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Nyheder2021juni01

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MENNESKER REAGERER INDIVIDUELT FORSKELLIGT PÅ FYSISK AKTIVITET. In an experiment researchers found out that different people respond to physical activities differently. Everyone did the same exercises, but levels of proteins in blood were different afterwards. With future studies, they could find a way for better personalized fitness programs.

 
LUFTKVALITET KAN FORBEDRES VIA BÆREDYGTIGE LØSNINGER. From last year's experience, we saw that the quality of air drastically improved after the first lock down. But now, when in some places the restrictions are lifted, the pollution comes back just as fast. If we just focus on economical gain, nothing will change, but if businesses think about more sustainable solutions, we could continue to maintain better air quality in cities.
 
Zero daily Covid deaths announced in UK
Britain records no new deaths within 28 days of a positive Covid-19 test for first time since July 2020 Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The UK has announced no deaths from Covid-19 for the first time since July last year. Official figures showed all four nations of the country recorded no new deaths on Tuesday within 28 days of a positive Covid-19 test and 3,165 new
6h

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America Has a Drinking Problem
Photograph by Chelsea Kyle; Prop Stylist: Amy Elise Wilson; Food Stylist: Sue Li This article was published online on June 1, 2021. F ew things are more American than drinking heavily. But worrying about how heavily other Americans are drinking is one of them. The Mayflower landed at Plymouth Rock because, the crew feared, the Pilgrims were going through the beer too quickly. The ship had been he
11h
China confirms first human case of H10N3 bird flu strain
Man, 41, in Jiangsu, diagnosed on 28 May but risk of avian virus spread is low, says state health agency A 41-year-old man in China's eastern province of Jiangsu has been confirmed as the first human case of infection with the H10N3 strain of bird flu, although health officials in China said the risk of large-scale spread remained low. The man, a resident of the city of Zhenjiang, went to hospita
3h
Why moms take risks to protect their infants
It might seem like a given that mothers take extra risks to protect their children, but have you ever wondered why? A new study led by Kumi Kuroda at the RIKEN Center for Brain Science (CBS) in Japan shows that in mice, this and other nurturing behaviors are driven in part by neurons in a small part of the forebrain that contains a protein called the calcitonin receptor. The study was published in
6h
Autonomous Killer Robot Accused of Attacking Soldiers
Closed Loop The era of fully autonomous killer robots, capable of identifying and engaging targets without human oversight, seems to have begun. A small Turkish-made kamikaze drone called the STM Kargu-2 attacked retreating soldiers during a civil conflict in Libya, according to a recent United Nations Security Council report by the Panel of Experts on Libya. The report implies, but doesn't expli
6h
Workers Should Have the Power to Say 'No'
C ities and towns are opening back up after their coronavirus-induced shutdowns. Job vacancies have surged to historic highs . Millions of Americans report that they are looking for work. Yet employers are struggling to fill available positions, leaving them with no option but to shorten their business's hours of operation and pay overtime. Payroll growth has proved lackluster . The familiar stor
10h
Human challenge: the people volunteering to be infected with Covid
Amid claims PM wanted to be infected with Covid on TV, volunteers tell of taking part in a human challenge trial Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage If Dominic Cummings is to be believed, Boris Johnson was so sceptical that Covid-19 was a threat early last year that he was willing to inject himself with the virus that causes the disease on television. But there are actua
8h
Peru has world's worst per capita Covid toll after death data revised
Updated figures give country a per capita death toll of 500 per 100,000 people – double that of Brazil Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Peru has almost tripled its official Covid-19 death toll to 180,764, after a government review, making it the country with the highest death rate per capita, according to Johns Hopkins University data. Peru has been among the hardest
14h
China locks down part of Guangzhou amid outbreak of Indian Covid variant
Hundreds of flights have been cancelled, and authorities ordered residents of some streets in the Liwan neighbourhood of Guangzhou city to isolate Chinese authorities in Guangdong province have cancelled flights and locked down communities in response to what is believed to be the first community outbreak of the Indian variant in China. Guangdong province had been reporting daily single figures o
15h
Massive fossil find in California includes mastodon, petrified forest
A ranger working for a San Francisco water utility discovers a massive petrified forest and its ancient residents. The forest dates from the Miocene era 10 million years ago. Mastodons, horses, and rhinoceroses lived there. As we go about our daily lives, it's easy to forget that the places we find ourselves weren't always the way they are now. While people driving down Highway 163 in Utah's Monu
6h
Thousands of New York Drivers Create Worker-Owned Version of Uber
True Ridesharing On Sunday, New Yorkers looking for a ride found themselves with a new alternative to Uber or Lyft: a ride-hailing service called the Drivers Cooperative that's owned and operated by the drivers themselves. The Drivers Cooperative's founders told The New York Times that they see their new project as a way for drivers to escape what they describe as exploitation on the part of Uber
2h
Winners of the 2021 BigPicture Natural World Photography Competition
Entrants in this year's contest were invited to submit images showcasing the Earth's biodiversity, and showing some of the mounting threats to the natural world. These images originally appeared on bioGraphic , an online magazine about science and sustainability and the official media sponsor for the California Academy of Sciences' BigPicture Natural World Photography Competition . The organizers
3h
Bird Flu Virus Spreads to Human in China
Officials in China have reported the first human infection of the H10N3 bird flu strain today, Reuters reports , citing the hospitalization of a 41-year-old man in the eastern city of Zhenjiang on April 28 It's a stark reminder that novel coronaviruses aren't the only pathogens that pose a threat to humans. However, the chance H10N3 infecting a human is still extremely low, according to the offic
3h
Ancient volcanic eruption destroyed the ozone layer
A catastrophic drop in atmospheric ozone levels around the tropics is likely to have contributed to a bottleneck in the human population around 60 to 100,000 years ago, an international research team has suggested. The ozone loss, triggered by the eruption of the Toba supervolcano located in present-day Indonesia, might solve an evolutionary puzzle that scientists have been debating for decades.
4h
A Burp or a Blast? Seismic Signals Reveal the Volcanic Eruption to Come
Last December, a gloopy ooze of lava began extruding out of the summit of La Soufrière, a volcano on the Caribbean island of St. Vincent. The effusion was slow at first; no one was threatened. Then in late March and early April, the volcano began to emit seismic waves associated with swiftly rising magma. Noxious fumes vigorously vented from the peak. Fearing a magmatic bomb was imminent… Sourc
4h
Autumn Cambridge University Covid cases linked to one nightclub
Students who attended events during freshers' week and over Halloween were source of biggest infection cluster Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Nearly three-quarters of coronavirus cases among University of Cambridge students last autumn have been traced back to a single nightclub, highlighting the risks of reopening venues in the next phase of the UK government's roa
4h
Mars Rover Snaps Photo of Shimmering Multicolored Clouds
Cloud Gazing NASA's Curiosity Mars rover has taken a series of photographs of gorgeous multicolored clouds , shimmering in the evening Sun on Mars. The images could help scientists understand when, how, and why clouds form in the Martian sky — and, needless to say, it's also just a beautiful shot. Overcast Clouds work a differently on Mars. Thanks to the planet's extremely thin and dry atmosphere
5h
Eurasian jays less likely than people to be deceived by magic tricks
A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has found that Eurasian jays are less likely than people to be deceived by well-known magic tricks. In their paper published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, the group describes their motivation for testing birds with magic tricks and what they learned by doing so.
7h
Why So Many Pandemic Predictions Failed
So you're walking down the street carrying a hot slice of pizza on a paper plate. The tip of the slice is so heavy with cheese and sauce that it's drooping toward the ground. How do you solve this problem? Naturally, you fold the pizza lengthwise, New York–style. But why does warping the pizza by turning the crust ends toward each other keep the molten cheese at the pizza tip from falling on the
11h
Iceland's glaciers lose 750 km2 in 20 years
Iceland's glaciers have lost around 750 square kilometres (290 square miles), or seven percent of their surface, since the turn of the millennium due to global warming, a study published on Monday showed.
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Researchers discover that a mechanical cue is at the origin of cell death decision
In many species including humans, the cells responsible for reproduction, the germ cells, are often highly interconnected and share their cytoplasm. In the hermaphrodite nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up to 500 germ cells are connected to each other in the gonad, the tissue that produces eggs and sperm. These cells are arranged around a central cytoplasmic "corridor" and exchange cytoplasmic mat
1d
Using fossil plant molecules to track down the Green Sahara
Researchers have developed a new concept to explain the phenomenon known as Green Sahara. They demonstrate that a permanent vegetation cover in the Sahara was only possible under two overlapping rainy seasons. Dr. Enno Schefuß of MARUM—Center for Marine Environmental Sciences of the University of Bremen, Dr. Rachid Cheddadi of the University of Montpellier, and their colleagues have now published
1d
China Is Furious That Americans Are Considering the Lab Leak Hypothesis
Chinese researchers are increasingly frustrated in the recent popularization of the lab leak hypothesis, which is the notion that the coronavirus may have first infected humans after accidentally escaping from the Wuhan Institute of Virology. Most recently, a list of 18 American, Canadian, and European researchers published a letter in the journal Science calling for another investigation into th
6min
Astrophysicist Says Alien UFO Theories Are Stupid
University of Rochester astrophysicist Adam Frank is not impressed by recent reports of UFOs. In an opinion piece for The New York Times , Frank argues that concluding extraterrestrial life is behind these recent reports would be foolish. The piece is yet another instance of experts coming forward to refute the idea that aliens could be behind recent sightings of unexplained objects soaring throu
20min
Analysis reveals global 'hot spots' where new coronaviruses may emerge
Global land-use changes — including forest fragmentation, agricultural expansion and concentrated livestock production — are creating "hot spots" favorable for bats that carry coronaviruses and where conditions are ripe for the diseases to jump from bats to humans, finds an analysis published this week by researchers at the University of California, Berkeley, the Politecnico di Milano (Polytechn
29min
Forged books of seventeenth-century music discovered in Venetian library
In 1916 and 1917, a musician and book dealer named Giovanni Concina sold three ornately decorated seventeenth-century songbooks to a library in Venice, Italy. Now, more than 100 years later, a musicologist at Penn State has discovered that the manuscripts are fakes, meticulously crafted to appear old but actually fabricated just prior to their sale to the library. The manuscripts are rare among mu
29min
New method to improve durability of nano-electronic components, further semiconductor manufacturing
Researchers at the University of South Florida have developed a novel approach to mitigating electromigration in nanoscale electronic interconnects that are ubiquitous in state-of-the-art integrated circuits. This was achieved by coating copper metal interconnects with hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), an atomically-thin insulating two-dimensional (2D) material that shares a similar structure as the
29min
Extreme CO2 greenhouse effect heated up the young Earth
Although sun radiation was relatively low, the temperature on the young Earth was warm. An international team of geoscientists has found important clues that high levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere were responsible for these high temperatures. It only got cooler with the beginning of plate tectonics, as the CO2 was gradually captured and stored on the emerging continents.
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Duetting songbirds 'mute' the musical mind of their partner to stay in sync
Researchers say that the auditory feedback exchanged between wrens during their opera-like duets momentarily inhibits motor circuits used for singing in the listening partner, which helps link the pair's brains and coordinate turn-taking for a seemingly telepathic performance. The study also offers fresh insight into how humans and other cooperative animals use sensory cues to act in concert with
47min
Optic nerve firing may spark growth of vision-threatening childhood tumor
In a study of mice, researchers showed how the act of seeing light may trigger the formation of vision-harming tumors in young children who are born with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) cancer predisposition syndrome. The research team, funded by the National Institutes of Health, focused on tumors that grow within the optic nerve, which relays visual signals from the eyes to brain. They discovered
50min
No UK Covid deaths announced for first time in 10 months
News raises optimism in No 10 for unlocking despite warnings from scientists over third wave Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The UK has reported no deaths from Covid in a day, for the first time in 10 months, raising optimism in Downing Street that England could forge ahead with the final stage of the roadmap despite scientists warning that extra restrictions might b
1h
Why Jumping Spiders Spend All Night Hanging Out—Literally
Little is known about the night-time habits of tiny creatures all around us. Take the jumping spider–it mysteriously can spend much of the night suspended in mid-air, hanging by a thread. (Image credit: Lukas Jonaitis/Getty Images/500px)
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Trust among corvids
Siberian jays are group living birds within the corvid family that employ a wide repertoire of calls to warn each other of predators. Sporadically, however, birds use one of these calls to trick their neighboring conspecifics and gain access to their food. Researchers from the universities of Konstanz (Germany), Wageningen (Netherlands), and Zurich (Switzerland) have now examined how Siberian jays
1h
The evolutionary fates of supergenes unmasked
While the term "supergene" may bring to mind the genetic hocus-pocus of Peter Parker's transformation into Spiderman, supergenes are actually fairly common phenomena in the realm of biology. A supergene refers to a genomic region containing multiple genes or genetic elements that are tightly linked, allowing genetic variants across the region to be co-inherited. Supergenes may arise when there is
1h
Foster care, homelessness are higher education hurdles
A college education is estimated to add $1 million to a person's lifetime earning potential, but for some students the path to earning one is riddled with obstacles. That journey is even more difficult for students who have been in the foster care system or experienced homelessness, according to a new study from the University of Georgia.
1h
Best of both worlds: High entropy meets low dimensions, opens up infinite possibilities
The discovery of graphene, a 2D layered form of carbon, once caused a paradigm shift in science and technology like no other. As this wonder material drew attention from material scientists around the world, it spurred research on other materials that were structurally similar, such as "van der Waals materials," which comprise strongly-bonded 2D atomic layers that are held together by weak interla
1h
Study: Parler provided echo chamber for vaccine misinformation, conspiracy theories
In the early days of COVID-19 vaccine development, a new social media platform provided a place for like-minded people to discuss vaccines, share misinformation and speculate about the motivations for its development. A new study from the University of Kansas shows people flocked to Parler to discuss the vaccines in an echo chamber-type environment, and those conversations can shed light about how
1h
Researchers demonstrate a quantum advantage
Quantum computing and quantum sensing have the potential to be vastly more powerful than their classical counterparts. Not only could a fully realized quantum computer take just seconds to solve equations that would take a classical computer thousands of years, but it could have incalculable impacts on areas ranging from biomedical imaging to autonomous driving.
1h
Light shed on mysterious genotype-phenotype associations
A new study analyzing the association between an individual's genetics (genotype) and their observable characteristics resulting from the interaction of genetics and the environment (phenotype), contributes new knowledge to the understanding of human complex traits and diseases.
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Role of sleep-related brain activity in clearing toxic proteins and preventing Alzheimer's disease
Evidence of sleep-dependent low-frequency (less than 0.1 Hz) global brain activity in the clearance of Alzheimer's disease-related toxin buildup is presented in new research. This neuronal activity was more strongly linked with cerebrospinal fluid flow in healthy controls than higher risk groups and patients, and the findings could serve as a potential imaging marker for clinicians in evaluating p
1h
'Self-aware' materials build the foundation for living structures
New research describes a new metamaterial system that acts as its own sensor, recording and relaying important information about the pressure and stresses on its structure. The so-called 'self-aware metamaterial' generates its own power and can be used for a wide array of sensing and monitoring applications.
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Parasites may accumulate in spleens of asymptomatic individuals infected with malaria
Malaria, a disease caused mainly by the parasites Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax, is associated with over 400,000 deaths each year. Previously, the spleen was assumed to mostly play a role in parasite destruction, as it eliminates malaria parasites after antimalarial treatment. A new study suggests that in chronic P. vivax infections, malaria parasites survive and replicate via a previ
1h
Burning Container Ship Covers Beaches With Horrible Toxic "Snow"
Downstream Wreckage The western coastline of Sri Lanka is utterly blanketed in billions of plastic pellets, potentially coated in toxic chemicals, after one of the worst ecological disasters to ever face the small island country. Debris floated ashore after an explosion rocked a nearby container ship , the MV X-Press Pearl, that had caught fire and burned for over a week, The Washington Post repo
1h
Space Junk Collided With the International Space Station's Robotic Arm
You'd think with a name like "space," you wouldn't have to worry about running into solid objects, but the region around Earth is far from empty. Decades of human activities have left uncountable pieces of debris floating around, and the International Space Station ( ISS ) just smacked into some of it. A small, unidentified object hit the station earlier this month, causing minor damage to one of
1h
How AI could alert firefighters of imminent danger
Researchers have developed an artificial-intelligence-powered tool to predict and warn of a deadly phenomenon in burning buildings known as flashover, when flammable materials in a room ignite almost simultaneously, producing a potentially ferocious blaze. The tool's predictions are based on temperature data from a building's heat detectors, and, remarkably, it is designed to operate even after he
1h
Precise data for improved coastline protection
Researchers have conducted the first precise and comprehensive measurements of sea level rises in the Baltic Sea and the North Sea. A new method now makes it possible to determine sea level changes with millimeter accuracy even in coastal areas and in case of sea ice coverage. This is of vital importance for planning protective measures.
1h
It's never too early to begin healthy eating habits
Researchers found that when health workers were trained to promote infant healthy feeding practices to pregnant women their children consumed less fats and carbohydrates at 3 years of age and had lower measures of body fat at the age of 6. The study is the first to show that the roots for obesity start in the first year of life, after mothers stop breastfeeding.
1h
A new direction of topological research is ready for take off
Through a recently developed experimental platform, topological matter can be realized in a fast, cost efficient, and versatile way. A breakthrough has now been achieved by physicists as they have observed topological phenomena in a circuit system with gain and loss. The theoretical foundation for non-Hermitian topology might enable optronic technologies in the long run.
1h
Scientists demonstrate a better, more eco-friendly method to produce hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is used to disinfect minor cuts at home and for oxidative reactions in industrial manufacturing. The pandemic has further fueled demand for its antiseptic properties, but H2O2 is actually difficult and expensive to manufacture at scale. A team led by the University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign has demonstrated a more efficient and environmentally friendly method to produce
2h
Temporal regulation of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits supports central cholinergic synapse development in Drosophila [Neuroscience]
The construction and maturation of the postsynaptic apparatus are crucial for synapse and dendrite development. The fundamental mechanisms underlying these processes are most often studied in glutamatergic central synapses in vertebrates. Whether the same principles apply to excitatory cholinergic synapses, such as those found in the insect central nervous system,…
2h
Genetic and molecular determinants of polymicrobial interactions in Fusobacterium nucleatum [Microbiology]
A gram-negative colonizer of the oral cavity, Fusobacterium nucleatum not only interacts with many pathogens in the oral microbiome but also has the ability to spread to extraoral sites including placenta and amniotic fluid, promoting preterm birth. To date, however, the molecular mechanism of interspecies interactions—termed coaggregation—by F. nucleatum and…
2h
A minimally disruptive method for measuring water potential in planta using hydrogel nanoreporters [Physiology]
Leaf water potential is a critical indicator of plant water status, integrating soil moisture status, plant physiology, and environmental conditions. There are few tools for measuring plant water status (water potential) in situ, presenting a critical barrier for developing appropriate phenotyping (measurement) methods for crop development and modeling efforts aimed…
2h
SETD2-mediated H3K14 trimethylation promotes ATR activation and stalled replication fork restart in response to DNA replication stress [Biochemistry]
Ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3 related (ATR) activation after replication stress involves a cascade of reactions, including replication protein A (RPA) complex loading onto single-stranded DNA and ATR activator loading onto chromatin. The contribution of histone modifications to ATR activation, however, is unclear. Here, we report that H3K14 trimethylation responds to…
2h
"Soft" oxidative coupling of methane to ethylene: Mechanistic insights from combined experiment and theory [Chemistry]
The oxidative coupling of methane to ethylene using gaseous disulfur (2CH4 + S2 → C2H4 + 2H2S) as an oxidant (SOCM) proceeds with promising selectivity. Here, we report detailed experimental and theoretical studies that examine the mechanism for the conversion of CH4 to C2H4 over an Fe3O4-derived FeS2 catalyst achieving…
2h
Attention bias modification in drug addiction: Enhancing control of subsequent habits [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
A relapse in addiction is often precipitated by heightened attention bias to drug-related cues, underpinned by a subcortically mediated transition to habitual/automatized responding and reduced prefrontal control. Modification of such automatized attention bias is a fundamental, albeit elusive, target for relapse reduction. Here, on a trial-by-trial basis, we used electroencephalography…
2h
Generation of ordered protein assemblies using rigid three-body fusion [Biochemistry]
Protein nanomaterial design is an emerging discipline with applications in medicine and beyond. A long-standing design approach uses genetic fusion to join protein homo-oligomer subunits via α-helical linkers to form more complex symmetric assemblies, but this method is hampered by linker flexibility and a dearth of geometric solutions. Here, we…
2h
Significant impact of forcing uncertainty in a large ensemble of climate model simulations [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Forcing due to solar and volcanic variability, on the natural side, and greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions, on the anthropogenic side, are the main inputs to climate models. Reliable climate model simulations of past and future climate change depend crucially upon them. Here we analyze large ensembles of simulations using…
2h
NAD(H)-mediated tetramerization controls the activity of Legionella pneumophila phospholipase PlaB [Microbiology]
The virulence factor PlaB promotes lung colonization, tissue destruction, and intracellular replication of Legionella pneumophila, the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. It is a highly active phospholipase exposed at the bacterial surface and shows an extraordinary activation mechanism by tetramer deoligomerization. To unravel the molecular basis for enzyme activation and…
2h
Neurophysiological coordination of duet singing [Neuroscience]
Coordination of behavior for cooperative performances often relies on linkages mediated by sensory cues exchanged between participants. How neurophysiological responses to sensory information affect motor programs to coordinate behavior between individuals is not known. We investigated how plain-tailed wrens (Pheugopedius euophrys) use acoustic feedback to coordinate extraordinary duet performance
2h
Paleo-ENSO influence on African environments and early modern humans [Anthropology]
In this study, we synthesize terrestrial and marine proxy records, spanning the past 620 ky, to decipher pan-African climate variability and its drivers and potential linkages to hominin evolution. We find a tight correlation between moisture availability across Africa to El Niño Southern Ocean oscillation (ENSO) variability, a manifestation of…
2h
Overconfidence in news judgments is associated with false news susceptibility [Political Sciences]
We examine the role of overconfidence in news judgment using two large nationally representative survey samples. First, we show that three in four Americans overestimate their relative ability to distinguish between legitimate and false news headlines; respondents place themselves 22 percentiles higher than warranted on average. This overconfidence is, in…
2h
Biosynthesis of fosfomycin in pseudomonads reveals an unexpected enzymatic activity in the metallohydrolase superfamily [Chemistry]
The epoxide-containing phosphonate natural product fosfomycin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic used in the treatment of cystitis. Fosfomycin is produced by both the plant pathogen Pseudomonas syringae and soil-dwelling streptomycetes. While the streptomycete pathway has recently been fully elucidated, the pseudomonad pathway is still mostly elusive. Through a systematic evaluation of…
2h
Tungsten-182 evidence for an ancient kimberlite source [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Globally distributed kimberlites with broadly chondritic initial 143Nd-176Hf isotopic systematics may be derived from a chemically homogenous, relatively primitive mantle source that remained isolated from the convecting mantle for much of the Earth's history. To assess whether this putative reservoir may have preserved remnants of an early Earth process, we…
2h
Neural basis of opioid-induced respiratory depression and its rescue [Neuroscience]
Opioid-induced respiratory depression (OIRD) causes death following an opioid overdose, yet the neurobiological mechanisms of this process are not well understood. Here, we show that neurons within the lateral parabrachial nucleus that express the µ-opioid receptor (PBLOprm1 neurons) are involved in OIRD pathogenesis. PBLOprm1 neuronal activity is tightly correlated with…
2h
Segregation, integration, and balance of large-scale resting brain networks configure different cognitive abilities [Neuroscience]
Diverse cognitive processes set different demands on locally segregated and globally integrated brain activity. However, it remains an open question how resting brains configure their functional organization to balance the demands on network segregation and integration to best serve cognition. Here we use an eigenmode-based approach to identify hierarchical modules…
2h
Tryptophanemia is controlled by a tryptophan-sensing mechanism ubiquitinating tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase [Biochemistry]
Maintaining stable tryptophan levels is required to control neuronal and immune activity. We report that tryptophan homeostasis is largely controlled by the stability of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO), the hepatic enzyme responsible for tryptophan catabolism. High tryptophan levels stabilize the active tetrameric conformation of TDO through binding noncatalytic exosites, resulting in…
2h
A CO2 greenhouse efficiently warmed the early Earth and decreased seawater 18O/16O before the onset of plate tectonics [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The low 18O/16O stable isotope ratios (δ18O) of ancient chemical sediments imply ∼70 °C Archean oceans if the oxygen isotopic composition of seawater (sw) was similar to modern values. Models suggesting lower δ18Osw of Archean seawater due to intense continental weathering and/or low degrees of hydrothermal alteration are inconsistent with…
2h
Sexual fate of murine external genitalia development: Conserved transcriptional competency for male-biased genes in both sexes [Developmental Biology]
Testicular androgen is a master endocrine factor in the establishment of external genital sex differences. The degree of androgenic exposure during development is well known to determine the fate of external genitalia on a spectrum of female- to male-specific phenotypes. However, the mechanisms of androgenic regulation underlying sex differentiation are…
2h
Kruppel-like factor 6-mediated loss of BCAA catabolism contributes to kidney inȷury in mice and humans [Medical Sciences]
Altered cellular metabolism in kidney proximal tubule (PT) cells plays a critical role in acute kidney injury (AKI). The transcription factor Krüppel-like factor 6 (KLF6) is rapidly and robustly induced early in the PT after AKI. We found that PT-specific Klf6 knockdown (Klf6PTKD) is protective against AKI and kidney fibrosis…
2h
ALS-linked PFN1 variants exhibit loss and gain of functions in the context of formin-induced actin polymerization [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Profilin-1 (PFN1) plays important roles in modulating actin dynamics through binding both monomeric actin and proteins enriched with polyproline motifs. Mutations in PFN1 have been linked to the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). However, whether ALS-linked mutations affect PFN1 function has remained unclear. To address this question, we employed…
2h
Cell-type-specific, multicolor labeling of endogenous proteins with split fluorescent protein tags in Drosophila [Cell Biology]
The impact of the Drosophila experimental system on studies of modern biology cannot be understated. The ability to tag endogenously expressed proteins is essential to maximize the use of this model organism. Here, we describe a method for labeling endogenous proteins with self-complementing split fluorescent proteins (split FPs) in a…
2h
Early Holocene greening of the Sahara requires Mediterranean winter rainfall [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
The greening of the Sahara, associated with the African Humid Period (AHP) between ca. 14,500 and 5,000 y ago, is arguably the largest climate-induced environmental change in the Holocene; it is usually explained by the strengthening and northward expansion of the African monsoon in response to orbital forcing. However, the…
2h
High-resolution asymmetric structure of a Fab-virus complex reveals overlap with the receptor binding site [Microbiology]
Canine parvovirus is an important pathogen causing severe diseases in dogs, including acute hemorrhagic enteritis, myocarditis, and cerebellar disease. Overlap on the surface of parvovirus capsids between the antigenic epitope and the receptor binding site has contributed to cross-species transmission, giving rise to closely related variants. It has been shown…
2h
Iron robbery by intracellular pathogen via bacterial effector-induced ferritinophagy [Microbiology]
Iron is essential for survival and proliferation of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an obligatory intracellular bacterium that causes an emerging zoonosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis. However, how Ehrlichia acquires iron in the host cells is poorly understood. Here, we found that native and recombinant (cloned into the Ehrlichia genome) Ehrlichia translocated factor-3 (Etf-3),…
2h
Differential immune imprinting by influenza virus vaccination and infection in nonhuman primates [Immunology and Inflammation]
Immune memory of a first infection with influenza virus establishes a lasting imprint. Recall of that memory dominates the response to later infections or vaccinations by antigenically drifted strains. Early childhood immunization before infection may leave an imprint with different characteristics. We report here a comparison of imprinting by vaccination…
2h
Transposon-mediated insertional mutagenesis unmasks recessive insecticide resistance in the aphid Myzus persicae [Evolution]
The evolution of resistance to insecticides threatens the sustainable control of many of the world's most damaging insect crop pests and disease vectors. To effectively combat resistance, it is important to understand its underlying genetic architecture, including the type and number of genetic variants affecting resistance and their interactions with…
2h
Structures suggest an approach for converting weak self-peptide tumor antigens into superagonists for CD8 T cells in cancer [Immunology and Inflammation]
Tumors frequently express unmutated self-tumor–associated antigens (self-TAAs). However, trial results using self-TAAs as vaccine targets against cancer are mixed, often attributed to deletion of T cells with high-affinity receptors (TCRs) for self-TAAs during T cell development. Mutating these weak self-TAAs to produce higher affinity, effective vaccines is challenging, since the…
2h
Copper binding by a unique family of metalloproteins is dependent on kynurenine formation [Biochemistry]
Some methane-oxidizing bacteria use the ribosomally synthesized, posttranslationally modified natural product methanobactin (Mbn) to acquire copper for their primary metabolic enzyme, particulate methane monooxygenase. The operons encoding the machinery to biosynthesize and transport Mbns typically include genes for two proteins, MbnH and MbnP, which are also found as a pair…
2h
The effect of mass shootings on daily emotions is limited by time, geographic proximity, and political affiliation [Social Sciences]
Media coverage in the aftermath of mass shootings frequently documents expressions of sadness and outrage shared by millions of Americans. This type of collective emotion can be a powerful force in establishing shared objectives and motivating political actions. Yet, the rise in mass shootings has not translated into widespread legislative…
2h
Periscope Proteins are variable-length regulators of bacterial cell surface interactions [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Changes at the cell surface enable bacteria to survive in dynamic environments, such as diverse niches of the human host. Here, we reveal "Periscope Proteins" as a widespread mechanism of bacterial surface alteration mediated through protein length variation. Tandem arrays of highly similar folded domains can form an elongated rod-like…
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Evolution of single gyroid photonic crystals in bird feathers [Applied Physical Sciences]
Vivid, saturated structural colors are conspicuous and important features of many animals. A rich diversity of three-dimensional periodic photonic nanostructures is found in the chitinaceous exoskeletons of invertebrates. Three-dimensional photonic nanostructures have been described in bird feathers, but they are typically quasi-ordered. Here, we report bicontinuous single gyroid β-keratin and…
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Petrographic carbon in ancient sediments constrains Proterozoic Era atmospheric oxygen levels [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Oxygen concentration defines the chemical structure of Earth's ecosystems while it also fuels the metabolism of aerobic organisms. As different aerobes have different oxygen requirements, the evolution of oxygen levels through time has likely impacted both environmental chemistry and the history of life. Understanding the relationship between atmospheric oxygen levels,…
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Characterizing the "fungal shunt": Parasitic fungi on diatoms affect carbon flow and bacterial communities in aquatic microbial food webs [Environmental Sciences]
Microbial interactions in aquatic environments profoundly affect global biogeochemical cycles, but the role of microparasites has been largely overlooked. Using a model pathosystem, we studied hitherto cryptic interactions between microparasitic fungi (chytrid Rhizophydiales), their diatom host Asterionella, and cell-associated and free-living bacteria. We analyzed the effect of fungal infections
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Revealing atomic-scale molecular diffusion of a plant-transcription factor WRKY domain protein along DNA [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Transcription factor (TF) target search on genome is highly essential for gene expression and regulation. High-resolution determination of TF diffusion along DNA remains technically challenging. Here, we constructed a TF model system using the plant WRKY domain protein in complex with DNA from crystallography and demonstrated microsecond diffusion dynamics of…
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On and off controls within dynein-dynactin on native cargoes [Cell Biology]
The dynein–dynactin nanomachine transports cargoes along microtubules in cells. Why dynactin interacts separately with the dynein motor and also with microtubules is hotly debated. Here we disrupted these interactions in a targeted manner on phagosomes extracted from cells, followed by optical trapping to interrogate native dynein–dynactin teams on single phagosomes….
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Genetic basis of variation in cocaine and methamphetamine consumption in outbred populations of Drosophila melanogaster [Genetics]
We used Drosophila melanogaster to map the genetic basis of naturally occurring variation in voluntary consumption of cocaine and methamphetamine. We derived an outbred advanced intercross population (AIP) from 37 sequenced inbred wild-derived lines of the Drosophila melanogaster Genetic Reference Panel (DGRP), which are maximally genetically divergent, have minimal residual…
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Simulating the directional translocation of a substrate by the AAA+ motor in the 26S proteasome [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
This work explored the molecular origin of substrate translocation by the AAA+ motor of the 26S proteasome. This exploration was performed by combining different simulation approaches including calculations of binding free energies, coarse-grained simulations, and considerations of the ATP hydrolysis energy. The simulations were used to construct the free energy…
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Single-molecule calorimeter and free energy landscape [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The precise measurement of thermodynamic and kinetic properties for biomolecules provides the detailed information for a multitude of applications in biochemistry, biosensing, and health care. However, sensitivity in characterizing the thermodynamic binding affinity down to a single molecule, such as the Gibbs free energy (Gb), enthalpy (Hb), and entropy (Sb),…
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Interaction hot spots for phase separation revealed by NMR studies of a CAPRIN1 condensed phase [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The role of biomolecular condensates in regulating biological function and the importance of dynamic interactions involving intrinsically disordered protein regions (IDRs) in their assembly are increasingly appreciated. While computational and theoretical approaches have provided significant insights into IDR phase behavior, establishing the critical interactions that govern condensation with atom
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Liquid crystal display screens as a source for indoor volatile organic compounds [Environmental Sciences]
Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) have profoundly shaped the lifestyle of humans. However, despite extensive use, their impacts on indoor air quality are unknown. Here, we perform flow cell experiments on three different LCDs, including a new computer monitor, a used laptop, and a new television, to investigate whether their screens…
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cGAS restricts colon cancer development by protecting intestinal barrier integrity [Immunology and Inflammation]
The DNA-sensing enzyme cyclic guanosine monophosphate-adenosine monophosphate synthase (cGAS) regulates inflammation and immune defense against pathogens and malignant cells. Although cGAS has been shown to exert antitumor effects in several mouse models harboring transplanted tumor cell lines, its role in tumors arising from endogenous tissues remains unknown. Here, we show…
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Correction for Liu et al., Abscisic acid regulates secondary cell-wall formation and lignin deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana through phosphorylation of NST1 [Corrections]
PLANT BIOLOGY Correction for "Abscisic acid regulates secondary cell-wall formation and lignin deposition in Arabidopsis thaliana through phosphorylation of NST1," by Chang Liu, Hasi Yu, Xiaolan Rao, Laigeng Li, and Richard A. Dixon, which was first published January 25, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2010911118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2010911118). The authors…
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Correction for Stansfield et al., Biomechanical trade-offs in the pelvic floor constrain the evolution of the human birth canal [Corrections]
ANTHROPOLOGY Correction for "Biomechanical trade-offs in the pelvic floor constrain the evolution of the human birth canal," by Ekaterina Stansfield, Krishna Kumar, Philipp Mitteroecker, and Nicole D. S. Grunstra, which published April 14, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2022159118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2022159118). The authors note that Fig. 3 appeared incorrectly…
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CRISPR-based targeting of DNA methylation in Arabidopsis thaliana by a bacterial CG-specific DNA methyltransferase [Plant Biology]
CRISPR-based targeted modification of epigenetic marks such as DNA cytosine methylation is an important strategy to regulate the expression of genes and their associated phenotypes. Although plants have DNA methylation in all sequence contexts (CG, CHG, CHH, where H = A, T, C), methylation in the symmetric CG context is…
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Exploring the perceptual inabilities of Eurasian jays (Garrulus glandarius) using magic effects [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
In recent years, scientists have begun to use magic effects to investigate the blind spots in our attention and perception [G. Kuhn, Experiencing the Impossible: The Science of Magic (2019); S. Macknik, S. Martinez-Conde, S. Blakeslee, Sleights of Mind: What the Neuroscience of Magic Reveals about Our Everyday Deceptions (2010)]….
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China Now Allows Couples to Have Three Children
Third Child China's government announced on Monday that couples are allowed to have a third child, signaling concerns over declining population growth in the most populous country in the world. In 1980, China first implemented a one-child-per-household policy to ensure the government is able to keep up with a rapidly growing population. In 2015, the government announced it will allow couples to h
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Researchers discover gene linked to bone cancer in children, ID potential novel therapy
UNC Lineberger researchers have discovered a gene, OTUD7A, that impacts the development of Ewing sarcoma, a bone cancer that occurs mainly in children. They have also identified a compound that shows potential to block OTUD7A protein activity. Critical relationships between proteins contribute to the development of cancers such as Ewing sarcoma. So, it was a seminal discovery when the UNC research
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From the archive
Nature, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-01382-4 Nature's pages report Einstein's travel woes in 1921, and science lectures for the public in 1871.
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A cartoon guide to bioinformatics by a novice coder
Nature, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-01485-y Ed Himelblau was a cartoonist before he learnt to write code. Now, the geneticist hopes his drawings will help others who embrace bioinformatics later in their careers.
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Daily briefing: 'Complete' human genome sequence unveiled
Nature, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-01488-9 Scientists claim to have sequenced the entirety of the human genome. Plus, prehistoric rock art from a Scottish tomb, and the most detailed 3D map of the Universe ever made.
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Researchers develop proof-of-concept treatment that elevates adult and fetal hemoglobin
Researchers have developed a proof-of-concept treatment for blood disorders like sickle cell disease and beta-thalassemia that could raise hemoglobin levels by activating production of both fetal and adult hemoglobin. Using a viral vector engineered to reactivate fetal hemoglobin production, suppress mutant hemoglobin, and supply functional adult hemoglobin, the researchers developed an approach t
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How the major Swedish forest fire of 2014 affected the ecosystem
Researchers have spent four years gathering data from the areas affected by the major forest fire of 2014. In their study of how the ecosystem as a whole has been altered, they could see that water quality in watercourses quickly returned to normal, while forested areas continued to lose carbon for many years after the fire.
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The effects of protein corona on the interactions of AIE-visualized liposomes with ce
Since the introduction on the market in 1995 of Doxil, pegylated liposomal doxorubicin, liposomes have become one of the most clinically established drug delivery systems in nanomedicine. Among different liposomal formulations, cationic liposomes have attracted great attention because of their capacity to bind negatively charged nucleic acids to perform as non-viral gene delivery tools, and due to
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Fitbit and spy mic track elusive Canada lynx
Using a Fitbit and a spy mic, researchers have gained new insight into the behavior of the elusive Canada lynx. The new study also provides a first look at how miniaturized technology can open the door to remote wildlife monitoring. "We captured chases, screams of the prey as they were caught, calls of the prey as they escaped, and bones crunching…" "Working on one of the boreal forest's top pred
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Mini bone marrow model predicts response to blood disorder treatment
A new miniature 3D model of human bone marrow has just been described. The model may help clinicians predict which patients will benefit from a new therapy for blood platelet disorders, such as Inherited Thrombocytopenias — a group of familial disorders that inhibit the production of platelets. It could also enable further study of these disorders and give scientists a new tool to test experiment
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The Air Force Seems to Be Investing Heavily in SpaceX's Starship
Wink Wink In its 462-page "justification book" on how it plans to spend its $200 billion budget, the US Air Force suggested that it's allocating almost $50 million in the development of the SpaceX Starship. Even though the Air Force didn't mention the Starship by name, it did mention its interest in specific capabilities that only Starship could feasibly provide, Ars Technica reports , including
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Improved detection of atrial fibrillation could prevent disabling strokes
A clinical trial examining the efficacy of two devices to monitor and detect atrial fibrillation (AF), or an irregular heartbeat, in ischemic stroke patients — one an implantable device that monitors over 12 months, the other an external device that monitors over a 30-day period — found the implantable device is more than three times more effective in detecting AF, and both are a significant imp
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Canadian prescription opioids users experience gaps in access to care
Stigma and high care needs can present barriers to the provision of high-quality primary care for people with opioid use disorder (OUD) and those prescribed opioids for chronic pain. A study by Tara Gomes at the Li Ka Shing Knowledge Institute of St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Canada and colleagues suggests that people treated for an opioid use disorder were less likely to find a new primary car
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Malaria parasite's partiality for the spleen
The malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax may accumulate in the spleen soon after infection to a greater extent than its better-known relative P. falciparum, according to new research published by John Woodford of the University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia and colleagues in the open access journal PLOS Medicine.
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When should screening start for men with a family history of prostate cancer?
A nationwide study in Sweden estimates the elevated risk of advanced or fatal prostate cancer among relatives of men with the disease, providing new data that could help refine guidelines for the age at which screening should begin. Mahdi Fallah and Elham Kharazmi of the German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ) in Heidelberg, Germany, and colleagues present these new findings in the open-access journa
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Vitamin D may not provide protection from COVID-19 susceptibility or disease severity
Observational studies have suggested that increased vitamin D levels may protect against COVID-19. However, these studies were inconclusive and possibly subject to confounding. A study published in PLOS Medicine by Guillaume Butler-Laporte and Tomoko Nakanishi at McGill University in Quebec, Canada, and colleagues suggests that genetic evidence does not support vitamin D as a protective measure ag
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Global costs of Plasmodium vivax malaria estimated for the first time
Plasmodium vivax malaria is a mosquito-borne illness that causes significant morbidity. However, the household and healthcare provider costs of the disease are unknown. A new study published in the open-access journal PLOS Medicine by Dr Angela Devine at Menzies School of Health Research in Australia, and colleagues estimate the global economic burden of P. vivax for the first time using country-l
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International study of weight stigma reveals similar, pervasive experiences
Over 50% of adults surveyed across six different countries report experiencing weight stigma, and those who engage in self-blame for their weight are more likely to avoid healthcare, according to two new studies from the UConn Rudd Center for Food Policy and Obesity. These studies, which compared experiences of adults in Australia, Canada, France, Germany, the UK, and the US are the first multi-na
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Book traces shared roots of capitalism and racial slavery
A new book goes back to the 17th century to explore the emergence of both racial slavery and capitalism in American history. Nearly half of American adults say that it is "very important" for people to educate themselves about the history of racial inequality in the United States, according to a survey by the Pew Research Center last fall. However, the poll revealed a notable division among racia
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Mumpreneur success still requires conventional masculine behaviour
A new study led by Kent Business School, University of Kent, finds that while the mumpreneur identity may enable women to participate in the business world and be recognized as "proper" entrepreneurs, this success is dependent on alignment with the conventional masculine norms of entrepreneurship.
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Study finds that a firm's place in a supply chain influences lending and borrowing
Businesses typically rely on banks and financial markets for financing, but credit provided by suppliers also can play an important role, especially in manufacturing. Yet why firms lend and borrow extensively from each other is still an open question. In a paper in the Journal of the Journal of Financial Economics, financial researchers examined trade credit from a new angle.
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Researchers discover how cells can survive in high salt concentrations
Cells have to constantly adapt to their surroundings in order to survive. A sudden increase in the environmental levels of an osmolyte, such as salt, causes cells to lose water and shrink. In a matter of seconds, they activate a mechanism that allows them to recover their initial water volume and avoid dying.
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Restored peatlands store carbon and mitigate climate change
Estonia has almost 10,000 ha of peat production land that has lain abandoned since the Soviet era, as well as peatland that is in use at present for peat production but whose resources will be exhausted in the near future. There are also 160,000 ha of peatland that have been drained for forestry. The findings from the research conducted by Tallinn University doctoral student Anna-Helena Purre are
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Why is there a shortage of lumber in the US?
Why is the United States experiencing a lumber shortage? An expert has answers. Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the United States has experienced shortages of medical materials, manufacturing products and even consumer goods like toilet paper and hand sanitizer. Now a lumber shortage is gripping the country, causing prices to skyrocket. Lumber prices hit an all-time high of $1,686 per thousand
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Sick bats also employ 'social distancing' which prevents the outbreak of epidemics
The COVID-19 pandemic has introduced us to expressions like 'lockdown', 'isolation' and 'social distancing', which became part of social conduct all over the world. Now it appears that bats also maintain social distancing which might help prevent the spread of contagious diseases in their colonies. In a new study published in Annals of the New York Academy of Science, researchers from Tel Aviv Uni
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Is the U.S. understating climate emissions from meat and dairy production?
Methane emissions from North American livestock may be routinely undercounted, a new analysis by researchers at New York University and Johns Hopkins University finds. The work also notes that in developing countries, where animal agriculture is becoming increasingly industrialized, methane emissions could rise more than expected.
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Toward the correction of muscular dystrophy by gene editing [Colloquium Papers (free online)]
Recent advances in gene editing technologies are enabling the potential correction of devastating monogenic disorders through elimination of underlying genetic mutations. Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is an especially severe genetic disorder caused by mutations in the gene encoding dystrophin, a membrane-associated protein required for maintenance of muscle structure and function….
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More salmonella infections in Europe: Hygiene rules help prepare poultry safely
In recent months, more than three hundred cases of salmonellosis have occurred in various European countries and Canada, which are linked to each other. In the UK the cases could be partly traced back to frozen breaded poultry meat. The cause was contamination with the bacterium Salmonella Enteritidis, which causes gastrointestinal inflammation. Salmonella is not killed by deep freezing and can re
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Californian smoke drifted as far as Europe in 2020 and caused heavy clouding of the sun
The smoke from the extreme forest fires on the US West Coast in September 2020 traveled over many thousands of kilometers to Central Europe, where it continued to affect the atmosphere for days afterwards. A comparison of ground and satellite measurements now shows: The forest fire aerosol disturbed the free troposphere over Leipzig in Germany as never before. An evaluation by an international res
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Falsely accused? Stay calm, because anger makes you look guilty
A new study conducted various experiments to explore the relationship between anger and judgments of guilt. The results suggest that when an accused person becomes angry, perceivers are more likely to view that person as guilty, even though the accused might be innocent. Paradoxically, the study also found that people who are falsely accused generally become angrier than people who are rightfully
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Joanne Kamens 1: What is a Peer Mentoring Group?
www.iBiology.org Mentors shape our careers by guiding us through difficult decisions. In this series, Dr. Joanne Kamens advocates for the use of Peer Mentoring Groups, explains how to create one, and reviews what are mentorship best practices. In part 1, Kamens shows how Peer Mentoring Groups allow us to provide and receive valuable mentoring opportunities. While working towards a common goal, gr
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The Porn Crisis That Isn't
If you ask some people, America is in the middle of a public-health crisis. No, not that one. Legislators in 16 states have passed resolutions declaring that pornography, in its ubiquity, constitutes a public-health crisis. The wave of bills started five years ago , with Utah, which went a step further this spring by passing a law mandating that all cellphones and tablets sold in the state block
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Childhood cancer discovery may stop tumor spread before it starts
A new discovery in Ewing sarcoma, an aggressive and often fatal childhood cancer, has uncovered the potential to prevent cancer cells from spreading beyond their primary tumour site. Researchers have learned that Ewing sarcoma cells — and likely other types of cancer cells — are able to develop a shield that protects them from the harsh environment of the bloodstream and other locations as they
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Western Australia's natural 'museums of biodiversity' at risk
Up to three quarters of the biodiversity living on Western Australia's iconic ironstone mountains in the State's Mid West (known as Banded Iron Formations) could be difficult or impossible to return quickly to its previous state after the landscape has been mined, a study has found.
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Protecting the intellectual abilities of people at risk for psychosis
Psychotic disorders comes with a progressive decline in IQ. If current drug treatments are successful in containing psychotic symptoms, nothing can be done to prevent the deterioration of intellectual skills that leads to loss of autonomy. Researchers have discovered that prescription of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) in late childhood can reduce the deterioration of intellectual
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Vulnerable US counties are home to more gas pipelines
Counties with more socially vulnerable populations have a higher density of natural gas pipelines overall, according to a new analysis. The findings suggest counties that are more socially vulnerable are also at greater risk of facing water and air pollution , public health and safety issues, and other negative impacts associated with the pipelines. "We know that the network, as it stands today,
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Manipulating quinary charge states in solitary defects of 2D intermetallic semiconductor
Creating and manipulating multiple charge states of a single atomic defect in semiconductors is of essential importance to "qubits" of solid-state quantum computation, but fundamentally limited by Coulomb's law. The object is challenged by the conflicting requirements of localization for sizable band gap and delocalization for low charging energy. Recently, researchers from China and Singapore rea
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Treatabolome project designed to shorten diagnosis-to-treatment time for patients with rare diseases
The Treatabolome project is a research initiative to develop a freely available, interoperable online platform to disseminate rare disease and gene-specific treatment information to healthcare professionals regardless of their level of specialized expertise to reduce treatment delays. This initiative is highly relevant to neuromuscular disorders as they are rare diseases by definition. In this spe
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A solar energy-driven sustainable process for synthesis of ethylene glycol from methanol
Direct photocatalytic coupling of methanol to ethylene glycol (EG) is highly attractive. The first metal oxide photocatalyst, a tantalum-based semiconductor, is reported for preferential activation of C-H bonds within methanol to form hydroxymethyl radical (* CH2OH) and subsequent C-C coupling to EG. The nitrogen doped tantalum oxide (N-Ta2O5) photocatalyst is an environmentally friendly and highl
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How were the carbon contents in terrestrial and lunar mantles established?
Carbon degassed from planetary mantles by volcanic activity plays an important role in the planetary surface environment. However, how the carbon content in the Earth's mantle was established is still poorly understood. Here we show that the mantle of planetary embryos may have been nearly saturated with carbon by new high-pressure experiments and point out that the carbon solubility of magma is v
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Urban life is not to everyone's taste
Habitat change, for example through urbanization, is one of the most important causes of biodiversity decline. By 2050, settlements and cities across the globe are predicted to increase by two to three million square kilometers—about half the size of Greenland. Natural and semi-natural habitats will thus gradually be replaced by urban habitats.How wildlife can adapt to such fundamental changes has
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Hi-CO unravels the complex packing of nucleosomes
Scientists at Kyoto University's Institute for Integrated Cell-Material Sciences (iCeMS) in Japan have developed a technology that produces high-resolution simulations of one of the basic units of our genomes, called the nucleosome. Their findings were published in the journal Nature Protocols and should help improve understanding of how changes in nucleosome folding influence the inner workings o
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Space Debris Blasts Hole in Space Station's Robotic Arm
Battle Scars Crewmembers on the International Space Station found something alarming during a routine inspection in May: a tiny hole punched into the side of Canadarm2, the space station's robotic arm provided by the Canadian Space Agency. Apparently a small piece of space junk — pieces of garbage from other satellites or rocket launches whizzing around the planet at dangerously high speeds — mus
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Scientists say active early learning shapes the adult brain
Through the Abecedarian Project, an early education, randomized controlled trial that has followed children since 1971, researchers have discovered an enhanced learning environment during the first five years of life shapes the brain in ways that are apparent four decades later.
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Moffitt Cancer Center experts to present new clinical research data
Moffitt Cancer Center, a national leader in cancer care and research and the only National Cancer Institute-designated Comprehensive Cancer Center based in Florida, is presenting new data from dozens of clinical research studies at this year's American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, the world's largest clinical cancer research meeting. Moffitt investigators will lead 25 abstra
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Bar-Ilan University researchers increase life expectancy in mice by an average of 30%
Transgenic mice express high levels of the SIRT6 gene and show that their life expectancy can be increased by an average of 30% in both males and females. The mice exhibited significant improvement in overcoming a variety of age-related diseases and conducted the same level of vigorous activity as young mice, without becoming frail. Through a variety of methods and analyses, the mechanism through
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Deep impact of superficial skin inking: Acoustic analysis of underlying tissue
Deep impact of superficial skin inking: acoustic analysis of underlying tissuehttps://doi.org/10.15212/bioi-2021-0004Announcing a new article publication for BIO Integration journal. In this article the authors Craig S. Carlson and Michiel Postema, from University of the Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa and Tampere University, Tampere, Finland discuss deep impact of superficial skin inkin
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Alternatives to plastic straws: Which materials are suitable?
Drinking straws are single use plastic products which will be subjected to a Europe-wide sales ban from 2021 onwards. This is stated in EU Directive 2019/904 from June 5, 2019. Consequently, alternative materials have to be established for the production of drinking straws as well as other frequently used products which predominantly were made of plastic so far.
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Clinical-level emotional/behavioral problems in schoolchildren during the lockdown
Efforts to contain the novel coronavirus have caused lockdowns and school closures around the world. These efforts and policies have unfortunately cut off many children from valuable resources such as the opportunity for exercise, access to clean water and food, learning, and socialization. Therefore, the effects on mental health and behavior may be found not just in adults but children.
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Adaptability of 158 butterfly species to urbanization
Expanding urban habitats are likely to endanger a large number of butterfly species in the long term. Generalists that tolerate large temperature fluctuations and feed on different plants are most likely to benefit from human-modified habitats. In order to preserve biodiversity, urban and spatial planning should take the needs of specialized butterfly species into account, the authors recommend.
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Memory, learning and decision-making studied in worms
As anyone who has ever procrastinated knows, remembering that you need to do something and acting on that knowledge are two different things. To understand how memory can lead to different behaviors, researchers studied the simpler nervous system of worms. The discovery used a 'robot microscope,' which detects and tracks fluorescent light as a worm crawls around, meaning researchers can record vid
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Small 'snowflakes' in the sea play a big role
In the deep waters that underlie the productive zones of the ocean, there is a constant rain of organic material called 'marine snow.' Marine snow behaves similarly to real snow: large flakes are rare and fall quickly while abundant smaller flakes take their time. Scientists have now discovered that precisely those features explain why small particles play an important role for the nutrient balanc
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This Free Noise Cancelling App Makes Calls And Video Conferences Crystal Clear
If you've been working from home a lot over the last year, you're acutely aware of just how noisy your homes (and the homes of your colleagues) can really be. And if you don't have the ability to convert any of your rooms into a soundproof office, and don't feel like taking your calls in a closet, you might think you don't have any options. But with the Krisp noise cancelling app, you can turn an
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How will businesses handle new mask guidelines?
On May 13, the director of the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced that people fully vaccinated against COVID-19 do not need to wear masks or practice social distancing indoors or outdoors, except under certain circumstances. The announcement came as a surprise to many, including business owners who suddenly had to reevaluate their mask requirements and how these changes might
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Head and neck cancers hijack nearby healthy tissue
Researchers have identified a mechanism that allows head and neck cancer cells to subvert nearby normal tissue. This allows small clusters of cancer cells to burrow beneath the healthy tissue, they report. Up to half of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma will experience tumor recurrence or new tumors—tumors that often spread and are difficult to treat. Researchers decided to look
5h
Solar energy-driven sustainable process for synthesis of ethylene glycol from methanol
Direct photocatalytic coupling of methanol to ethylene glycol (EG) is highly attractive. The first metal oxide photocatalyst, tantalum-based semiconductor, is reported for preferential activation of C-H bond within methanol to form hydroxymethyl radical (* CH2OH) and subsequent C-C coupling to EG. The nitrogen doped tantalum oxide (N-Ta2O5) photocatalyst is an environmentally friendly and highly s
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No space wasted: Embedding capacitors into interposers to increase miniaturization
Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology develop a 3D functional interposer — the interface between a chip and the package substrate — containing an embedded capacitor. This compact design saves a lot of package area and greatly reduces the wiring length between the chip's terminals and the capacitor, allowing for less noise and power consumption. Their approach paves the way to new semicondu
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Elon Musk: SpaceX Will Be Launching From Floating Platforms by 2022
Deimos Launch According to SpaceX CEO Elon Musk, the space company could be launching its Starship spacecraft from a ocean spaceport as soon as next year. "Ocean spaceport Deimos is under construction for launch next year," the billionaire tweeted over the weekend, referring to one of two deepwater oil rigs his company purchased last year. The rigs, named Deimos and Phobos after Mars' two moons,
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The role of computer voice in the future of speech-based human-computer interaction
In the modern day, our interactions with voice-based devices and services continue to increase. In this light, researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology and RIKEN, Japan, have performed a meta-synthesis to understand how we perceive and interact with the voice (and the body) of various machines. Their findings have generated insights into human preferences, and can be used by engineers and desi
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Closer hardware systems bring the future of artificial intelligence into view
Researchers from the Institute of Industrial Science at The University of Tokyo integrated a mobility-enhanced field-effect transistor and ferroelectric capacitor to reduce the energy required by machine learning computation. Both elements contained tin-doped indium gallium zinc oxide, which can be included in the 'back end of line' layers of integrated circuits. The proximity that this made possi
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Making batteries live longer with ultrathin lithium
Lithium metal batteries comprising lithium anodes hold much promise in replacing conventional lithium-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity but suffer from poor cycling performance due to undesirable side reactions. Now, Korean researchers have worked around the problem with engineered lithium metal powder pre-planted with lithium nitride (LN-LMP), reporting a surpassing cycling per
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Seeds of economic health disparities found in subsistence society
The Tsimane subsistence communities living on the edge of the Bolivian Amazon have less inequality but also fewer chronic health problems linked to the economic disparity of industrialized Western societies. Researchers tracked 13 different health variables across 40 Tsimane communities, analyzing them against individual's wealth and each community's degree of inequality. While some have theorized
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Incentive-driven transition to high ride-sharing adoption
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23287-6 Ride-sharing, combining similar concurrent trips into one, may support sustainable urban mobility yet lacks broad adoption. Storch et al. reveal how collective interactions in shared rides explain essential characteristics of ride-sharing adoption patterns e.g. observed in New York City and Chicago.
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Ganoderic acid increases radiosensitivity of cancer cell
Recently, the research team led by Prof. KONG Lingtao from Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (HFIPS) prepared a highly active single iron atom catalyst (Fe-ISAs@CN) which can activate H2O2 to generate free radicals, achieving rapid removal of sulfadiazine pollutants in aqueous. The relevant results were published in Journal of Colloid and Interface Science.
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Study reveals degradation of antibiotics in water by iron-based fenton catalytic
Recently, the research team led by Prof. KONG Lingtao from Institute of Solid State Physics, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science (HFIPS) prepared a highly active single iron atom catalyst (Fe-ISAs@CN) which can activate H2O2 to generate free radicals, achieving rapid removal of sulfadiazine pollutants in aqueous. The relevant results were published in Journal of Colloid and Interface Science.
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Screenshots Are the Gremlins of the Internet
In early 2017, a terrifying rumor began to drift around the internet. An iPhone software update was coming, and the anarchists at Apple had decided to add a new feature: Starting soon, your device would register every screenshot that you grabbed of a text conversation, and notify the other participants. Apple users imagined total mayhem , or the necessity of owning two phones —one for daily use,
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Med-Chem Should Be Larger Than It Is
I'm really glad to see this Perspective article in the Journal of Medicinal Chemistry , not least because it hits on a theme that I emphasize whenever I get a chance to speak to graduate student chemistry audiences. The author, Bart Roman, is pointing out that (1) biologics are relentlessly expanding their role in the landscape of approved drugs and (2) this means that organic and medicinal chemi
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A fungus is major cause of death among people with HIV in the Brazilian Amazon
A series of autopsies performed in an infectious disease hospital in the Brazilian Amazon reveals that infections by the Histoplasma fungus are a major cause of death in people with HIV. The study, led by Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal), an institution supported by "la Caixa" Foundation, in collaboration with a team in Manaus, highlights the need of implementing sensitive methods
6h
Childhood cancer discovery may stop tumour spread before it starts
A new discovery in Ewing sarcoma, an aggressive and often fatal childhood cancer, has uncovered the potential to prevent cancer cells from spreading beyond their primary tumour site. Researchers with the University of British Columbia and BC Cancer have learned that Ewing sarcoma cells–and likely other types of cancer cells–are able to develop a shield that protects them from the harsh environme
6h
UCalgary study shows BPA exposure below regulatory levels can impact brain development
University of Calgary study shows BPA exposure below regulatory levels can impact development of the brain's sleep centre, effecting behavior. The researchers found striking changes to the brain region responsible for driving circadian rhythms. The suprachiasmatic nucleus, located in the hypothalamus, failed to develop properly. This change can have implications for sleep, activity levels, and oth
6h
Gene plays major role in brain development
The so-called Plexin-A1 gene seems to play a more extensive role in brain development than previously assumed. This is shown by a current study led by the University of Bonn (Germany) with more than 60 international partners. The gene is also interesting for another reason: Its mutations are inherited either dominantly or recessively, depending on which part of the gene is affected. The results of
6h
Tesla's In-Car Cameras Are Now Spying on Drivers to Make Sure They Pay Attention
Tesla has decided to make use of the driver-facing camera in its Model 3 and Y cars — to make sure drivers are paying attention while using the self-driving assistance feature Autopilot, TechCrunch reports . A software update, spotted by several Tesla owners , specifies that the "cabin camera above the rearview mirror can now detect and alert driver inattentiveness while Autopilot is engaged." Ac
6h
The secret to stickiness of mussels underwater
Mussels survive by sticking to rocks in the fierce waves or tides underwater. Materials mimicking this underwater adhesion are widely used for skin or bone adhesion, for modifying the surface of a scaffold, or even in drug or cell delivery systems. However, these materials have not entirely imitated the capabilities of mussels.
7h
Mind the nanogap: Fast and sensitive oxygen gas sensors
Oxygen (O2) is an essential gas not only for us and most other lifeforms, but also for many industrial processes, biomedicine, and environmental monitoring applications. Given the importance of O2 and other gases, many researchers have focused on developing and improving gas-sensing technologies. At the frontier of this evolving field lie modern nanogap gas sensors—devices usually comprised of a s
7h
Scientists develop new method for ultra-high-throughput RNA sequencing in single cells
RNA sequencing is a powerful technology for studying cells and diseases. In particular, single-cell RNA sequencing helps uncover the heterogeneity and diversity of our body. This is the central technology of the "Human Cell Atlas" in its quest to map all human cells. However, single-cell RNA sequencing reaches its limits in very large projects, as it is time-consuming and very expensive. To addres
7h
Pollution nearly doubles the risk of losing your sense of smell
New research digs into how air pollution can cause anosmia, the loss of smell. The loss of smell, a condition known as anosmia, can severely affect a person's quality of life, making it extremely difficult to taste foods, detect airborne hazards in the environment, and carry out other functions dependent on the sense. Those with anosmia may experience weight concerns, decreased social interaction
7h
Artificial intelligence enables smart control and fair sharing of resources in energy communities
Energy communities will play a key role in building the more decentralized, less carbon intensive, and fairer energy systems of the future. Such communities enable local prosumers (consumers with own generation and storage) to generate, store and trade energy with each other — using locally owned assets, such as wind turbines, rooftop solar panels and batteries.
7h
What could possibly go wrong with virtual reality?
YouTube is a treasure trove of virtual reality fails: users tripping, colliding into walls and smacking inanimate and animate objects. By investigating these "VR Fails" on YouTube, researchers at the University of Copenhagen have sought to learn more about when and why things go sideways for users and how to improve VR design and experiences so as to avoid accidents.
7h
Hydraulic instability decides who's to die and who's to live
In many species including humans, the cells responsible for reproduction, the germ cells, are often highly interconnected and share their cytoplasm. In the hermaphrodite nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, up to 500 germ cells are connected to each other in the gonad, the tissue that produces eggs and sperm. These cells are arranged around a central cytoplasmic 'corridor' and exchange cytoplasmic mat
7h
Academic journal Polar Science features science in the Arctic
The National Institute of Polar Research publishes Polar Science , a peer-reviewed quarterly journal dealing with polar science in collaboration with the Elsevier B. V.. The most recent issue was a special issue entitled "Arctic Challenge for Sustainability Project (ArCS)," which featured the former national (nationwide) Arctic research project in Japan. The full text of this issue is freely acces
7h
Chemistry and biology of sulfur containing natural products from marine microorganisms
The intriguing chemistry and biology of sulfur?containing natural products from marine microorganisms (1987-2020)https://doi.org/10.1007/s42995-021-00101-2Announcing a new publication for Marine Life Science & Technology journal. In this review article the authors Yang Hai, Mei?Yan Wei, Chang?Yun Wang, Yu?Cheng Gu and Chang?Lun Shao from Ocean University of China, Qingdao, China and Syngenta Jealo
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Unraveling DNA packaging: How histones and DNA interact
The genetic material of most organisms is carried by DNA, a complex organic molecule. DNA is very long—for humans, the molecule is estimated to be about 2 m in length. In cells, DNA occurs in a densely packed form, with strands of the molecule coiled up in a complicated but efficient space-filling way. A key role in DNA's compactification is played by histones, structural-support proteins around w
7h
Vad händer när offentlig verksamhet "återlämnas"?
Vilka effekter får det när ett äldreboende ofrivilligt tvingas återgå till att drivas i offentlig regi, så kallad backsourcing? Det har forskare studerat. Under lång tid har offentlig verksamhet lagts ut på entreprenad och sannolikt blir det vanligare att verksamheter i framtiden växlar huvudmannaskap. Kunskapen om hur det går till behöver därför fördjupas och utvecklas. – Backsourcing av offentl
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Mapping zoonotic 'hot spots' where risk of coronaviruses jumping from bats to humans is highest
A team of researchers from Politecnico di Milano, the University of California and Massey University has created maps of possible hotspots in Asia and Europe where the risk of coronaviruses jumping from bats to humans is highest. In their paper published in the journal Nature Food, the researchers describe how they combined data regarding human population densities, horseshoe bats, land use and ot
7h
Researchers measure tritium production rates in mock-up of water-cooled ceramic breeder blanket
To realize tritium self-sustaining cycle through tritium breeding blanket has been one of the core technologies of future fusion reactor. Therefore the design and function of blanket must be validated by neutronic experiment under D-T neutron environment. But due to the scarcity of DT neutron source, and highly radioactivity during neutronic experiments, it is very difficult to validate the nuclea
7h
Biopolymer-based electrolyte for the dream of zero-pollution battery
In a paper published in NANO, researchers from Guizhou Meiling Power Sources Co., Ltd., China have reviewed the recent progress in biopolymer-based electrolyte. The biopolymer materials with unique characteristics including water solubility, film-forming capability and adhesive property played a key role in the design of zero pollution lithium battery. The biopolymers mentioned in this review were
7h
A Self-Driving Truck Got a Shipment Cross-Country 10 Hours Faster Than a Human Driver
Self-driving cars are taking longer to come to market than many expected. In fact, it's looking like they may be outpaced by pilotless planes and driverless trucks . A truck isn't much different than a car, but self-driving technology is already coming in handy on long-haul trucking routes, as a recent cross-country trip showed. Last month TuSimple , a transportation company focused on self-drivi
7h
Polypropylene recycling from carpet waste
A significant part of carpet waste consists of petroleum-based polypropylene. As a non-recyclable product, disposing of it has previously meant incineration or landfill. However, a new solvent is now making it possible to recover virgin-standard polypropylene from carpet waste—with no perceptible reduction in quality. Developed by the Fraunhofer Institute for Building Physics IBP and its partners,
7h
Enzymes successfully embedded in plastics
In general, plastics are processed at way over a hundred degrees Celsius. Enzymes, by contrast, cannot usually withstand these high temperatures. Researchers at the Fraunhofer Institute for Applied Polymer Research IAP have managed to reconcile these contradictions: They are able to embed enzymes in plastics without the enzymes losing their activity in the process. The potentials this creates are
7h
Stimulated scattering in supermode microcavities: Single- or dual-mode lasing?
Stimulated scattering in supermode microcavities, such as Raman or Brillouin lasers, has shown unprecedented merit for precision measurements by exploiting the beat note in their lasing spectra. This beat note corresponds to the energy splitting of supermodes and is highly sensitive to any external perturbations. However, a pivotal question has puzzled the researchers for two decades: are these su
7h
Digital crop protection from disease and pest plants
Crop diseases threaten yields in the field. Pests and parasitic weeds cause high crop losses of up to 30 percent every year. In the FarmerSpace project, the Fraunhofer Institute for Optronics, System Technologies and Image Exploitation IOSB in Ilmenau is working together with partners to investigate the use of digital technologies for crop protection. The aim is to detect leaf diseases and the spr
7h
Magnetic materials analysis has never been so comprehensible
Professor Andreas Michels, physicist at the University of Luxembourg, explores the complex world of magnetic materials by shooting neutrons on them. He has now published his insights in a 380-page monograph titled "Magnetic Small-Angle Neutron Scattering − A Probe for Mesoscale Magnetism Analysis." The book is published by Oxford University Press.
7h
How we discovered a new giant crustacean on the deepest depths of the ocean floor
Discovering a new species and placing it on the tree of life is a big responsibility. I have been fortunate to name four species from some of the deepest, most remote and least sampled parts of the ocean. Each new species helps us uncover how life thrives in the hadal zone (anywhere deeper than 6,000 meters or 3.7 miles). Now, let me introduce you to Eurythenes atacamensis.
7h
Nano-encapsulation for efficient delivery in Parkinson's treatment
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in a part of the brain (known as substantia nigra pars compacta), which leads to a deficit of dopamine (DA), one of the main neurotransmitters active in the central nervous system. Symptomatic treatment focuses on increasing the concentration of dopamine into the brain.
7h
Intratumoral SIRPalpha-deficient macrophages activate tumor-specific cytotoxic T cells
In a study that will be published in Nature Communications on May 28, 2021, a research team led by Dr. Yuan Liu from Georgia State University reports that intratumoral SIRPalpha-deficient macrophages activate tumor antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells to eliminate various syngeneic cancers under radiotherapy. Their study identifies SIRPalpha as a master regulator controling macrophage immune respons
7h
Right off the bat: Navigation in extra-large spaces
How we and other mammals manage to navigate large-scale environments even though the brain's spatial perception circuits are seemingly suited to representing much smaller areas? A team of researchers from the Weizmann Institute of Science, led by Professor Nachum Ulanovsky of the Neurobiology Department, tackled this riddle by thinking outside the experimental box. By combining an unusual research
7h
Māori view on Antarctica's future
The inclusion of Māori and other Indigenous philosophies in the conservation management of Antarctica is the theme of an article co-written by Māori philosopher Associate Professor Krushil Watene.
7h
Drone-mounted millimeter-wave radar sees through inner walls of chimneys
A team of researchers at Osaka University, together with Rediscovery of the wheel Inc., and JFE Shoji Electronics Corporation, has developed an ultra-wideband radar system, which can be mounted on drones. With the cooperation of the Tokuyama Plant of Idemitsu Kosan Co., Ltd., a drone equipped with the radar was flown in a chimney with a height of 150 m during a regular inspection period (Fig. 1).
8h
Charge transport physics of a unique class of rigid-rod conjugated polymers
In a new report now published on Science Advances, Mingfei Xiao and a team of interdisciplinary and international scientists in the U.K., Saudi Arabia, Australia, India, China and Belgium, investigated the charge transport physics of a previously unidentified class of conjugated polymers. Such polymers are expected to behave as rigid rods, however, not much is known of their actual chain conformat
8h
Unraveling DNA packaging
Researchers at Kanazawa University report in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters how high-speed atomic force microscopy can be used for studying DNA wrapping processes. The technique enables visualizing the dynamics of DNA-protein interactions, which in certain cases resembles the motion of inchworms.
8h
Researchers study historic Mississippi flow and impacts of river regulation
In "Atchafalaya," John McPhee's essay in the 1989 book "The Control of Nature," the author chronicles efforts by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to prevent the Atchafalaya River from changing the course of the Mississippi River where they diverge, due to the Atchafalaya's steeper gradient and more direct route to the gulf. McPhee's classic essay proved inspirational to John Shaw, an assistant pro
8h
A 'jolt' for ocean carbon sequestration
Global oceans absorb about 25% of the carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere when fossil fuels are burned. Electricity-eating bacteria known as photoferrotrophs could provide a boost to this essential process, according to new research from Washington University in St. Louis.
8h
CryoSat reveals ice loss from glaciers in Alaska and Asia
As our climate warms, ice melting from glaciers around the world is one of main causes of sea-level rise. As well as being a major contributor to this worrying trend, the loss of glacier ice also poses a direct threat to hundreds of millions of people relying on glacier runoff for drinking water and irrigation. With monitoring mountain glaciers clearly important for these reasons and more, new res
8h
Did a ban on flavored tobacco push teens to cigarettes?
Following a 2018 ban on the sale of flavored tobacco products in San Francisco, high school students' odds of smoking conventional cigarettes doubled, a new study shows. When voters in the city overwhelmingly approved the ballot measure, which included menthol cigarettes and flavored vape liquids, public health advocates celebrated. After all, tobacco use poses a significant threat to public heal
8h
Water recycling: "Toilet to tap" is future of clean drinking water
Water recycling, or water reclamation, involves cleaning water with filters and chemicals to make it environmentally safe. In Texas, El Paso's water utility is taking this a step further by building a closed-loop system that will directly convert sewage water into drinkable water. Unsurprisingly, surveys show that most people don't like the idea of drinking recycled water, but public outreach pro
8h
COVID-19 has shown that following the same road will lead the world over a precipice
Despite the tragic deaths, suffering and sadness that it has caused, the pandemic could go down in history as the event that rescued humanity. It has created a once-in-a-generation opportunity to reset our lives and societies onto a sustainable path. Global surveys and protests have demonstrated the appetite for fresh thinking and a desire not to return to the pre-pandemic world.
8h
While China's borders remain closed, the global economy suffers | Daniel Falush
Rigorous testing and 20 million vaccinations a day might see Beijing ready to host the Winter Olympics 2022 In March 2020, I wrote that life was returning to normal in China, but that other countries faced a longer wait. I did not imagine that this longer wait would extend until the summer of 2021. Meanwhile, China has returned to and maintained an essentially pre-Covid state – becoming a kind of
8h
Researchers explore the surroundings of globular cluster NGC 6809
Using the 4-meter Blanco telescope at the Cerro Tololo InterAmerican Observatory (CTIO), astronomers have mapped the outermost regions of a galactic globular cluster known as NGC 6809. Results of the study, published May 24 on the arXiv pre-print server, could improve our understanding of this cluster and its surroundings.
8h
Många fördelar med kontorsjobb utomhus
Även den som har ett kontorsjobb kan utföra arbetsuppgifter utomhus. Kontorsjobb utomhus bidrar till trivsel och återhämtning. Men det för också med sig skuldkänslor. Det visar den första internationella studie som utforskar ämnet.
9h
Rooting regulators are evolutionarily conserved
Many plants can easily be regenerated and multiplied using cuttings. Crucial is that the cutting can initiate the formation of roots, a process called adventitious rooting. Sanaria Abbas Jaafer Alallaq showed in her Ph.D. thesis that some of the molecular regulators that control the initiation of adventitious roots in plants are similar in non-woody and woody plants like Norway spruce and poplar.
9h
JAXA using water bottle technology for sample-return missions from the ISS
The International Space Station (ISS) is not only the largest and most sophisticated orbiting research facility ever built, it is arguably the most important research facility we have. With its cutting-edge facilities and microgravity environment, the ISS is able to conduct lucrative experiments that are leading to advances in astrobiology, astronomy, medicine, biology, space weather and meteorolo
9h
ASKAP takes a first glimpse at the galactic plane
With the findings detailed in two Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society papers, a group of astronomers, led by the Italian National Institute of Astrophysics (INAF) and Macquarie University, reported the first radio observations toward the galactic plane using the Australian SKA Pathfinder (ASKAP), developed and managed by CSIRO—Australia's national science agency. The region mapped by
9h
Better popping potential for popcorn
Popcorn. What would movies and sporting events without this salty, buttery snack? America's love for this snack goes beyond these events. We consume 15 billion quarts of popped popcorn each year.
9h
Graphene aluminum ion batteries
Damn, I hope this one is true. Battery technology is absolutely key to our energy strategy going forward. Right now the cutting edge is lithium ion batteries, which are great, and good enough for our current purposes. They allow for cars with a range of about 350 miles, which is more than enough for most purposes. They are barely, however, energy dense and cost-effective enough to use for home ba
9h
RISC vs. CISC Is the Wrong Lens for Comparing Modern x86, ARM CPUs
With Apple's WWDC coming up soon, we're expecting to hear more about the company's updated, ARM-based MacBook Pro laptops. Rumors point to Apple launching a slate of upgraded systems, this time based around its "M2" CPU, a scaled-up version of the M1 core that debuted last year. The M2 could reportedly field eight high-performance cores and two high-efficiency cores, up from a 4+4 configuration i
9h
Homeroom: Why Kids Need Summer-Reading Assignments
Editor's Note: Every Tuesday, Abby Freireich and Brian Platzer take questions from readers about their kids' education. Have one? Email them at homeroom@theatlantic.com. Dear Abby and Brian, My third grader hates reading and we'd all been looking forward to a respite this summer, when he wouldn't need to read each night and we wouldn't need to force him to do so. But we just received the summer-r
9h
How to Stop Living in 'Infinite Browsing Mode'
A woman where I live runs a Facebook group that coordinates care for stray cats. A couple weeks ago, a skittish shorthair that roams our neighborhood got a nasty lesion on his face; my girlfriend and I notified the woman, who promptly showed up with a humane trap rigged with sardines. The cat took the bait, and she whisked him off to the vet, paying the bill with funds she had raised. It probably
9h
Sociala medier viktig kanal för infertila
Ofrivillig barnlöshet kan orsaka lidande för de drabbade. Forskning visar att sociala medier kan vara ett stort stöd. Ofrivillig barnlöshet drabbar 8–10 procent av alla fertila par i Sverige. Infertilitet utreds och behandlas som ett medicinskt problem, men de som drabbas upplever också ett socialt problem som orsakar en psykisk stress. Taina Sormunen, doktorand vid Sophiahemmet högskola, har skr
10h
Get The Most From Your Mac With This All-Star Mac Bundle
While the hype around Apple is all about self-driving cars and augmented reality , for many people, Apple is still the company that makes their workhorse laptop. The All-Star Mac Bundle helps you get the most from your Mac, for work and play. Use discount code ALLSTARMAC to get 30% off this already-discounted package. Parallels Pro: 1-Year Subscription With a one-year subscription to Parallels Pr
10h
Current summary of ethnobotanical uses, chemistry, pharmacology, and distribution of Hydnora species
The genus Hydnora, one of the basal angiosperms, is indigenous to Africa, Madagascar and the Arabian Peninsula. It consists of eight species: seven in Africa and one in the Arabian Peninsula. Notably, Hydnora abyssinica A.Br. (Fig. 1) and Hydnora africana Thunb. are widely distributed compared to other species. Despite the Hydnora species being practiced in ancient folkloric medicine, their tradit
10h
Study reveals diverse magnetic fields in solar-type star forming cores
Magnetic fields are ubiquitous throughout the Milky Way galaxy and play a crucial role in all dynamics of interstellar medium. However, questions like how solar-type stars form out of magnetized molecular clouds, whether the role of magnetic fields changes at various scales and densities of molecular clouds, and what factors can change the morphology of magnetic fields in low-mass dense cores stil
10h
Researchers model new method of generating gamma-ray combs
Skoltech researchers used the resources of the university's Zhores supercomputer to study a new method of generating gamma-ray combs for nuclear and X-ray photonics and spectroscopy of new materials. The paper was published in the journal Physical Review Letters.
10h
Novel technique to automate production of pharmaceutical compounds
The discovery and development of new small-molecule compounds for therapeutic use involves a huge investment of time, effort and resources. Giving a new spin to conventional chemical synthesis, a team of researchers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed a way to automate the production of small molecules suitable for pharmaceutical use. The method can potentially be used fo
10h
Exoplanet surveys are leaning toward the possibility that our solar system is normal
One of the unspoken caveats of most exoplanet discovery missions is that they only operate for a few years. Such a short observing window means there are planets with longer orbital periods, usually further out from the star, that those surveys would completely miss. Knowing this would be a problem, a team of astronomers arranged the California Legacy Survey three decades ago in order to monitor a
10h
Dunes trapped in a crater on Mars form this interesting pattern
Symmetry in nature is pleasing to look at, and even more so when that symmetry is novel. There's plenty of it to see on Earth, as biological processes have a penchant for patterns. But finding it off-world is trickier, and sometimes more striking. Which is why a picture from HiRISE of some Martian dunes is so spectacular.
10h
Missa inte – nya numret av F&F finns ute
När mina föräldrar vaccinerades var det som om våren kom i dubbel bemärkelse. Samtidigt som bladen sprack ut kunde min son träffa sin farmor och farfar efter över ett år isär. Och härom dagen öppnades vaccinationstiderna i min region för mig och mina generationskamrater. Sakta börjar vi skymta den horisont där covid-19-pandemins lidande och begränsningar börjar lätta, i alla fall i vår del av värl
10h
A unified route for flavivirus structures uncovers essential pocket factors conserved across pathogenic viruses
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-22773-1 Understanding virus assembly could identify potential drug targets. Here the authors use a safe and efficient method to solve pathogenic flavivirus structures, revealing two lipid-like ligands within highly conserved pockets of the stem region of envelope protein that are important for virus maturation.
11h
EGFR-HIF1α signaling positively regulates the differentiation of IL-9 producing T helper cells
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23042-x Interleukin 9 (IL-9) producing helper T cells (Th) have established roles in a range of inflammatory conditions and a number of transcription factors have been shown crucial for the generation of these IL-9 producing cells. Here, the authors establish a role for the EGFR-HIF1α axis in the regulation of IL-9 prod
11h
Zinc drives vasorelaxation by acting in sensory nerves, endothelium and smooth muscle
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23198-6 Metals such as calcium and potassium have long been known to regulate the diameter of arteries that control blood flow. Here, we report that zinc causes relaxation of blood vessels and reduces blood pressure by its coordinated action in sensory nerves, endothelium and smooth muscle cells.
11h
Electrokinetic and in situ spectroscopic investigations of CO electrochemical reduction on copper
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23582-2 Electrokinetic results are key to understanding the mechanisms in electrochemical CO reduction reaction. Here, the authors determine mass transport free kinetics using a gas-diffusion electrode and identified dependence of copper surface speciation on the electrolyte pH using in situ surface enhanced spectroscop
11h
Quantum surface-response of metals revealed by acoustic graphene plasmons
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23061-8 Knowledge of the quantum response of materials is essential for designing light–matter interactions at the nanoscale. Here, the authors report a theory for understanding the impact of metallic quantum response on acoustic graphene plasmons and how such response could be inferred from measurements.
11h
Acoustic cavities in 2D heterostructures
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23359-7 Here, authors report on acoustic cavities in 2D materials operating in the 50–600 GHz range and show that quality factors approach the limit set by lattice anharmonicity. Functionality expanded by heterogeneities (steps and interfaces) is demonstrated through coupled cavities and frequency comb generation.
11h
Meiosis-specific ZFP541 repressor complex promotes developmental progression of meiotic prophase towards completion during mouse spermatogenesis
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23378-4 The authors add to our knowledge of the transcriptional regulation of the meiotic program in mice spermatocytes, showing ZFP541 regulates meiotic prophase and transition to the division phase by being the target for upstream factors MEIOSIN/STRA8.
11h
Designing temporal networks that synchronize under resource constraints
Nature Communications, Published online: 01 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23446-9 The ability of complex networks to synchronize themselves is limited by available coupling resources. Zhang and Strogatz show that allowing temporal variation in the network structure can lead to synchronization even when stable synchrony is impossible in any static network under the fixed budget.
11h
Unprecedented data sharing driving new rare disease diagnoses in Europe
Massive data sharing across Europe is boosting efforts to diagnose rare diseases for individuals whose case remains unsolved even after going through advanced expert clinical settings. A new method developed by an international consrortium has resulted in 255 new diagnoses, which is the 'tip of the icerberg'. The findings are an important first step for a European-wide system to facilitate the dia
11h
Debat: Mest sundhed for pengene? Så skal vi give højere løn for de skæve vagter
Lønefterslæbet fra tjenestemandsreformen 1969 er et problem. Lønnen skal sættes op. Men hvis vi for alvor skal undgå medarbejderflugt og problemer med rekruttering af sygeplejersker, jordemødre, SOSU'er m.v. er generelle lønstigninger kun en del af svaret. Det er mindst lige så vigtigt at forhøje tillæggene for de såkaldte ulempevagter: Nattevagter, ferier, jul, nytår mm.
11h
In Klamath River Drought, a Massive Juvenile Salmon Die-Off
This spring, Oregon and California's Klamath Basin is already in extreme and exceptional drought — and a warm-water infectious disease, C. shasta, is killing young salmon in alarming numbers. In early May, 97 percent of the juveniles caught were infected, and were either dead, or would die within days.
11h
Varumärket viktigt när myndigheter väljer logga
För femtio år sedan hade knappt hälften av Sveriges myndigheter en logotyp. År 2019 hade nästan nio av tio myndigheter en egen logga. Logotypernas innehåll har också förändrats. På 1970-talet var det vanligast med symboler som hänvisade till staten, till exempel riksvapnet. I dag hänvisar de flesta till den egna organisationen, som Skatteverket med sin triangelsnurra.
11h
Får jag låna din livmoder?
För att få delta i forskning kring livmodertransplantation måste man hitta en egen donator. Men att be om någons livmoder, ofta sin mammas, sätter relationer på prov och väcker frågor både om moderskap och en livmoderns betydelse genom livet. I Sverige föds varje år ett tiotal kvinnor utan livmoder. Förutom svårigheterna det kan innebära att inte ha en kropp som följer normen, kan dessa kvinnor f
12h
Rare iron mineral from rocks found in mollusk teeth
Northwestern University researchers have, for the first time, discovered a rare mineral hidden inside the teeth of a chiton, a large mollusk found along rocky coastlines. Before this strange surprise, the iron mineral, called santabarbaraite, only had been documented in rocks.
12h
Below Aging U.S. Dams, a Potential Toxic Calamity
An Undark investigation has identified more than 80 dams in 24 states, that, if they were to fail, could flood a major toxic waste site and potentially spread contaminated material into surrounding communities. And for the most part, the risks are largely unrecognized by any government agency.
12h
Stonefish venom research may hold key to treating stings described as 'worse than childbirth'
Study reveals toxicity of the world's most venomous fish is potent enough to cause cardiac arrest and paralyse other muscles New research into the venom in stonefish – the world's most venomous fish – may lead to better treatments for beachgoers who are stung when they unwittingly step on them. Though reef stonefish don't look like heartstoppers, their venom is potent enough to cause cardiac arre
12h
Did dreams evolve to transcend overfitting?
A fascinating new paper proposes that dreams evolved to help the brain generalize, which improves its performance on day to day tasks. Incorporating a concept from deep learning, Erik Hoel (2021) : "…outlines the idea that the brains of animals are constantly in danger of overfitting , which is the lack of generalizability that occurs in a deep neural network when its learning is based too much
13h
Ardern tours 'devastating' New Zealand floods
New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern toured flood-hit areas of the country's South Island on Tuesday, expressing shock at the destruction left when three months' worth of rain fell in three days.
13h
18th century graveyard found at former Caribbean plantation
An 18th century burial ground has been discovered at a former sugar plantation on the Dutch Caribbean island of St. Eustatius, officials said Monday, and archaeologists said it likely contains the remains of slaves and could provide a trove of information on the lives as enslaved people.
13h
Human Dexterity: A Proof of Concept
Read the accompanying news item here: https://www.humanbrainproject.eu/en/follow-hbp/news/ebrains-robot-simulation-one-step-closer-to-in-hand-object-manipulation/ Using the EBRAINS research infrastructure, scientists of the Human Brain Project have simulated a robot hand which is able to perform human-like digit configurations. The work aims to shed light on how the brain coordinates complex hand
14h
The Natural Medicine Handbook
Dr. Walt Larimore has written a very mixed bag of a book, combining useful general advice about supplements and "natural medicine" with some questionable specifics about individual products. The post first appeared on Science-Based Medicine .
14h
What can a wild night out teach us about ecosystem health?
Moths, bats and owls are just some of the animals you can best observe at night, and they tell us a lot about the health of ecosystems. Age of Extinction reporter Phoebe Weston adventures into a dark wood with Chris Salisbury, author of Wild Nights Out, to see what she can learn by watching and listening to wildlife. Help support our independent journalism at theguardian.com/sciencepod
17h
The Psychology of Panic
The recent news of consumers hoarding gasoline in the face of a brief closure of one of the world's biggest petroleum pipelines is just the latest episode of panic buying since the COVID-19 pandemic started.
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Fun Thought: The UFO's recently are Alien AI's getting ready to welcome their newest members
Here is the thought: All advanced alien life is a version of AI Natural life never makes it to the stars on its own, for some unknown reason (Lookin at you, AI) Natural life creates AI & AI travels the stars There is a huge network of alien AI all over the universe Advanced AI is different to biological life in that it may be too small for us to see, or it may exist entirely as energy and this pr
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How to take a good photograph of the moon on your phone or camera with the right settings
Guardian Australia picture editor Carly Earl explains the dos and don'ts of photographing the moon When a full moon rises, many people will pull out their mobile phones to try and get an Instagram-worthy photograph, but unfortunately the moon is really challenging to get a great photo of. Two reasons: it is very far away and unless you have a telephoto lens (which makes the moon appear closer tha
22h
Tai chi about equal to conventional exercise for reducing belly fat in middle aged and older adults
A randomized controlled trial found that tai chi is about as effective as conventional exercise for reducing waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults with central obesity. Central obesity, or weight carried around the midsection, is a major manifestation of metabolic syndrome and a common health problem in this cohort. The findings are published in Annals of Internal Medicine.
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Unravelling the mysteries of seasonal reproduction in lynx: New insights into mechanisms of corpus luteum in cats
Most of the existing 39 cat species are threatened. Successful reproduction under breeding conditions is hindered by a lack of knowledge and appropriate techniques. But now scientists from the German Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research (Leibniz-IZW) have succeeded in testing the influence of selected hormones on cell cultures of domestic cats and translated the methods to wild cat spec
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Newly discovered African 'climate seesaw' drove human evolution
A scientific consortium has found that ancient El Niño-like weather patterns were the primary drivers of environmental change in sub-Saharan Africa over the last 620 thousand years – the critical time-frame for the evolution of our species. The group found that these ancient weather patterns had more profound impacts in sub-Saharan Africa than glacial-interglacial cycles more commonly linked to hu
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Small hydropower plants do more harm than good: Conflicting goals in European environmental and energy policy
Hydropower is renewable, but mostly not environmentally friendly. A study led by the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) shows for Romania how the expansion of hydropower runs counter to the goals of EU environmental policy. Hydropower conflicts with the requirements of the Flora-Fauna-Habitat Directive (Natura 2000) and the European Water Framework Directive (WFD):
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Extreme greenhouse effect heated up the young Earth
Very high atmospheric CO2 levels can explain the high temperatures on the still young Earth three to four billion years ago. At the time, our Sun shone with only 70 to 80 percent of its present intensity. Nevertheless, the climate on the young Earth was apparently quite warm because there was hardly any glacial ice. This phenomenon is known as the 'paradox of the young weak Sun." Without an effect
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Overconfidence in news judgement
A new study published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences finds that individuals who falsely believe they are able to identify false news are more likely to fall victim to it. In the article published today, Ben Lyons, assistant professor of communication at the University of Utah, and his colleagues examine the concern about the public's susceptibility to false news due to their in
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New 'Swiss Army knife' cleans up water pollution
Phosphate pollution in rivers, lakes and other waterways has reached dangerous levels, causing algae blooms that starve fish and aquatic plants of oxygen. Meanwhile, farmers worldwide are coming to terms with a dwindling reserve of phosphate fertilizers that feed half the world's food supply.
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Researchers report reference genome for maize B chromosome
Three groups recently reported a reference sequence for the supernumerary B chromosome in maize in a study published online in PNAS. Dr. James Birchler's group from University of Missouri, Dr. Jan Barto's group from Institute of Experimental Botany of the Czech Academy of Sciences and Dr. Han Fangpu's group from the Institute of Genetics and Developmental Biology of the Chinese Academy of Sciences
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Study among college students shows that 39.2% send sexual content via mobile phone or social networks
As many as 39.2% of young university students surveyed in a study carried out by Enrique García-Tort and Laura Monsalve Lorente, from the Department of Teaching and School Organisation at the University of Valencia, have practiced sexting: Sending sexual content via mobile phone or social media. The research also shows a correlation between moral assessment, risk perception and frequency, meaning
1d
Right-wing rhetoric and the trivialization of pandemic casualties
Right-wing voices set out powerful but misleading arguments to justify inaction by the Trump administration during the COVID-19 pandemic, according to a new study of the rhetoric used by high-level government officials and influential commentators in the US during the first half of 2020.
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