples from 128 individuals over 160 days using 14 assays. We found a consistent and strong effect of disease severity on antibod
1h
Photonic skins based on flexible organic microlaser arrays
Flexible photonics is rapidly emerging as a promising platform for artificial smart skins to imitate or extend the capabilities of human skins. Organic material systems provide a promising avenue to directly fabricate large-scale flexible device units; however, the versatile fabrication of all-organic integrated devices with desired photonic functionalities remains a great challenge. Here, we dev
1h
The major mechanism of melanoma mutations is based on deamination of cytosine in pyrimidine dimers as determined by circle damage sequencing
Sunlight-associated melanomas carry a unique C-to-T mutation signature. UVB radiation induces cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) as the major form of DNA damage, but the mechanism of how CPDs cause mutations is unclear. To map CPDs at single-base resolution genome wide, we developed the circle damage sequencing (circle-damage-seq) method. In human cells, CPDs form preferentially in a tetranucle
1h
Solar-powered microbes to feed the world?
An international research team has shown that using solar-panels to produce microbial protein — which is rich not just in proteins but also in other nutrients — is more sustainable, efficient and environmentally friendly than growing conventional crops. This method uses solar energy, land, nutrients, and carbon dioxide from the air.
2h
Scientists discover a surprising new way that tuberculosis suppresses immunity
University of Maryland researchers discovered a way that Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), the bacterium that causes tuberculosis, can cause a person's immune cells to lower their defenses. Specifically, they identified a gene in the bacterium that suppresses immune defenses in infected human cells, which could exacerbate the infection. The findings were published on July 29, 2021, in the journal
2h
'Green' synthesis of plastics from CO2
Using a CeO2 catalyst, researchers develop an effective catalytic process for the direct synthesis of polycarbonate diols without the need for dehydrating agents. The high yield, high selective process has CO2 blown at atmospheric pressure to evaporate excess water by-product allowing for a catalytic process that can be used with any substrate with a boiling point higher than water.
2h
Daily briefing: Rocket glitch nudges ISS
Nature, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02114-4 The International Space Station was briefly pushed out of position when rockets on a newly docked module accidentally fired. Plus: Female authors get fewer citations in elite medical journals, and why obesity doesn't always lead to ill health.
2h
"Acoustic tweezers" use sound waves to levitate bits of matter
Since the 1980s, researchers have been using sound waves to move matter through a technique called acoustic trapping. Acoustic trapping devices move bits of matter by emitting strategically designed sound waves, which interact in such a way that the matter becomes "trapped" in areas of particular velocity and pressure. Acoustic and optical trapping devices are already used in various fields, incl
2h
A blood test for your body clock? It's on the horizon
Sleep researchers have found it's possible to determine the timing of a person's internal biological clock via a single blood draw. Ultimately, the findings could lead to a simple blood test for assessing circadian rhythm and personalized recommendations for when people should eat, sleep, exercise and take medications.
2h
A single cell type map of human tissues
In a study published in the US journal Science Advances, a single cell type map of human tissues is presented. An open access atlas has been launched with more than 250,000 interactive plots to allow researchers to explore the expression in individual single cell types for all protein-coding genes in these tissues.
2h
Watching light break down a model photocatalyst in near real time
Chemists create catalysts for use in industry and other applications. One of the methods to create these catalysts is by using light to break down organometallic compounds—substances that include both metals and carbon. These types of compounds are called photocatalysts. Scientists call the process of breaking down molecules with light, photodissociation. Researchers often study the photodissociat
3h
Chemists discover a key to greener food production
Arguably the most important (if least well known) industrial advancement of the 20th century, the Haber-Bosch ammonia synthesis process essentially conquered food scarcity by creating the means to mass produce fertilizer—fertilizer then used to fortify food harvests around the world.
3h
Electron microscopy in the age of automation
"Many of the greatest challenges of our time, from clean energy to environmental justice, require new approaches to the craft of scientific experimentation. This is exceedingly apparent in the field of electron microscopy. As researchers utilize this powerful window to peer into the atomic machinery behind today's technologies, they are increasingly inundated with data and constrained by tradition
3h
How to make up your mind when the glass seems half empty?
Neuroscientists have connected some of the dots to reveal the brain networks that give anxiety influence over decisions. The group has published a review that synthesizes results from years of brain measurements in rats and primates and relates these findings to the human brain.
3h
Adding color to your plate may lower risk of cognitive decline
A new study shows that people who eat a diet that includes at least half a serving per day of foods high in flavonoids like strawberries, oranges, peppers and apples may have a 20% lower risk of cognitive decline. The study looked at several types of flavonoids, and found that flavones and anthocyanins may have the most protective effect.
3h
As Vaccination Rates Lag, Delta Variant Presents New Challenges
In an announcement this week, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention noted that vaccinated individuals with breakthrough infections are more likely to pass Covid-19 on than had been previously thought. Given this, the agency recommends that even vaccinated individuals return to wearing masks indoors.
3h
Get paid to be part of a Trinity College Cognitive Study
Hi everyone! I am currently recruiting participants for a paid study that aims to validate a smartphone-based brain task. Participation in this study will be remote and includes downloading the Neureka app and playing one of its science challenges along with the computerised classic version. The study will take 45 – 60 minutes to complete and you will receive €10 for your participation upon compl
3h
Giant pandas still face high risk of extinction
Giant pandas in the wild are more fragmented and isolated than they were 30 years ago and many continue to face a high risk of extinction despite recent gains in their overall numbers, a new study finds. Climate change, habitat loss , and reduced breeding viability—an inherent risk in small, remote populations where potential mates are few—could pose a triple whammy for these animals, the researc
3h
Artificial Intelligence learns better when distracted
Computer scientists from the Netherlands and Spain have determined how a deep learning system well suited for image recognition learns to recognize its surroundings. They were able to simplify the learning process by forcing the system's focus toward secondary characteristics.
4h
Blood test may flag women at risk for premature birth
A blood test during a routine prenatal visit could identify women at risk for premature birth, a new study shows. In the United States, one in 10 babies is born prematurely. "Preterm births are common," says Hanne Hoffmann, an assistant professor in the animal science department at Michigan State University. "If we know the mother is at risk for a preterm birth, her doctor can monitor her more cl
4h
The Books Briefing: The Many Sides of Identity
In 1983, the historian Benedict Anderson published his pioneering work Imagined Communities , which looks at the intangible factors that bond nations together. His analysis was prescient, thanks to the expansive lens it took in examining what unites people, and the book still helps deepen considerations of modern issues, such as the importance of a representative Pride flag . This nuanced way of
4h
Millennials, What Will It Take for You to Buy Life Insurance?
YuLife is something of a cross between Fortnite and a Fitbit. In the mobile game, players compete against one another to rack up bike miles and meditation hours. They can access hundreds of virtual worlds—collectively known as the " Yuniverse "—each of which represents a level with its own set of real-life tasks. They can challenge friends to a duel , and place bets on who will take the most step
4h
The Atlantic Daily: Is This the Start of a Healthier Era of Sports?
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. Francois Nel / Getty The Olympics are supposed to be an athlete's ultimate test; a gold medal, the pinnacle of success. But this year, life is proving bigger than sport. Simone Biles, who— much li
4h
Amsterdam Debuts World's First 3D-Printed Steel Bridge
(Photo: Merlin Moritz/MX3D) Would you walk across a 3D-printed bridge? For folks in Amsterdam, the question now poses a real opportunity. Imperial College of London has spent the last four years working with Dutch company MX3D to develop a 3D-printed steel bridge that would serve as a "living laboratory." Through a network of built-in sensors, researchers at Imperial College will be able to monit
4h
Cockatoos teach each other the secrets of dumpster diving
If sharing learned knowledge is a form of culture, Australian cockatoos are one cultured bunch of birds. A cockatoo trick for opening trash bins to get at food has been spreading rapidly through Sydney's neighborhoods. But not all cockatoos open the bins; some just stay close to those that do. Like humans, some animals are capable of culture , including learning from one another. And the cockatoo
4h
Poll: 32% of parents say girls aren't as good at sports
Roughly one-third of parents think boys are better at sports than girls are, a new poll finds. The research indicates that gender stereotypes and double standards, where female athletes are treated differently or aren't taken as seriously as male counterparts, persist. Researchers polled more than 3,000 boys and girls aged 7 to 17 and their parents/guardians across the country and found that pare
4h
Chromosome positioning during sperm differentiation described
Chromosomes occupy specific regions of the cell nucleus called chromosome territories. In somatic cells, scientists have observed that there is a correlation between this positioning and genome regulation. In fact, alterations in chromosome distribution have been related to certain diseases. Nevertheless, there are very few studies on chromosome territoriality in the cells that originate oocytes a
5h
Weather during mountain race tragedy was predicted, but its impact was not
On May 22, about 170 ultramarathon racers were climbing an eight kilometer stretch of sand and gravel to a mountain top in Yellow River Stone Forest Park in northwest China. Suddenly, it seemed, the temperature dropped, the wind picked up, and the skies opened. Mostly dressed in shorts and t-shirts, armed with foil blankets, 29 runners were trapped, exposed to the weather elements. Twenty-one runn
5h
New study unveils novel technology for plasma separation using magnets
A team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has recently unveiled a hemolysis-free and highly efficient blood plasma separation platform. Published in the May 2021 issue of Small, this breakthrough has been led by Professor Joo H. Kang and his research team in the Department of Biomedical Engineering Department at UNIST. The research team expects that the new technology will greatly improve the a
5h
Adapting roots to a hotter planet could ease pressure on food supply
The shoots of plants get all of the glory, with their fruit and flowers and visible structure. But it's the portion that lies below the soil—the branching, reaching arms of roots and hairs pulling up water and nutrients—that interests plant physiologist and computer scientist, Alexander Bucksch, associate professor of Plant Biology at the University of Georgia.
5h
Testis-specific gene involved in sex ratio regulation discovered
Although enormous progress has been made over the past few decades in genetics, molecular biology and biochemistry, the ways in which living beings orchestrate their internal processes at the microscopic scale is still full of mysteries. One clear example of this are long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) molecules, which are a relatively new class of genes that are not translated into proteins yet directly
5h
A phytoplankton that synthesizes petroleum-equivalent hydrocarbons
Director-General Naomi Harada and colleagues from the Research Institute for Global Change at the Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology, in collaboration with Assistant Professor Yuu Hirose from Toyohashi University of Technology and Specially Appointed Professor Kazuyoshi Murata from the National Institute for Physiological Sciences, discovered that the phytoplankton Dicrateria rot
5h
A new genome assembly for the 'Fielder' wheat cultivar
Wheat is a staple in the diets of numerous cultures. Increasing wheat production efficiency would help feed more people and reduce associated agricultural costs. Genetic engineering has the potential to generate better wheat cultivars with characteristics we desire, but unfortunately, wheat is also one of the hardest crops to genetically modify. This is because wheat is resistant to "transformatio
5h
An effective strategy for protecting skyrmions in quantum computing devices
A magnetic skyrmion is a versatile topological object that can be used to carry information in future spintronic information processing devices. As potential non-volatile information carriers, excellent endurance and robust retention are desired properties of skyrmions in spintronic devices. However, previous studies have suggested that skyrmions can be easily destroyed at device edges during high
5h
Unraveling mysteries of the ocean from space
Using nearly a decade of satellite data, researchers at Colorado State University have uncovered "milky seas" in a way they've never been seen before—a rare and fascinating oceanic bioluminescent phenomenon detected by a highly sensitive spaceborne low-light sensor.
5h
Model predicts 10-year burst of wildfire, then gradual decline
A look at the long-term future of wildfires predicts an initial roughly decade-long burst of wildfire activity, followed by recurring fires of decreasing area. In recent years, wildfires on the West Coast have become larger and more damaging. A combination of almost a century of fire suppression and hotter and drier conditions has created a tinderbox ready to ignite, destroying homes and pollutin
5h
Rope Swinging Between Two 400 Foot Cliffs | Pushing the Line
Stream Pushing the Line on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/pu… About Pushing the Line: A young crew of daredevils spend their days risking their lives to break records on ropes stretched 500 feet in the air. At night, camp is all about parties, hook ups and break ups. Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Follow Us on TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@Discovery
5h
Ancient Brains: Inside the Extraordinary Preservation of a 310-Million-Year-Old Nervous System
Charles Darwin famously discussed the "imperfections" of the geological record in his book On the Origin of Species. He correctly pointed out that unless conditions are just right, it's unlikely for organisms to be preserved as fossils, even those with bones and shells. He also said "no organism wholly soft can be preserved." However, after more than a century of fossil hunting since his book was
5h
Plasmodium falciparum transcription in different clinical presentations of malaria associates with circulation time of infected erythrocytes
Nature Communications, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25062-z To understand malaria symptoms, several studies investigate association between parasite's transcriptome and disease severity. Here, Thomson-Luque et al. reanalyze available transcriptomic data of P. falciparum and find that longer circulation of infected erythrocytes without sequestering to endothelial cells as
6h
We need to talk about post-pandemic lectures
Nature, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02112-6 Off-campus learning was essential during the pandemic. But when it ends, we should encourage students to return to campus for in-person lectures, says Michael Doran.
6h
Researchers find fat burning molecule in mice
Linked to serious health problems including cancer, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, obesity affects more than a third of adults in the United States. Presently, there are few safe and effective nonsurgical therapeutic interventions available to patients with obesity.
6h
Filming the thermal death of electrons in matter
It is well known that an electric current increases the temperature of the material through which it is conducted due to the so-called Joule effect. This effect, which is used daily in domestic and industrial heaters, hair dryers, thermal fuses, etc., occurs because the new electrons injected into the material cannot go to the lower energy states because those are already occupied by the electrons
6h
Permafrost in Daisetsu Mountains in Japan projected to decrease significantly
Areas with ground temperatures that remain below 0 degrees Celsius for more than two years are referred to as permafrost, and approximately one-quarter of the Northern Hemisphere and 17% of the Earth's exposed land surface is permafrost. Permafrost is found in mountainous areas as well as in high-latitude tundra and taiga regions. Recent observations have shown that the permafrost in mountainous a
6h
New polymer composite for electromagnetic shielding applications
scientists from NUST MISIS, South Ural State University and Joint Institute for Nuclear Research together with colleagues from Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Belarus have developed a new radar absorbing polymer composite with exfoliated graphite (EG)/barium aluminum hexaferrite (HF) fillers. The new composite has excellent magnetic and microwave properties. It can absorb 99.9% of the incoming electromagn
6h
Visual Persistence in a Dynamic World
We mostly take our vision for granted. I am not referring to how much we appreciate having good vision, for those who do, but rather we tend to be unaware of how much of a neurological feat simple vision is. In a way, we evolved not to appreciate this – the experience of good vision evolved to be seamless, and to hide all the massive processing necessary to make it so. Neuroscientists, however, h
7h
Tool could predict drug combos that spark antibiotic resistance
Scientists propose a modeling framework that could predict how antibiotic resistance will evolve in response to different drug combinations. The research could help doctors optimize the choice, timing, dose, and sequence of antibiotics used to treat common infections in order to help halt the growing threat of antibiotic resistance to modern medicine. "Drug combinations are a particularly promisi
7h
Intentional cracks and wrinkles provide low-cost option for medical screening
Size matters when it comes to sorting biological materials. From identifying pathogens to screening for drug treatments, the ability to quickly identify and separate particles based on their size is an increasingly important tool in diagnosing and treating patients, according to Huanyu "Larry" Cheng, Dorothy Quiggle Career Development Professor in Penn State's Department of Engineering Science and
7h
New economic dashboard could serve as early warning system for state-level recessions, other economic shocks
The spread of COVID-19 was rapid and relentless, and so were its effects on economies worldwide. Knowing how state economies withstand economic shocks in near-real time can be beneficial for policymakers who have the power to enact strategies to counteract the negative impact. University of Notre Dame researchers developed the first near-real-time dashboard that tracks weekly state-level economic
7h
Mapping of genetic control elements in the cerebellum
The mammalian cerebellum has long been associated almost exclusively with motor control, yet recent studies indicate that it also contributes to many higher brain functions. An international research team led by Prof. Dr. Henrik Kaessmann from the Center for Molecular Biology of Heidelberg University (ZMBH) has now decoded the genetic programs that control the development of cerebellar cell types
7h
Lipid polymer enables safe delivery of RNA drugs to the lungs
Hokkaido University researchers in Japan created and tested a library of lipid-based compounds to find a way to safely and effectively deliver RNA drugs to the lungs. Their analyses, published in the journal Materials Horizons, pinpointed a lipid polymer that might in the future be used to treat acute respiratory distress syndrome, pulmonary hypertension and lung cancers.
7h
Ultracold transistors serve as their own memory devices
Digital transistors—assembled by the billions in today's computer chips—act as near-perfect electronic switches. In the "on" position, achieved when an above-threshold voltage is applied to the device, the transistor allows current to flow. When the switch is off, the transistor prevents the flow of current. The on/off positions of the switch translate into the 1s and 0s of digital computation.
7h
Searching for dark matter inside the Earth
Dark matter remains one of the greatest mysteries in science. Despite decades of astronomical evidence for its existence, no one has yet been able to find any sign of it closer to home. There have been dozens of efforts to do so, and one of the most prominent just hit a milestone—the release and analysis of eight years of data. The IceCube Neutrino Observatory will soon be releasing results from t
7h
Red tide appearing in Gulf of Mexico
Red Tide is sweeping through much of the Gulf Coast of Florida, having killed millions of fish and other marine life, and it could be headed toward Texas, according to a Texas A&M University at Galveston marine biologist.
8h
Make STEM Exploration A Family Activity With These Ten DIY Kits
Science kits have gotten serious upgrades since the days of chemistry sets and seed packets. Check out these ten STEM DIY kits the whole family can enjoy, all at an extra 15 percent off the sale price. But act fast, because these deals are only available for a limited time. SunFounder Nano DIY 4-DOF Robot Kit Pictured above, this kit shows kids where robotics and coding intersect. First, you put
8h
'A very unfortunate event': Paper on COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy retracted
A group of researchers in Canada and India have lost a paper on vaccine hesitancy and Covid-19 because they didn't have the proper license to mine a database of news articles used in the study. The paper, "Tracking COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and logistical challenges: A machine learning approach," was published in PLOS ONE on June … Continue reading
9h
Book Review: An Ode to the Dank World of Sweat and Stink
In the summer's ultimate beach read, journalist Sarah Everts delivers a chatty, informative romp through the science and history of perspiration. From the literal smell of fear to the chemical fingerprints in our sweat, Everts covers the latest science while calling for a celebration of our miraculous stink.
10h
Exites in Cambrian arthropods and homology of arthropod limb branches
Nature Communications, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24918-8 The common ancestor of all living arthropods had biramous postantennal appendages, with an endopodite and exopodite branching off the limb base. This study uses microtomographic imaging of the Cambrian arthropod Leanchoilia to reveal a previously undetected exite at the base of most appendages, suggesting a deep
10h
Unidirectional ion transport in nanoporous carbon membranes with a hierarchical pore architecture
Nature Communications, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24947-3 Ion transport through nano channels can exhibit intriguing non-linear behaviour. Here, Chen et al. fabricate a hierarchical system of sandwiched carbon membranes of wide and narrow pores with substantial enhancement in rectification ratio of the ionic current, adjustable by optical triggers.
10h
Wavelength conversion through plasmon-coupled surface states
Nature Communications, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24957-1 Semiconductor surface states often stand in the way of device performance, but here, the authors take advantage of them for wavelength conversion. They present a compact, passive conversion device insensitive to optical alignment by using plasmon-coupled surface states that enable the efficient conversion withou
10h
Site-specific Umpolung amidation of carboxylic acids via triplet synergistic catalysis
Nature Communications, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24908-w Catalytic amide bond-forming methods is important because they could potentially address the existing limitations of classical methods using superstoichiometric activating reagents. Here the authors show an Umpolung amidation reaction of carboxylic acids with nitroarenes and nitroalkanes enabled by FeI2, P(V)/P(
10h
A single dose of ChAdOx1 Chik vaccine induces neutralizing antibodies against four chikungunya virus lineages in a phase 1 clinical trial
Nature Communications, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24906-y Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a reemerging mosquito-borne virus that has caused outbreaks in various regions of the world. Here the authors present safety and immunogenicity data from a phase 1 trial with the simian adenovirus vectored vaccine ChAdOx1 Chik, showing induction of neutralizing antibodies to four CHI
10h
The integrated stress response is tumorigenic and constitutes a therapeutic liability in KRAS-driven lung cancer
Nature Communications, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24661-0 The Integrated Stress Response (ISR) is a cytoprotective pathway upregulated in many cancers. Here the authors show that the activation of PERK/p-eIF2α arm of ISR enhances ERK phosphorylation through translation repression of DUSP6, thus resulting in KRAS-driven lung tumorigenesis.
10h
PRMT1-dependent regulation of RNA metabolism and DNA damage response sustains pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma
Nature Communications, Published online: 30 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24798-y Arginine methylation by PRMTs is dysregulated in cancer. Here, the authors use functional genomics screens and identify PRMT1 as a vulnerability in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma, and further show that PRMT1 regulates RNA metabolism and coordinates expression of genes in cell cycle progression, maintaining gen
10h
Researchers film human viruses in liquid droplets at near-atomic detail
A pond in summer can reveal more about a fish than a pond in winter. The fish living in icy conditions might remain still enough to study its scales, but to understand how the fish swims and behaves, it needs to freely move in three dimensions. The same holds true for analyzing how biological items, such as viruses, move in the human body, according to a research team led by Deb Kelly, Huck Chair
12h
Schneider Shorts 30.07.2021: The Pigs Did It!
Schneider Shorts 30.07.2021: shitty antivaxxery, innovative cancer cures, the REAL cause of global warming, Sputnik V goes over 100%, journalists discover find the new Galileo reincarnation, and don't you also just hate those medicinal regulatory authorities?
14h
The quantum refrigerator
By combining quantum theory and thermodynamics, it is possible to design a new kind of atomic refrigerator, which can cool down extremely cold Bose-Einstein-condensates even further.
17h
Dancing with the light: A new way to make crystals bend by shining light
Generating mechanical motion in crystals using light or heat has increasingly become the focus of materials scientists. However, the conventional mechanism employed for the purpose produces slow responses and is ineffective for thick crystals. Now, in a new study, scientists report and validate a new mechanism for generating fast bending motion in thick crystals with light-induced heating, opening
17h
Older adults are happier when space matches personality
A study has found photos of a person's living space can accurately point at personality traits and the mood of the people who live there, especially as a person gets older. Applying the findings could help lead to happier lives, including for older adults with frailty or cognitive impairment that has led them to be transferred from their homes to long-term care facilities.
17h
New nanomaterial to derive clean fuel from the sea
Hydrogen fuel derived from the sea could be an abundant and sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, but the potential power source has been limited by technical challenges, including how to practically harvest it. Researchers have designed a nanoscale material that can efficiently split seawater into oxygen and a clean energy fuel — hydrogen.
17h
Earthly rocks point way to water hidden on Mars
A combination of a once-debunked 19th-century identification of a water-carrying iron mineral and the fact that these rocks are extremely common on Earth, suggests the existence of a substantial water reservoir on Mars, according to a team of geoscientists.
19h
Study tests microplasma against middle-ear infections
Middle-ear infections are a common affliction in early life, affecting more than 80% of children in the U.S. Antibiotics are often employed as a first line of defense but sometimes fail against the pathogenic bacteria that can develop in the middle ear, just behind the eardrum. In a new study, researchers explore the use of microplasma — a highly focused stream of chemically excited ions and mole
19h
'Smart' for firms to insist returning staff are fully vaccinated, says Dominic Raab
Foreign secretary says he 'can understand' why businesses would want to adopt a tough stance Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Dominic Raab said it would be "smart" for businesses to insist staff are fully vaccinated before returning to the office. The foreign secretary said he "can understand" why firms would want to adopt a tough stance to keep staff safe but said th
21h
Ecologist uses statistics to reveal importance of climate change in controlling deep-sea biodiversity
Which is more important for the richness of deep-sea animals, temperature or food? Dr. Moriaki Yasuhara from the School of Biological Sciences, the Research Division for Ecology & Biodiversity, and The Swire Institute of Marine Science, The University of Hong Kong (HKU), in collaborating with Hideyuki DOI from University of Hyogo and Masayuki USHIO from Kyoto University, have used long-term fossil
1d
Researchers demonstrate the effectiveness of eDNA in the calculation of marine biodiversity
For almost 20 years, researchers at the Santa Barbara Coastal Long-Term Ecological Research (SBC LTER) site have conducted detailed censuses of the majestic kelp forests off Santa Barbara. By counting fish species and placing them in the context of their environmental conditions, UCSB coastal marine ecologist Robert Miller and his colleagues can look at the effects of human activity and natural dr
1d
Liquid core fibers: A data river runs through them
Data and signals can be transmitted quickly and reliably with glass fibers—as long as the fiber does not break. Strong bending or tensile stress can quickly destroy it. An Empa team has now developed a fiber with a liquid glycerol core that is much more robust and can transmit data just as reliably. And such fibers can even be used to build microhydraulic components and light sensors.
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Archives of the COVID Tracking Project at The Atlantic Donated to UCSF, in Partnership With the California Digital Library
Beginning on March 7, 2020, and continuing every single day for the following year, the COVID Tracking Project at The Atlantic engaged in an effort of enormous scale and significance: the compilation and publishing of data on COVID-19 testing, cases, hospitalizations, and deaths for the United States, by a collective of more than 500 volunteers. Now the archives of the data and organizational rec
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Socioeconomic privilege and political ideology are associated with racial disparity in COVID-19 vaccination [Social Sciences]
Vaccine uptake is critical for mitigating the impact of COVID-19 in the United States, but structural inequities pose a serious threat to progress. Racial disparities in vaccination persist despite the increased availability of vaccines. We ask what factors are associated with such disparities. We combine data from state, federal, and…
1d
A bending fluctuation-based mechanism for particle detection by ciliated structures [Physics]
To mimic the mechanical response of passive biological cilia in complex fluids, we study the bending dynamics of an anchored elastic fiber submitted to a dilute granular suspension under shear. We show that the bending fluctuations of the fiber accurately encode minute variations of the granular suspension concentration. Indeed, besides…
1d
Orthogonal neural codes for speech in the infant brain [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Creating invariant representations from an everchanging speech signal is a major challenge for the human brain. Such an ability is particularly crucial for preverbal infants who must discover the phonological, lexical, and syntactic regularities of an extremely inconsistent signal in order to acquire language. Within the visual domain, an efficient…
1d
Rotation suppresses giant-scale solar convection [Astronomy]
The observational absence of giant convection cells near the Sun's outer surface is a long-standing conundrum for solar modelers. We herein propose an explanation. Rotation strongly influences the internal dynamics, leading to suppressed convective velocities, enhanced thermal-transport efficiency, and (most significantly) relatively smaller dominant length scales. We specifically predict a…
1d
Non-Markovian modeling of protein folding [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
We extract the folding free energy landscape and the time-dependent friction function, the two ingredients of the generalized Langevin equation (GLE), from explicit-water molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of the α-helix forming polypeptide alanine9 for a one-dimensional reaction coordinate based on the sum of the native H-bond distances. Folding and unfolding…
1d
High-mass MALDI-MS unravels ligand-mediated G protein-coupling selectivity to GPCRs [Biochemistry]
G protein–coupled receptors (GPCRs) are important pharmaceutical targets for the treatment of a broad spectrum of diseases. Although there are structures of GPCRs in their active conformation with bound ligands and G proteins, the detailed molecular interplay between the receptors and their signaling partners remains challenging to decipher. To address…
1d
The p53 transcriptional response across tumor types reveals core and senescence-specific signatures modulated by long noncoding RNAs [Genetics]
The p53 pathway is a universal tumor suppressor mechanism that limits tumor progression by triggering apoptosis or permanent cell cycle arrest, called senescence. In recent years, efforts to reactivate p53 function in cancer have proven to be a successful therapeutic strategy in murine models and have gained traction with the…
1d
The contribution of mutation and selection to multivariate quantitative genetic variance in an outbred population of Drosophila serrata [Evolution]
Genetic variance is not equal for all multivariate combinations of traits. This inequality, in which some combinations of traits have abundant genetic variation while others have very little, biases the rate and direction of multivariate phenotypic evolution. However, we still understand little about what causes genetic variance to differ among…
1d
Germ-line mutations in WDR77 predispose to familial papillary thyroid cancer [Genetics]
The inheritance of predisposition to nonsyndromic familial nonmedullary thyroid cancer (FNMTC) remains unclear. Here, we report six individuals with papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) in two unrelated nonsyndromic FNMTC families. Whole-exome sequencing revealed two germ-line loss-of-function variants occurring within a 28-bp fragment of WDR77, which encodes a core member of a…
1d
Replication-dependent histone biosynthesis is coupled to cell-cycle commitment [Cell Biology]
The current model of replication-dependent (RD) histone biosynthesis posits that RD histone gene expression is coupled to DNA replication, occurring only in S phase of the cell cycle once DNA synthesis has begun. However, several key factors in the RD histone biosynthesis pathway are up-regulated by E2F or phosphorylated by…
1d
Three-color single-molecule imaging reveals conformational dynamics of dynein undergoing motility [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The motor protein dynein undergoes coordinated conformational changes of its domains during motility along microtubules. Previous single-molecule studies analyzed the motion of the AAA rings of the dynein homodimer, but not the distal microtubule-binding domains (MTBDs) that step along the track. Here, we simultaneously tracked with nanometer precision two MTBDs…
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Dodecagonal quasicrystals of oil-swollen ionic surfactant micelles [Chemistry]
A delicate balance of noncovalent interactions directs the hierarchical self-assembly of molecular amphiphiles into spherical micelles that pack into three-dimensional periodic arrays, which mimic intermetallic crystals. Herein, we report the discovery that adding water to a mixture of an ionic surfactant and n-decane induces aperiodic ordering of oil-swollen spherical micelles…
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Investigating lymphangiogenesis in vitro and in vivo using engineered human lymphatic vessel networks [Applied Biological Sciences]
The lymphatic system is involved in various biological processes, including fluid transport from the interstitium into the venous circulation, lipid absorption, and immune cell trafficking. Despite its critical role in homeostasis, lymphangiogenesis (lymphatic vessel formation) is less widely studied than its counterpart, angiogenesis (blood vessel formation). Although the incorporation of…
1d
Learning hidden elasticity with deep neural networks [Applied Mathematics]
Elastography is an imaging technique to reconstruct elasticity distributions of heterogeneous objects. Since cancerous tissues are stiffer than healthy ones, for decades, elastography has been applied to medical imaging for noninvasive cancer diagnosis. Although the conventional strain-based elastography has been deployed on ultrasound diagnostic-imaging devices, the results are prone to…
1d
Soluble mannose receptor induces proinflammatory macrophage activation and metaflammation [Immunology and Inflammation]
Proinflammatory activation of macrophages in metabolic tissues is critically important in the induction of obesity-induced metaflammation. Here, we demonstrate that the soluble mannose receptor (sMR) plays a direct functional role in both macrophage activation and metaflammation. We show that sMR binds CD45 on macrophages and inhibits its phosphatase activity, leading…
1d
Wild-type GBA1 increases the {alpha}-synuclein tetramer-monomer ratio, reduces lipid-rich aggregates, and attenuates motor and cognitive deficits in mice [Neuroscience]
Loss-of-function mutations in acid beta-glucosidase 1 (GBA1) are among the strongest genetic risk factors for Lewy body disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD) and Lewy body dementia (DLB). Altered lipid metabolism in PD patient–derived neurons, carrying either GBA1 or PD αS mutations, can shift the physiological α-synuclein (αS) tetramer–monomer (T:M)…
1d
A comparative metabologenomic approach reveals mechanistic insights into Streptomyces antibiotic crypticity [Chemistry]
Streptomyces genomes harbor numerous, biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding for drug-like compounds. While some of these BGCs readily yield expected products, many do not. Biosynthetic crypticity represents a significant hurdle to drug discovery, and the biological mechanisms that underpin it remain poorly understood. Polycyclic tetramate macrolactam (PTM) antibiotic production is…
1d
Nature of dynamic gradients, glass formation, and collective effects in ultrathin freestanding films [Applied Physical Sciences]
Molecular, polymeric, colloidal, and other classes of liquids can exhibit very large, spatially heterogeneous alterations of their dynamics and glass transition temperature when confined to nanoscale domains. Considerable progress has been made in understanding the related problem of near-interface relaxation and diffusion in thick films. However, the origin of "nanoconfinement…
1d
Formation of porous ice frameworks at room temperature [Chemistry]
Bulk crystalline ices with ultralow densities have been demonstrated to be thermodynamically metastable at negative pressures. However, the direct formation of these bulk porous ices from liquid water at negative pressures is extremely challenging. Inspired by approaches toward porous media based on host–guest chemistry, such as metal–organic frameworks and covalent…
1d
A large-scale study of stress, emotions, and blood pressure in daily life using a digital platform [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Stress is often associated with pathophysiologic responses, like blood pressure (BP) reactivity, which when experienced repeatedly may be one pathway through which stress leads to poor physical health. Previous laboratory and field studies linking stress to physiological measures are limited by small samples, narrow demographics, and artificial stress manipulations, whereas…
1d
Outer membrane permeability: Antimicrobials and diverse nutrients bypass porins in Pseudomonas aeruginosa [Microbiology]
Gram-negative bacterial pathogens have an outer membrane that restricts entry of molecules into the cell. Water-filled protein channels in the outer membrane, so-called porins, facilitate nutrient uptake and are thought to enable antibiotic entry. Here, we determined the role of porins in a major pathogen, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, by constructing a…
1d
Increased copy number couples the evolution of plasmid horizontal transmission and plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance [Evolution]
Conjugative plasmids are mobile elements that spread horizontally between bacterial hosts and often confer adaptive phenotypes, including antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Theory suggests that opportunities for horizontal transmission favor plasmids with higher transfer rates, whereas selection for plasmid carriage favors less-mobile plasmids. However, little is known about the mechanisms leading to
1d
Mechanoelectric coupling and arrhythmogenesis in cardiomyocytes contracting under mechanical afterload in a 3D viscoelastic hydrogel [Physiology]
The heart pumps blood against the mechanical afterload from arterial resistance, and increased afterload may alter cardiac electrophysiology and contribute to life-threatening arrhythmias. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying mechanoelectric coupling in cardiomyocytes remain unclear. We developed an innovative patch-clamp-in-gel technology to embed cardiomyocytes in a three-di
1d
Asymmetry in scales enhances learning of new musical structures [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Despite the remarkable variability music displays across cultures, certain recurrent musical features motivate the hypothesis that fundamental cognitive principles constrain the way music is produced. One such feature concerns the structure of musical scales. The vast majority of musical cultures use scales that are not uniformly symmetric—that is, scales that…
1d
Algorithm could improve how self-driving cars take on narrow streets
Researchers have created a new algorithm that could help self-driving cars get around on narrow, crowded streets. Drivers find a way to negotiate narrow streets, but not always without close calls and frustration. Programming an autonomous vehicle (AV) to do the same—without a human behind the wheel or knowledge of what the other driver might do—presented a unique challenge for researchers at the
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Preventing type 1 diabetes in childhood
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which the insulin-producing β cells of the pancreas are destroyed by T lymphocytes. Recent studies have demonstrated that monitoring for pancreatic islet autoantibodies, combined with genetic risk assessment, can identify most children who will develop T1D when they still have sufficient β cell function to control glucose concentrations without th
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Immunotherapy: Building a bridge to a cure for type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease in which T cells attack and destroy the insulin-producing β cells in the pancreatic islets. Genetic and environmental factors increase T1D risk by compromising immune homeostasis. Although the discovery and use of insulin have transformed T1D treatment, insulin therapy does not change the underlying disease or fully prevent complications. Over the pa
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Strategies for durable {beta} cell replacement in type 1 diabetes
Technological advancements in blood glucose monitoring and therapeutic insulin administration have improved the quality of life for people with type 1 diabetes. However, these efforts fall short of replicating the exquisite metabolic control provided by native islets. We examine the integrated advancements in islet cell replacement and immunomodulatory therapies that are coalescing to enable the
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Type 1 diabetes glycemic management: Insulin therapy, glucose monitoring, and automation
Despite innovations in insulin therapy since its discovery, most patients living with type 1 diabetes do not achieve sufficient glycemic control to prevent complications, and they experience hypoglycemia, weight gain, and major self-care burden. Promising pharmacological advances in insulin therapy include the refinement of extremely rapid insulin analogs, alternate insulin-delivery routes, liver
1d
Horizontally transmitted parasitoid killing factor shapes insect defense to parasitoids
Interkingdom competition occurs between hymenopteran parasitoids and insect viruses sharing the same insect hosts. It has been assumed that parasitoid larvae die with the death of the infected host or as result of competition for host resources. Here we describe a gene family, parasitoid killing factor ( pkf ), that encodes proteins toxic to parasitoids of the Microgastrinae group and determines
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Drug-induced phospholipidosis confounds drug repurposing for SARS-CoV-2
Repurposing drugs as treatments for COVID-19, the disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drawn much attention. Beginning with sigma receptor ligands and expanding to other drugs from screening in the field, we became concerned that phospholipidosis was a shared mechanism underlying the antiviral activity of many repurposed drugs. For all of the 23 cati
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lncRNA SLERT controls phase separation of FC/DFCs to facilitate Pol I transcription
RNA polymerase I (Pol I) transcription takes place at the border of the fibrillar center (FC) and the dense fibrillar component (DFC) in the nucleolus. Here, we report that individual spherical FC/DFC units are coated by the DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX21 in human cells. The long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) SLERT binds to DDX21 RecA domains to promote DDX21 to adopt a closed conformation at a substoichio
1d
Power generation and thermoelectric cooling enabled by momentum and energy multiband alignments
Thermoelectric materials transfer heat and electrical energy, hence they are useful for power generation or cooling applications. Many of these materials have narrow bandgaps, especially for cooling applications. We developed SnSe crystals with a wide bandgap ( E g 33 k B T ) with attractive thermoelectric properties through Pb alloying. The momentum and energy multiband alignments promoted by Pb
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Liquid medium annealing for fabricating durable perovskite solar cells with improved reproducibility
Solution processing of semiconductors is highly promising for the high-throughput production of cost-effective electronics and optoelectronics. Although hybrid perovskites have potential in various device applications, challenges remain in the development of high-quality materials with simultaneously improved processing reproducibility and scalability. Here, we report a liquid medium annealing (L
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Half-integer quantized anomalous thermal Hall effect in the Kitaev material candidate {alpha}-RuCl3
Half-integer thermal quantum Hall conductance has recently been reported for the two-dimensional honeycomb material α-RuCl 3 . We found that the half-integer thermal Hall plateau appears even for a magnetic field with no out-of-plane components. The measured field-angular variation of the quantized thermal Hall conductance has the same sign structure as the topological Chern number of the pure Ki
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Linked Weyl surfaces and Weyl arcs in photonic metamaterials
Generalization of the concept of band topology from lower-dimensional to higher-dimensional ( n > 3) physical systems is expected to introduce new bulk and boundary topological effects. However, theoretically predicted topological singularities in five-dimensional systems—Weyl surfaces and Yang monopoles—have either not been demonstrated in realistic physical systems or are limited to purely synt
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Qubit spin ice
Artificial spin ices are frustrated spin systems that can be engineered, in which fine tuning of geometry and topology has allowed the design and characterization of exotic emergent phenomena at the constituent level. Here, we report a realization of spin ice in a lattice of superconducting qubits. Unlike conventional artificial spin ice, our system is disordered by both quantum and thermal fluct
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A fast link between face perception and memory in the temporal pole
The question of how the brain recognizes the faces of familiar individuals has been important throughout the history of neuroscience. Cells linking visual processing to person memory have been proposed but not found. Here, we report the discovery of such cells through recordings from an area in the macaque temporal pole identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging. These cells responded
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Plant PIEZO homologs modulate vacuole morphology during tip growth
In animals, PIEZOs are plasma membrane–localized cation channels involved in diverse mechanosensory processes. We investigated PIEZO function in tip-growing cells in the moss Physcomitrium patens and the flowering plant Arabidopsis thaliana . Pp PIEZO1 and Pp PIEZO2 redundantly contribute to the normal growth, size, and cytoplasmic calcium oscillations of caulonemal cells. Both Pp PIEZO1 and Pp P
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Comment on "Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women"
Yoshino et al . (Reports, 11 June 2021, p. 1224) have reported that nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN) increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women. However, the 13 women who received NMN had hepatic lipid content of 6.3 ± 1.2%, whereas the 12 in the placebo group had 14.8 ± 2.0% ( P = 0.003). Given that a target of NMN is liver fat clearance, this was not an effectively randomized tr
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Temporal shifts in antibiotic resistance elements govern phage-pathogen conflicts
Bacteriophage predation selects for diverse antiphage systems that frequently cluster on mobilizable defense islands in bacterial genomes. However, molecular insight into the reciprocal dynamics of phage-bacterial adaptations in nature is lacking, particularly in clinical contexts where there is need to inform phage therapy efforts and to understand how phages drive pathogen evolution. Using time
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Thymic stromal lymphopoietin induces adipose loss through sebum hypersecretion
Emerging studies indicate that the immune system can regulate systemic metabolism. Here, we show that thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) stimulates T cells to induce selective white adipose loss, which protects against obesity, improves glucose metabolism, and mitigates nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Unexpectedly, adipose loss was not caused by alterations in food intake, absorption, or energy ex
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Response to Comment on "Nicotinamide mononucleotide increases muscle insulin sensitivity in prediabetic women"
In evaluating any randomized clinical trial, it is important to determine whether baseline differences between groups could have affected the primary outcome. In our study, muscle insulin sensitivity, which was identical in both groups at baseline, improved after nicotinamide mononucleotide (NMN), not placebo, therapy. Differences in baseline intrahepatic triglyceride content between groups do no
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Counteracting age-related VEGF signaling insufficiency promotes healthy aging and extends life span
Aging is an established risk factor for vascular diseases, but vascular aging itself may contribute to the progressive deterioration of organ function. Here, we show in aged mice that vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) signaling insufficiency, which is caused by increased production of decoy receptors, may drive physiological aging across multiple organ systems. Increasing VEGF signaling p
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Science Majorana paper earns an expression of concern
Just months after Nature retracted a paper on the "Majorana" particle because other researchers found issues in the work, Science has placed an expression of concern on a different paper that suggested "a relatively easy route to creating and controlling [Majorana zero modes] MZMs in hybrid materials." If such particles exist, they could allow Microsoft … Continue reading
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AI spots early eye changes that signal diabetic retinopathy
New biomarkers in the eyes could help manage diabetic retinopathy, and perhaps even diabetes, according to new research. During its early stages, diabetes can affect the eyes before the changes are detectable with a regular clinical examination. New research shows these changes can be measured earlier than previously thought with specialized optical techniques and computer analysis. The ability t
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Daily briefing: Predicting breakthrough COVID
Nature, Published online: 29 July 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02100-w A study links high levels of virus-blocking antibodies to reduced risk of infection in vaccinated people. Plus: Turning water into metal, and a fossil that could be from Earth's earliest known animal.
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Turtles indicate temp's role in sex chromosome imbalance
New research clarifies how sex chromosomes function in a species of softshell turtles. The results could help to illuminate an important evolutionary process in many species, says Nicole Valenzuela, professor of ecology, evolution, and organismal biology at Iowa State University and lead author of the study in the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B . Many organisms determin
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Forgotten oil and gas wells linger, leaking toxic chemicals
Rusted pipes litter the sandy fields of Ashley Williams Watt's cattle ranch in windswept West Texas. The corroded skeletons are all that remain of hundreds of abandoned oil wells that were drilled long before her family owned the land. The wells, unable to produce any useful amounts of oil or gas, were plugged with cement decades ago and forgotten.
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The price of pests: Australia's $390 billion invasive species bill
In just the last 60 years alone, deliberately or accidentally introduced invasive species have cost the Australian economy AUD$389.59 billion, a new analysis has revealed, with that number likely to rise unless better investments, reporting and coordinated interventions are introduced.
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Weep, O mine eyes at a lack of manly tears | Brief letters
Men in tears | Resilience | Supper | Olympic winners | Spelling names An excellent article by Adrian Chiles ( Have you cried with despair in public? There is nothing braver or better , 28 July). In medieval France, it was considered very manly to weep copiously about one's fallen comrades. If you didn't cry, what was wrong with you? Didn't you care? Crying is an effective and natural way of relea
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Ground system for NASA's Roman Space Telescope moves into development
When it launches in the mid-2020s, NASA's Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope will revolutionize astronomy by building on the science discoveries and technological leaps of the Hubble, Spitzer, and Webb space telescopes. The mission's wide field of view and superb resolution will enable scientists to conduct sweeping cosmic surveys, yielding a wealth of information about celestial realms from our so
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How light pollution affects animal orientation
The growth of cities with their streetlights and illuminated buildings has led to brighter nights. This has consequences for animals: the artificial light illuminates them directly, but also lights up the sky, making the stars invisible. Yet many animals rely on the stars as their compass for orientation.
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Optimizing phase change material usage could reduce power plant water consumption
The food-water-energy nexus dictates that there is a direct link between these three necessities, and stressing one directly impacts the supply of the other two. As the population grows, human demand for energy and food has caused our freshwater reserves to slowly deplete. Power plants are one of the main culprits contributing to this issue, as they use trillions of gallons of fresh water annually
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Light from a black hole's far side proves Einstein right
Fulfilling a prediction of Einstein's theory of general relativity, researchers report the first-ever recordings of X-ray emissions from the far side of a black hole. Watching X-rays flung out into the universe by the supermassive black hole at the center of a galaxy 800 million light-years away, Stanford University astrophysicist Dan Wilkins noticed an intriguing pattern. He observed a series of
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Digitalisation of hotels in the COVID-19 pandemic
What has been the role of the COVID-19 pandemic in the digitalisation of the hospitality industry? Domenico Morrone, Nicola Raimo, Annunziata Tarulli, and Filippo Vitolla of the Department of Management, Finance and Technology at LUM University, in Casamassima, Bari, Italy, hope to answer that question in the International Journal Digital Culture and Electronic Tourism.
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Why some employees resist delegation from their managers
Think about the last time your boss delegated a task to you. Did you perceive that request as a sign of strong leadership—or as your manager shirking responsibility? In the end, did you successfully complete the task, or find a way out of it?
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The informal settlements reshaping the world | Jota Samper
Creative, sustainable solutions find their home in the thousands of informal neighborhoods across the world. Urban planner Jota Samper believes these often overlooked settlements (also known as slums) should be regarded as hubs of innovation and shares three reasons why giving them the attention they deserve could help change the way humanity coexists — and cities evolve — on a global scale.
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The soft 'spaghetti' of proteins that's essential for the resistance of bacteria
Bacteria are increasingly resistant, especially to antibiotics, which is a major global health problem. An example, related to the pandemic? Covid weakens hospitalized people so much that we are now witnessing an upsurge in bacterial infections (resistant bacteria engulf the breach caused by the virus and further weaken patients). Research in this area is therefore essential.
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Simulated microgravity system created to experiment with materials
Crystallization studies conducted in space laboratories, which are costly and unaffordable for most research laboratories, showed the valuable effects of microgravity during the crystal growth process and the morphogenesis of materials. Now, a research study led by a scientific team of the University of Barcelona, has created an easy and efficient method to achieve experimentation conditions of mi
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Designing new ways to understand material
Matthias Young, an assistant professor in the University of Missouri College of Engineering, recently designed two techniques for understanding the behavior of materials. The findings could lead to better batteries, improved water treatment systems and sensing applications that can measure the amount of nitrate in soil.
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How ERF1 regulates flowering
Floral initiation must be strictly regulated to achieve reproductive success. ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR1 (ERF1) functions as an important integrator of several phytohormone signals to regulate both development and stress responses. However, the underlying mechanism for its role in flowering-time regulation remained unclear.
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We are more forgiving when people close to us misbehave
When people behave badly or unethically, their loved ones may judge them less harshly than they would judge a stranger who committed the same transgressions, but that leniency may come at the cost of the judger's own sense of self-worth, according to new research.
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France's COVID health pass raises serious ethical questions
The French parliament has passed a law mandating the use of a COVID-19 health pass in order to access public spaces such as restaurants, cinemas, trains and museums. The pass provides proof that the holder has either been vaccinated, recently tested negative for COVID-19 or recovered from the disease. The law also mandates all health workers to get vaccinated by September 15, or risk suspension.
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Rainfall becomes increasingly variable as climate warms
Climate models predict that rainfall variability over wet regions globally will be greatly enhanced by global warming, causing wide swings between dry and wet conditions, according to a joint study by the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and the Met Office, the UK's national meteorological service.
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Shoring up the corn belt's soil health with NASA satellite data
After the corn harvest last fall, Illinois farmer Paul Jeschke planted a fraction of his fields with cereal rye: 60 acres of the 4,500 he farms with his wife, nephew and brother-in-law, tucked behind a pasture, out of neighbors' sight. That way they could experiment with cover crops, Jeschke explained, and no one could view potential failures.
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NASA performs field test of 3D imaging system for descent and landing
Producing rapid and accurate images on missions to the Moon, Mars and other terrestrial destinations is crucial for a safe descent and landing. A NASA project called Safe and Precise Landing—Integrated Capabilities Evolution, or SPLICE, includes a key element that will help ensure a clearer touchdown site.
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How Not to Be That Chemist
I enjoyed this Twitter thread very much from "Bob the Grumpy Med Chemist". It leads off with a document that pops up periodically on the internet, a guide to sabotage that was put out by the OSS (precursor to the CIA) during the second World War. Along with practical suggestions about how to literally gum up the works in factories and motor pools, it has a famous (infamous) section for middle man
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Earth's frozen areas are shrinking 33K square miles a year
The Earth's cryosphere is shrinking by 33,000 square miles (87,000 square kilometers) per year. This means that all of the areas with frozen water and soil on Earth shrank by about the size of Lake Superior per year on average, between 1979 and 2016, as a result of climate change. The findings come from the first global assessment of the extent of snow, ice cover, and frozen ground on Earth's sur
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Naked Whitewater Rafting | Naked and Afraid
Stream Naked and Afraid on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/naked-and-afraid About Naked and Afraid: What happens when you put two complete strangers – sans clothes – in some of the most extreme environments on Earth? Each male-female duo is left with no food, no water, no clothes, and only one survival item. Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Join us on Faceb
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These Foldable Houses Cost $50k and Go Up in a Day
3D printing has become the hottest new construction technology of the past few years, with houses being laid down in California , Texas , New York , Mexico , Canada , Italy , and Germany , to name just a few. There's no doubt it's an efficient, low-cost way to build durable homes, with the added bonus of a wow-factor (which may soon expire given how fast the method seems to be proliferating). But
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What makes an Olympic swimming pool super fast?
It's not just fit, strong, and elite athletes competing at the Summer Olympics in Tokyo that make a swimming pool fast. Structural engineering and materials used at the venue factor in, too. Everything—air flow, depth, and more—are in place with speed in mind. In the United States, there's no greater example than the McAuley Aquatic Facility at Georgia Tech. The facility hosted the Olympics in At
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The Atlantic Daily: How the Government Learned to Waste Your Time
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. Getty; The Atlantic Welcome to America, where bureaucratic headaches are as commonplace as hot dogs on the Fourth of July. My colleague Annie Lowrey argues that all the collective hours wasted on,
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Alternating magnetic field-responsive nano-platform developed for controlled pesticide release
Pesticides play a key role in controlling weeds, pests, and diseases in modern agriculture to promote crop yield. As one of the most extensively used neonicotinoid insecticides, imidacloprid can effectively kill insects. However, such pesticides tended to enter the atmosphere, water and soil easily through runoff, volatilization, and leaching, resulting in serious environmental problems and even h
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You can chill out about the giant whip scorpion
The giant whip scorpion has been turning up in the news lately—and getting some undeserved bad press—according to an expert. Although the arachnid can spray acid when bothered, concerns over its potential to harm people, pets, and the environment are misplaced , says William Kern , an associate professor in the department of entomology and nematology at University of Florida Institute of Food and
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Deep learning improves image reconstruction in optical coherence tomography using less data
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive imaging method that can provide 3D information of biological samples. The first generation of OCT systems were based on time-domain imaging, using a mechanical scanning set-up. However, the relatively slow data acquisition speed of these earlier time-domain OCT systems partially limited their use for imaging live specimen. The introduction of th
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Geologists take Earth's inner temperature using erupted sea glass
If the Earth's oceans were drained completely, they would reveal a massive chain of undersea volcanoes snaking around the planet. This sprawling ocean ridge system is a product of overturning material in the Earth's interior, where boiling temperatures can melt and loft rocks up through the crust, splitting the sea floor and reshaping the planet's surface over hundreds of millions of years.
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Soil tested for hidden contaminants in community gardens
This year saw many people rediscovering an interest in gardening, digging in the dirt and maybe even harvesting vegetables from a garden plot. But around the Puget Sound, not all garden soils are created equal. Soil, particularly in urban areas, can hold contaminants that are unhealthy for people who handle it or eat things grown in the ground.
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Socioeconomic networks and built environments of cities contribute to lower rates of psychological depression
Large cities are often viewed as cold, fast-paced environments where crime rates are high and interpersonal interactions are fleeting—a combination that makes them detrimental to mental health. But new research provides evidence for the opposite: The socioeconomic networks and built environments of larger urban areas in the U.S. can actually predict lower rates of psychological depression.
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Using algorithms to determine sentencing may reduce length of prison sentences
American prisons and jails currently hold more than 2 million people—many of them jailed while awaiting trial or serving extremely long prison sentences. New research by Professor Christopher Slobogin, who holds a Milton R. Underwood Chair in Law at Vanderbilt Law School, indicates that a risk-prediction algorithm could help reduce those numbers.
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Why screen time alone says little about your smartphone behaviour
In the past few years, smartphones have been labeled as the key culprit behind scores of mental and physical ailments, from loneliness to boredom to addiction. But such conclusions are not warranted if we do not examine what exactly people are doing on their phones. According to a study conducted by Nastasia Griffioen of Radboud University, there are major differences in what young adults do on th
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Engineered Synthetic Fiber – Stronger than Steel
One of the goals of material science is to create a super-strong fiber which can be easily mass produced at arbitrary length. Such fibers would be incredibly useful – for rugged clothing and gear, armor, strong cables, and manufacturing. The ultimate threshold is a cable with enough tensile strength to make a space elevator on Earth feasible. Right now we do not have a material that can do this (
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World's first 'green' synthesis of plastics from CO2
By combining a CeO2 catalyst with atmospheric carbon dioxide, researchers from Osaka City University, Tohoku University, and Nippon Steel Corporation have developed an effective catalytic process for the direct synthesis of polycarbonate diols without using dehydrating agents. Their method, published in Green Chemistry, does not rely on toxic chemical feedstock like phosgene and carbon monoxide, m
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LifeShip Puts The DNA Of Somebody You Love On The Moon
Space is an increasingly busy place, especially with the influx of billionaire-funded space launches . And while that's led to scientific innovation and growing space programs, these trips mostly fall short of our nearest neighbor: the Moon. This renewed interest in space will inevitably result in more frequent trips to the Moon , creating new opportunities to celebrate and remember those we love
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New 'green status of species' measures impact of conservation action
An international team of scientists including Stony Brook University Professor Resit Akcakaya, Ph.D., published a paper in Conservation Biology that for the first time applies the IUCN Green Status of Species, a new Global Standard to measure how close a species' is to being fully ecologically functional across its range, and how much it has recovered thanks to conservation action. Preliminary IUC
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US subsidies boost the expected profits and development of new oil and gas fields
Researchers at the Stockholm Environment Institute (Somerville and Seattle, U.S.) and Earth Track, Inc. (Cambridge, MA, U.S.) examined 16 subsidies and environmental regulatory exemptions, providing one of the first estimates of how government subsidies will affect investment decisions for new gas fields in the coming decade. Their results are published on 29 July 2021 in the IOP Publishing journa
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The evolution of our understanding of human development over the last 10 years
Nature Communications, Published online: 29 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24793-3 As it fulfills an irresistible need to understand our own origins, research on human development occupies a unique niche in scientific and medical research. In this Comment, we explore the progress in our understanding of human development over the past 10 years. The focus is on basic research, clinical applicat
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Simultaneous construction of axial and planar chirality by gold/TY-Phos-catalyzed asymmetric hydroarylation
Nature Communications, Published online: 29 July 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24678-5 The simultaneous construction of two different types of chiralities is challenging. Here, the authors report a cationic gold-catalyzed asymmetric hydroarylation of ortho-alkynylaryl ferrocene derivatives, which enabled the simultaneous construction of axial and planar chirality.
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