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BRYSTKRÆFT-TILBAGEVENDEN KAN MÅSKE FORHINDRES MED LÆGEMIDLET OLAPARIB: Drug may help more women survive hereditary breast cancer

A 'groundbreaking' study outlines the early success of the Olaparib drug in preventing recurrence of hereditary breast cancer in women.  The relative risk of invasive recurrence, second cancers, or even death was reduced by over 40% during the drug trial.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2021/jun/03/drug-may-help-more-women-survive-hereditary-breast-cancer

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IMMUNSYSTEMET PÅVIRKES AF DØGNTIDSPUNKTET (MÅSKE HAR VACCINATIONSTIDSPUNKTET BETYDNING FOR VACCINENS EFFEKT?): Time of Day Can Affect How Well Your Immune System Works, Including Vaccines

A growing body of research is addressing how our immune systems are affected by the time of the day, and how this may alter the body's response to invading microorganisms, different medicines, and even vaccines. 

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2021/jun/03/drug-may-help-more-women-survive-hereditary-breast-cancer

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Electric Car Batteries Are Turning This Country Into an Actual Hellscape
Buried Treasure As the demand for gadgets and electric cars grows, so too are the mining operations that dig up cobalt to use in lithium-ion batteries. And that's become a serious problem for the Democratic Republic of the Congo, The New Yorker reports , which sits atop about 3.4 million metric tons of the stuff — half of the entire planet's supply. A massive, gold rush-like mining industry was b
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Scientists Say That Building Too Many Wind Turbines Weakens the Wind's Power
Getting Stuffy Mass deployment of wind farms, along with other cleaner sources of energy, is likely going to be a crucial part of the global fight to mitigate climate change. But planting wind turbines willy-nilly without careful consideration might actually be counterproductive, a new study suggests. Scientists from Germany's coastal researcher center, the Helmholtz-Zentrum Hereon, found that wi
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Any menstrual changes after Covid jab would be short-lived, experts say
Scientists responding to anecdotal accounts say there is no fertility risk and experiences are highly variable Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Researchers exploring whether Covid vaccines may disrupt menstrual cycles have said any potential changes to periods are short-term and do not affect fertility. Though any link between the jab and changes in periods is yet to
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US Officials Say Gov Can't Rule Out Aliens Behind UFO Sightings
Sometime this month, Congress is set to release the unclassified version of a long-awaited report into sightings of "unidentified aerial phenomena," the culmination of various reports by military personnel of mysterious UFOs that have at times appeared to defy the laws of physics. Ahead of the release, reporters at The New York Times have gotten an advanced briefing of what we can expect to find
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Physicist Claims That Information Is a New Form of Matter
Information Overload Based on current trends, there could be more bits of digital information in use on Earth than there are atoms of matter in about 350 years — and a physicist says that digital information ought to be considered a new form of matter itself. That means Earth is heading toward a crisis that University of Portsmouth physicist Melvin Vopson calls the "information catastrophe," acco
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Scientists Say Arctic Ice Is Thinning Twice as Fast as We Thought
Experts are warning that the sea ice covering much of the Arctic appears to be thinning twice as previously thought, The Guardian reports . In a new study published in the journal The Cryosphere today, a team of researchers have extrapolated how temperature, snowfall and ice floe movement can affect the accumulation of snow. Previously, we've had to rely on data collected by Soviet expeditions on
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NASA Saves Dying Mars Lander With Ingenious Hack
Close Call NASA's robotic lander InSight has been in a perilous position for nearly a year — thick piles of dust blocking its solar panels forced its operators to consider shutting down all but its most essential hardware in order to save its precious energy. But now, technicians at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory have managed to buy InSight a little more time with a clever trick, according to
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Revealing x-ray and gamma ray temporal and spectral similarities in the GRB 190829A afterglow
Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), which are bright flashes of gamma rays from extragalactic sources followed by fading afterglow emission, are associated with stellar core collapse events. We report the detection of very-high-energy (VHE) gamma rays from the afterglow of GRB 190829A, between 4 and 56 hours after the trigger, using the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). The low luminosity and reds
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Arctic sea ice thinning twice as fast as thought, study finds
Less ice means more global heating, a vicious cycle that also leaves the region open to new oil extraction Sea ice across much of the Arctic is thinning twice as fast as previously thought, researchers have found. Arctic ice is melting as the climate crisis drives up temperatures, resulting in a vicious circle in which more dark water is exposed to the sun's heat, leading to even more heating of
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UK tightens borders and travel rules as variants spark new alarm
PHE data indicates dominant variant 'more likely to cause serious illness' as Grant Shapps warns of threat to reopening on 21 June Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Ministers have moved to tighten Britain's borders as new data suggests the Delta coronavirus variant is much more likely to cause serious illness and is circulating more rapidly within schools. With England
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Scientists Morph Human DNA Into Mosquito DNA Structure
Loosening Up Researchers have uncovered a key way that human and mosquito DNA are structured differently from one another — and figured out how to morph each into the other opposite arrangement. Working independently at first, two teams of scientists realized two important things about genomic structure: that some species, including mosquitoes, had loosely folded chromosomes while those of other
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UK reports 6,238 daily Covid cases amid fears over Delta variant infectiousness
Prof Neil Ferguson says India variant may be 30-100% more transmissible than the Alpha variant Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The Delta variant of coronavirus is 30% to 100% more transmissible than the previously dominant variant, Prof Neil Ferguson has warned, as the number of daily reported Covid cases exceeded 6,000 for the first time since March. In one of a num
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TikTok accidentally detected my ADHD. For 23 years everyone missed the warning signs | Matilda Boseley
Learning you have ADHD on TikTok is now such a common phenomenon it has become its own meme, but it can be tricky It's kind of embarrassing to say, but the social media app TikTok figured out I had ADHD before I did. For 23 years my parents, my teachers, my doctor, my psychologist and my own brain all missed the warning signs, yet somehow it only took that app's algorithm a few days to accidental
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Elon Musk Says He's Broken Up With Cryptocurrency
Bitcoin Breakup It's over. Tesla CEO Elon Musk seemingly announced last night that he has broken up with cryptocurrencies. In a series of C-tier memes , Musk spelled out the apparent breakup on his Twitter account. #Bitcoin pic.twitter.com/lNnEfMdtJf — Elon Musk (@elonmusk) June 4, 2021 Unsurprisingly, Bitcoin stumbled as a result, falling by almost five percent from its price Thursday evening, a
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1 million people in UK have symptoms of long Covid, figures show
ONS data for four weeks to 2 May shows marked increase in self-reported symptoms lasting a year Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage An estimated 1 million people in private households in the UK reported experiencing long Covid in the four weeks to 2 May, according to figures from the Office for National Statistics (ONS). Of these people, an estimated 869,000 first had Co
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Major Search Engines Are Censoring Results About the Tiananmen Square Massacre
No Results Found Microsoft claims that "accidental human error" was the reason Bing didn't show image results for the search term "tank man" on the 32nd anniversary of the Tiananmen Square massacre. Users searching the term on either Bing or DuckDuckGo on Friday found no image or video results, according to The Guardian . Countries impacted by this include the US, the UK, France, Germany, Singapo
10h
Eating Mushrooms Vastly Cuts Cancer Risk, According to New Research
According to a new study, eating just 18 grams of mushroom a day — roughly the equivalent of two medium-sized mushrooms — could almost halve the risk of cancer. The study , a meta-analysis by researchers at Pennsylvania State University published in the journal Advances in Nutrition this year, found a surprisingly strong inverse relationship between mushroom consumption and cancer risk by analyzi
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Move Over, Mars
In June of 1769, an astronomer named David Rittenhouse prepared to observe a rare cosmic phenomenon, the transit of Venus. Rittenhouse had built an observatory on his farm in Pennsylvania to monitor the planet as it moved across the face of the sun, a small black dot against the glowing orb in the afternoon sky. When the moment arrived, Rittenhouse "became so over-excited that he collapsed and fa
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Sinking Ship Full of Chemicals and Oil Threatens Horrifying Environmental Disaster
A massive container ship carrying 330 tons of oil and 25 tons of flammable nitric acid off the coast of Sri Lanka was hit by an explosion last week after the Sri Lankan navy failed to put out the flames that had been raging on board for at least four days. Now the fire is quickly turning into a horrifying environmental disaster. And officials in Sri Lanka are bracing for the disaster to get even
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China's Military Is Apparently Also Tracking UFOs
Unidentified Air Conditions China's military is using artificial intelligence to research sightings of UFOs. The People's Liberation Army (PLA) is taking a closer look at what it describes as "unidentified air conditions," according to The South China Morning Post . This appears to be China's version of the US military's "unidentified aerial phenomena." "The frequent occurrence of unidentified ai
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Wanted: British women from all backgrounds who want to go to space
European Space Agency extends deadline for 'once-in-a-lifetime opportunity' to be an astronaut British women are being encouraged to seize a "once-in-a-lifetime opportunity" to go to space, after the European Space Agency (Esa) extended its deadline to apply to be one of its new astronauts. The agency is seeking to recruit 26 astronauts – a process only undertaken once in about a decade – and is
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NASA Says It's Going to Start Studying UFOs
Enemy or Extraterrestrial? The new head of NASA says he's allowing agency researchers to study UFOs as part of his first month at the helm. Bill Nelson, former Florida senator and astronaut , said that he will allow the agency's scientists to explore the unidentified high-speed objects that have been spotted by US military pilots over the years, according to CNN . "We don't know if it's extraterr
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'Nobody Wants White Kids to Feel Bad About Their Race'
A nastasia Higginbotham is the author of Ordinary Terrible Things , a widely praised children's-book series that aims to address difficult subjects head on. In a recent article , I questioned whether her book Not My Idea —which is now being used in public-school curricula for young children—was appropriate for kindergartners. (Readers curious about the book's content can consult the actor John Ji
18h
Where Gender-Neutral Pronouns Come From
O n a frigid January day, Ella Flagg Young—the first woman to serve as superintendent of the Chicago public-school system—took the stage in front of a room of school principals and announced that she had come up with a new solution to an old problem. "I have simply solved a need that has been long impending," she said. "The English language is in need of a personal pronoun of the third person, si
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Baseball Is Broken
Updated at 3:51 p.m. on June 4, 2021. O n the night of May 17, at Target Field in Minneapolis, something terrible happened. It divided clubhouses, spawned a wrenching national conversation, resulted in fines and suspensions, and pitted a Hall of Fame manager against his own rookie outfielder, who had been one of the feel-good stories of this young MLB season—until that fateful night. All it took
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The West Can End the Water Wars Now
In my experience, out here in the West, people are, by and large, aggrieved. This is not entirely their fault. Federal and state governments have made lots of promises to people in the West, or to their parents or grandparents. Some people were promised that their land would not be taken, while other people were promised free land. Some were told that they could withdraw water from this or that l
17h
This Isn't Normal, Either
Squint the right way and things look almost normal. The barriers around the Capitol are gone. People are taking off their masks and going out. The Nats and Orioles are in the basement . Most of all, politics is boring again. That's not to say Washington is working well, mind you. Consider this week's negotiations between President Joe Biden and Senator Shelley Moore Capito of West Virginia, a Rep
18h
Doctors Fear Huge Spike in STIs After Pandemic
According to a new study, cases of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including chlamydia and gonorrhea could soon spike as the COVID-19 pandemic winds down. As we're heading what the media has referred to as " hot vax summer ," experts are worried that STIs could return with a vengeance. Researchers analyzed positivity rates based on data from over 18.6 million tests performed across the US
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Scientists Say Humans Have "Untapped" Limb Regeneration Capability
If new research is to be believed, doctors may someday be able to treat our injuries by helping our bodies regenerate damaged or missing tissue — just like a salamander regrowing its tail. A team of scientists found a critical difference in the way that the immune systems of an axolotl — an animal renowned for its ability to regenerate just about any part of its body — and that of a mouse, which
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NHS test and trace alerted Michael Gove four days after Portugal return
Senior Tory returned from Porto after supporting Chelsea in Champions League final Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The Cabinet Office minister, Michael Gove, received an alert from test and trace to say he had come into contact with someone with coronavirus, less than a week after returning from Portugal. The senior Tory recently returned from Porto, where he had tra
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Ancient tsunami could have wiped out Scottish cities today, study finds
Research maps the extent of the catastrophic Storegga tsunami 8,200 years ago for the first time Towns and cities across Scotland would be devastated if the country's coastline was hit by a tsunami of the kind that happened 8,200 years ago, according to an academics' study. While about 370 miles of Scotland's northern and eastern coastline were affected when the Storegga tsunami struck, the study
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SpaceX rocket heads to ISS with squid, toothpaste and avocados
Rocket due to reach the International Space Station this weekend is loaded with 7,300lb of fresh food and supplies for an orbiting lab SpaceX has launched a supply mission bound for the International Space Station on Thursday, carrying with it thousands of tiny sea creatures along with a plaque-fighting toothpaste experiment and powerful solar panels. The 7,300lb (3,300kg) shipment – which also i
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Drug may help more women survive hereditary breast cancer
International trials of olaparib were stopped early as benefits of 'groundbreaking' drug became clear Women with hereditary breast cancer, triggered by the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes, stand a better chance of survival following successful trials of a drug that cuts the likelihood of the cancer returning after treatment. A major trial carried out by academic researchers to see whether olaparib can preve
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Fauci Says It's Unlikely But Possible That COVID Virus Leaked From Lab
The United States' top infectious disease expert, Anthony Fauci, still isn't ruling out the possibiltiy that the SARS-CoV-2 virus — which causes COVID-19 — may have leaked from a lab. In a Thursday CNN interview , Fauci reiterated that he still thinks it's far more likely that the virus jumped to humans from animals. "I have always said, and will say today to you, John, that I still believe the m
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Tesla's Model S Plaid Breaks the Quarter-Mile Record at 152 MPH
Going Plaid Tesla's ludicrously fast Model S Plaid just set a new production car record, Teslarati reports , covering a quarter mile in just 9.247 seconds at the Famoso Raceway in Bakersfield, California . The previous record was held by the Bugatti Chiron Sport, covering the quarter mile in just 9.4 seconds . Those shaved milliseconds were confirmed by none other than retired show host and autom
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Share vaccines or climate deal will fail, rich countries are told
Call for 'solidarity' in Covid fight as Boris Johnson calls on world leaders to help vaccinate global population by end of 2022 Progress on climate change could be scuppered by developing nations if they are not given equitable access to vaccines, Boris Johnson has been warned, as rich nations come under new pressure to donate more doses. Figures compiled by the Observer show that the wealthiest
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Scientists Gene Edit Mice to Live 23 Percent Longer
Israeli scientists said they've been able to extend the life expectancy of mice by 23 percent — and now hope they can do the same with humans. Researchers at the Bar-Ilan University in Ramat Gan, Israel said they've been able to increase the supply of SIRT6, a protein responsible for DNA repair , in 250 mice, according to The Times of Israel . The scientists said that the mice who had the treatme
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Watch Tesla Autopilot Get Bamboozled by a Truck Hauling Traffic Lights
Stop and Go A Tesla Model 3 owner encountered an unusual glitch while using the Autopilot assisted driving system on the highway: The car seemed to detect an endless trail of traffic lights all the way down the road as it traveled upwards of 80 MPH. In video footage of the car's display that the driver uploaded to Reddit , it looks like traffic lights are being blasted out of the truck in front o
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SpaceX Flies Glow-in-the-Dark Squids to International Space Station
Resupply Mission Successful A SpaceX resupply ship launched on Thursday has successfully reached the International Space Station (ISS) — and it's carrying some unusual cargo: 128 glow-in-the-dark squids. The uncrewed cargo Dragon craft reached the ISS on Saturday morning, marking the 22nd resupply mission from SpaceX, according to Digital Trends . The ship carried more than 7,300 pounds of suppli
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Fauci Wants To Know Why Three Virus Researchers in Wuhan Got Sick
Anthony Fauci, the top infectious disease expert in the United States who's taken a chief advisory and public communications role throughout the country's response to the coronavirus pandemic, says he wants more information from China on how the outbreak began. Specifically, Fauci drew attention to recent news that multiple workers at the Wuhan Institute of Virology (WIV) were hospitalized in Nov
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US Authorities Start Treating Ransomware Hacks Like Terrorism
Elevated Priority The US Department of Justice is prioritizing its investigations into ransomware attacks that have ground several industries in the country to a halt in recent months. The attacks include the Colonial Pipeline hack that shut down gas supplies along the East Coast last month, and a more recent cyberattack against one of the largest meat suppliers in the world that affected much of
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How a "flying circus" gave us the first aerial maps of Earth
In the 1780s, as humanity mastered flight, a "balloon craze" swept across the world. Thomas Baldwin had just one sky-trip, but he wrote an entire book about it — Airopaidia. At times lyrical and technical, the curious volume also includes the world's first aerial maps. An exact Representation of Mr. Lunardi's New Balloon, as it ascended with Himself – 13 May 1785. Credit : Public Domain Review /
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Giant, low-surface-brightness galaxies
Forty years ago, astronomers using sensitive new imaging techniques discovered a class of large, faint galaxies they named low-surface-brightness galaxies. Giant low-surface-brightness galaxies (gLSBGs) are a subset whose masses are comparable to the Milky Way's but whose radii are ten times bigger, as much as four hundred thousand light-years. These gLSBGs raise a problem for astronomers: despite
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Rocket team to discern if our star count should go way up
The universe contains a mind-boggling number of stars—but scientists' best estimates may be an undercount. A NASA-funded sounding rocket is launching with an improved instrument to look for evidence of extra stars that may have been missed in stellar head counts.
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How Common Are BS Jobs?
Douglas Adams had a talent for irony. In the Hitchhiker's Guide series he told the tale of a civilization that tried to improve itself by tricking everyone with a useless job into taking a rocket trip to another world (actually to nowhere). For example, one of the discarded people's jobs was to clean phones. That's it – they were a phone cleaner. That civilization later collapsed due to a pandemi
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Down With Institutionalists
A peculiar creature inhabits Washington, called the "institutionalist." The label—sometimes assigned, sometimes adopted—has been applied to characters as varied as Chief Justice John Roberts , Senator Dianne Feinstein , and President Joe Biden . Institutionalists tend to be veteran, aging members of a given government entity. They relish their reputations as defenders of hallowed traditions and n
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AI still sucks at moderating hate speech
For all of the recent advances in language AI technology, it still struggles with one of the most basic applications. In a new study , scientists tested four of the best AI systems for detecting hate speech and found that all of them struggled in different ways to distinguish toxic and innocuous sentences. The results are not surprising—creating AI that understands the nuances of natural language
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How to deal with the anxiety of being stereotyped | Valerie Purdie-Greenaway
The stress you may feel being otherized or stereotyped can take a significant toll on your health and well-being. In this thoughtful conversation, social psychologist Valerie Purdie-Greenaway reveals the true source of this anxiety (hint: it isn't the individual) and shares strategies on building resilient systems of support for ourselves and others — so that we can build a more inclusive, empath
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The US Military Is Looking for a Drone-Killing Bazooka
Anti-Drone Bazooka The Department of Defense has put out a call for designs of a handheld weapon that could shoot down enemy drones from the ground, Popular Science reports . The weapon is meant to be used much in the same way as an anti-tank bazooka, with a version small enough to be carried on the shoulder. It's a sign that the military is becoming increasingly concerned about its ability to co
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A Cargo Ship Burns off Sri Lanka, Covering Beaches in Plastic Debris
Two weeks ago, a fire erupted on a cargo ship named the MV X-Press Pearl, which was carrying tons of chemicals and plastic pellets, while it was anchored near Colombo, Sri Lanka. Efforts to douse the fire were unsuccessful, and the damaged ship began spilling its cargo. Tons of plastic pellets, also known as nurdles, spilled from their containers and began washing ashore on nearby beaches. The pe
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​Researchers breed a fungus that kills mites to save bees
Honeybee colony collapse is due in part to Varroa mites that weaken honey bee immune systems. Chemicals that were once effective against the mites are no longer working as well. Researchers are stepping in with a newly cultured fungus that goes after the mites without bothering the bees. Honey bees are vitally important to agriculture — by some estimates , they're responsible for pollinating more
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Cleaning up water pollution
Researchers have developed a way to repeatedly remove and reuse phosphate from polluted waters. The team's Phosphate Elimination and Recovery Lightweight (PEARL) membrane is a porous, flexible substrate that selectively sequesters up to 99 percent of phosphate ions from polluted water.
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Me randomly speculating about the year 3000
Seeing images of Victorian era predictions of the year 2000, I see the mistakes they made. Mostly in the aesthetic being decidedly Victorian looking. Technology seems to minimize things more and more and make it easier and easier for lazy people to use. Society also becomes increasingly sexualized in the manner of dress. In the future by the year 3000, if the species still exists, people will lik
5h
Mining-related deforestation in the Amazon
If you're wearing gold jewelry right now, there's a good chance it came from an illegal mining operation in the tropics and surfaced only after some rainforest was sacrificed, according to researchers who studied regulatory efforts to curb some of these environmentally damaging activities.
13h
Our Towns: State Programs Are Laboratories for the Nation
My wife, Deb, has written about the concept of " Big Little Ideas ." These are modest-seeming, simple-and-practical steps that can have surprisingly large consequences. I am drawn to the parallel concept of "New Old Ideas." These are themes from the American past that have new relevance for the United States of this moment and the years to come. Every nation has its leitmotifs: its tendencies and
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This Week's Awesome Tech Stories From Around the Web (Through June 5)
ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE China's Gigantic Multi-Modal AI Is No One-Trick Pony A. Tarantola | Engadget "When Open AI's GPT-3 model made its debut in May of 2020, its performance was widely considered to be the literal state of the art. …But oh what a difference a year makes. Researchers from the Beijing Academy of Artificial Intelligence announced on Tuesday the release of their own generative deep
14h
The Atlantic Daily: 5 Stories to Fill You With Wonder
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. This weekend, your brain may be craving a bit of adventure, whether it's to marvel at something spectacular or feel like a part of something bigger. We're taking a break from the news cycle to del
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The Only Movie Watchlist You'll Need This Summer
Hollywood has a crowded slate of films—delayed by the pandemic and otherwise—to release over the next three months. That makes choosing what to see more stressful than usual, especially when some titles can be seen both in theaters and at home . To make the process more manageable, I've scrutinized trailers and even screened some of the films below to put together this guide for all your needs, w
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Weekend reads: JAMA editor resigns after review of podcast on racism and medicine; 'Please Commit More Blatant Academic Fraud'; machine learning's health credibility crisis
Before we present this week's Weekend Reads, a question: Do you enjoy our weekly roundup? If so, we could really use your help. Would you consider a tax-deductible donation to support Weekend Reads, and our daily work? Thanks in advance. The week at Retraction Watch featured: Two transcendental meditation papers retracted for failures to report primary … Continue reading
16h
What can we do about the rise of digital authoritarianism?
Hi everyone! For everyone who is not familiar, digital authoritarianism is simply limiting democracy through tech-enabled solutions. For example surveillance, censorship, etc. A vital piece of this is data and one's right to privacy. I am curious about how you think we can protect ourselves, our data and our rights. Do you think this is a pressing issue? What worries you the most about it? Do you
16h
Are we npcs in a simulation
Is there a possibility that we are npcs in a simulated world like gta 5 and we do same thing over and over again just as in gta 5 the npcs did submitted by /u/Most-Chain-1022 [link] [comments]
16h
Ugens debat: Nytter det noget at sortere affaldet?
PLUS. Brug af robotter til efter­sortering giver lige så god kvalitet i genanvendelsen af plast samt mad- og drikkekartoner som kildesortering, skrev vi for nylig på baggrund af en ny rapport. I debatten på ing.dk benyttede mange lejligheden til at lufte en generel kritik af kilde­sortering af affald.
16h
Coding And Concrete Meet In This Structural Engineering Boot Camp
There are a lot of headlines about how coding is the future, yet we rarely discuss how computer science has a very real impact on the built environment . Desktop computing, CAD software, and other tools have set off a revolution in structural engineering. The Structural Engineering & Analysis Bootcamp Bundle will show you how these tools are changing how we build, and advance your engineering car
17h
Weatherwatch: how dust storms heighten risk of Valley fever
US scientists develop system using a cake tin and marbles to forecast areas posing biggest health threat The Roman writer Vitruvius wrote of an unhealthy wind blowing off the city's marshlands, bringing sickness. While this ancient miasmal theory of infection was superseded by germ theory, researchers have found that dust storms really can spread pathogens . Scientists from George Mason Universit
23h
Det hemmelige havneslam: Måleresultaterne, der blev væk
PLUS. Udledninger af miljøfarlige stoffer fra havdumpninger af slam fra danske havne er ikke blevet fremhævet i Danmarks forurenings­overvågning. I stedet har myndigheder betragtet materialet som 'rent sediment', selvom miljøanalyser fra havnene viser et andet billede.
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Self-excising designer proteins report isoform expression
Our proteome is much bigger than our genome because one gene produces several variants of proteins called protein isoforms, whose disbalance is implicated in many diseases. A new bioengineered reporter system now allows for the first time to follow protein isoform expression over time in live cells. The method helps to decipher the underlying regulatory mechanisms and enables screening for potenti
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MLB 'FEVER' — improved elbow MRI view for Major League Baseball pitchers
According to a pilot study, the flexed elbow valgus external rotation (FEVER) view can improve MRI evaluation of the ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) in Major League Baseball pitchers. The increased joint space width confirms elbow valgus stress with FEVER view. Diagnostic confidence increased, and additional UCLs were identified as abnormal.
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Do you ever wonder what makes relationships work?
We do, too! As researchers from Deakin University's Science of Adult Relationships lab we're working to figure out what goes well – and not so well – in intimate relationships. We're interested in your experience! We are seeking individuals to sign up and take part in this 8-week online survey on romantic relationships. We will ask you to complete one 15-minute survey per week for 8 weeks about s
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Explore the Infinite Possibilities of Virtual Reality Sex With the Titan VR
There's no question that we're living in a golden age for adult video content . But even with all the videos for your viewing enjoyment, it's possible or even perhaps inevitable that you would grow bored with the status quo, and seek some new way to take your adult video experience to the next level. Virtual reality sex is that next level, and the KIIROO Titan VR Experience , gives you everything
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Facebook Won't Talk About the Insurrection
Facebook has responded to last month's much-hyped decision regarding the platform's removal of Donald Trump. The former president will not be allowed to return, the company said, until January 7, 2023—two years from the date of his original suspension. This is arguably a very long time, as well as arguably no time at all. It feels more like the latter if you consider when the 2024 presidential ho
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Researchers investigate mining-related deforestation in the Amazon
If you're wearing gold jewelry right now, there's a good chance it came from an illegal mining operation in the tropics and surfaced only after some rainforest was sacrificed, according to a team of University of Wisconsin-Madison researchers and alumni who studied regulatory efforts to curb some of these environmentally damaging activities in the Amazon.
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An atom chip interferometer that could detect quantum gravity
Physicists have created a quantum interferometer on an atom chip. This device can be used to explore the fundamentals of quantum theory by studying the interference pattern between two beams of atoms. Physicists describe how the device could be adapted to use mesoscopic particles instead of atoms. This modification would allow for expanded applications.
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Heavy water makes biological clocks tick more slowly
Scientists have succeeded in reversibly slowing down cellular processes. A team of biophysicists were able to show in experiments that cells can be transferred into slow motion without changing the temperature. From a physical point of view, such possibilities have so far only been available in the context of the theory of relativity.
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Will economy become fully moneyless with free goods and services If Artificial Inteligence and automation along with 3d printing eliminate most jobs( If not all of them)?
I was reading about post scarcity and resource based economies and I thought about this. If most jobs are wiped out by technology and most people become economically speaking useless them most people Will not be able to get any money by working. New forms of acquiring money like mining crypto , UBI or Virtual reality would be only temporary solutions and in the longer term currency and money mau
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What we know about water may have just changed dramatically
New research shows that when water comes into contact with an electrode surface all its molecules do not respond in the same way. This can dramatically affect how well various substances can dissolve in water subject to an electrical field, which in turn, can determine how a chemical reaction will occur. And chemical reactions are a necessary component in how we make…everything. The implications
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SLAS Discovery's June issue on synthetic biology available now
The June edition of SLAS Discovery features the cover article, 'A Perspective on Synthetic Biology in Drug Discovery and Development — Current Impact and Future Opportunities' by Florian David, Ph.D. (Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden), Andrew M. Davis, Ph.D. (AstraZeneca, Cambridge, England, UK). Michael Gossing, Ph.D., Martin A. Hayes, Ph.D., and Elvira Romero, Ph.D., and Lo
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Study finds lower mortality rate for men at high risk for death from prostate cancer who received early postoperative radiation therapy
A new, retrospective study focuses on men who have both high-grade prostate cancer that extends outside the prostate and/or has spread into the lymph nodes. For these men who are at high risk of dying from the disease, there was a significant reduction in the risk of death with adjuvant radiation therapy (aRT) use, suggesting that it should be offered to these men.
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Did heat from impacts on asteroids provide the ingredients for life on Earth?
A research group has demonstrated that the heat generated by the impact of a small astronomical body could enable aqueous alteration and organic solid formation to occur on the surface of an asteroid. These results have significantly increased the number of prospective astronomical bodies that could have brought water and the origins of life to Earth.
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Giving brown fat a boost to fight type 2 diabetes
Increasing a protein concentrated in brown fat appears to lower blood sugar, promote insulin sensitivity, and protect against fatty liver disease by remodeling white fat to a healthier state, a new study suggests. The finding could eventually lead to new solutions for patients with diabetes and related conditions.
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Five questions posed by Facebook's two-year ban on Donald Trump
On Friday, Facebook announced that it would suspend former president Donald Trump from the social network for two years, until at least January 7, 2023, and said he would "only be reinstated if conditions permit." The announcement comes in response to recommendations last month from Facebook's recently created Oversight Board. Facebook had hoped that the board would decide how to handle Trump's a
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A reverse stroke characterizes the force generation of cardiac myofilaments, leading to an understanding of heart function [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Changes in the molecular properties of cardiac myosin strongly affect the interactions of myosin with actin that result in cardiac contraction and relaxation. However, it remains unclear how myosin molecules work together in cardiac myofilaments and which properties of the individual myosin molecules impact force production to drive cardiac contractility….
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Persistent polyamorphism in the chiton tooth: From a new biomineral to inks for additive manufacturing [Chemistry]
Engineering structures that bridge between elements with disparate mechanical properties are a significant challenge. Organisms reap synergy by creating complex shapes that are intricately graded. For instance, the wear-resistant cusp of the chiton radula tooth works in concert with progressively softer microarchitectural units as the mollusk grazes on and erodes…
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Molecular basis of the dual role of the Mlh1-Mlh3 endonuclease in MMR and in meiotic crossover formation [Biochemistry]
In budding yeast, the MutL homolog heterodimer Mlh1-Mlh3 (MutLγ) plays a central role in the formation of meiotic crossovers. It is also involved in the repair of a subset of mismatches besides the main mismatch repair (MMR) endonuclease Mlh1-Pms1 (MutLα). The heterodimer interface and endonuclease sites of MutLγ and MutLα…
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Self-adaptive and efficient propulsion of Ray sperms at different viscosities enabled by heterogeneous dual helixes [Engineering]
We disclose a peculiar rotational propulsion mechanism of Ray sperms enabled by its unusual heterogeneous dual helixes with a rigid spiral head and a soft tail, named Heterogeneous Dual Helixes (HDH) model for short. Different from the conventional beating propulsion of sperm, the propulsion of Ray sperms is from both…
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TP53 missense mutations in PDAC are associated with enhanced fibrosis and an immunosuppressive microenvironment [Immunology and Inflammation]
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a highly lethal cancer, which is refractory to all currently available treatments and bears dismal prognosis. About 70% of all PDAC cases harbor mutations in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Many of those are missense mutations, resulting in abundant production of mutant p53 (mutp53) protein…
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Converging evidence for greater male variability in time, risk, and social preferences [Economic Sciences]
Gender differences in time, risk, and social preferences are important determinants of differential choices of men and women, with broad implications for gender-specific social and economic outcomes. To better understand the shape and form of gender differences in preferences, researchers have traditionally examined the mean differences between the two genders….
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Conformation and dynamics of the kinase domain drive subcellular location and activation of LRRK2 [Biochemistry]
To explore how pathogenic mutations of the multidomain leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) hijack its finely tuned activation process and drive Parkinson's disease (PD), we used a multitiered approach. Most mutations mimic Rab-mediated activation by "unleashing" kinase activity, and many, like the kinase inhibitor MLi-2, trap LRRK2 onto microtubules. Here…
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Visualization of {beta}-adrenergic receptor dynamics and differential localization in cardiomyocytes [Pharmacology]
A key question in receptor signaling is how specificity is realized, particularly when different receptors trigger the same biochemical pathway(s). A notable case is the two β‐adrenergic receptor (β‐AR) subtypes, β1 and β2, in cardiomyocytes. They are both coupled to stimulatory Gs proteins, mediate an increase in cyclic adenosine monophosphate…
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The relationship between birth timing, circuit wiring, and physiological response properties of cerebellar granule cells [Neuroscience]
Cerebellar granule cells (GrCs) are usually regarded as a uniform cell type that collectively expands the coding space of the cerebellum by integrating diverse combinations of mossy fiber inputs. Accordingly, stable molecularly or physiologically defined GrC subtypes within a single cerebellar region have not been reported. The only known cellular…
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Reactivation-induced motor skill learning [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Learning motor skills commonly requires repeated execution to achieve gains in performance. Motivated by memory reactivation frameworks predominantly originating from fear-conditioning studies in rodents, which have extended to humans, we asked the following: Could motor skill learning be achieved by brief memory reactivations? To address this question, we had participants…
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Phosphate Elimination and Recovery Lightweight (PEARL) membrane: A sustainable environmental remediation approach [Sustainability Science]
Aqueous phosphate pollution can dramatically impact ecosystems, introducing a variety of environmental, economic, and public health problems. While novel remediation tactics based on nanoparticle binding have shown considerable promise in nutrient recovery from water, they are challenging to deploy at scale. To bridge the gap between the laboratory-scale nature of…
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Periodic bouncing of a plasmonic bubble in a binary liquid by competing solutal and thermal Marangoni forces [Applied Physical Sciences]
The physicochemical hydrodynamics of bubbles and droplets out of equilibrium, in particular with phase transitions, display surprisingly rich and often counterintuitive phenomena. Here we experimentally and theoretically study the nucleation and early evolution of plasmonic bubbles in a binary liquid consisting of water and ethanol. Remarkably, the submillimeter plasmonic bubble…
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Critical role of the CD44lowCD62Llow CD8+ T cell subset in restoring antitumor immunity in aged mice [Immunology and Inflammation]
CD8+ T cells play a central role in antitumor immune responses that kill cancer cells directly. In aged individuals, CD8+ T cell immunity is strongly suppressed, which is associated with cancer and other age-related diseases. The mechanism underlying this age-related decrease in immune function remains largely unknown. This study investigated…
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Multiple deprotonation paths of the nucleophile 3'-OH in the DNA synthesis reaction [Biochemistry]
DNA synthesis by polymerases is essential for life. Deprotonation of the nucleophile 3′-OH is thought to be the obligatory first step in the DNA synthesis reaction. We have examined each entity surrounding the nucleophile 3′-OH in the reaction catalyzed by human DNA polymerase (Pol) η and delineated the deprotonation process…
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Sequence of the supernumerary B chromosome of maize provides insight into its drive mechanism and evolution [Genetics]
B chromosomes are enigmatic elements in thousands of plant and animal genomes that persist in populations despite being nonessential. They circumvent the laws of Mendelian inheritance but the molecular mechanisms underlying this behavior remain unknown. Here we present the sequence, annotation, and analysis of the maize B chromosome providing insight…
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Regulation of cold-induced thermogenesis by the RNA binding protein FAM195A [Cell Biology]
Homeothermic vertebrates produce heat in cold environments through thermogenesis, in which brown adipose tissue (BAT) increases mitochondrial oxidation along with uncoupling of the electron transport chain and activation of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1). Although the transcription factors regulating the expression of UCP1 and nutrient oxidation genes have been extensively studied,…
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AP-1 is a temporally regulated dual gatekeeper of reprogramming to pluripotency [Cell Biology]
Somatic cell transcription factors are critical to maintaining cellular identity and constitute a barrier to human somatic cell reprogramming; yet a comprehensive understanding of the mechanism of action is lacking. To gain insight, we examined epigenome remodeling at the onset of human nuclear reprogramming by profiling human fibroblasts after fusion…
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Altered amino acid profile in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection [Immunology and Inflammation]
Low plasma arginine bioavailability has been implicated in endothelial dysfunction and immune dysregulation. The role of arginine in COVID-19 is unknown, but could contribute to cellular damage if low. Our objective was to determine arginine bioavailability in adults and children with COVID-19 vs. healthy controls. We hypothesized that arginine bioavailability…
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N-terminal tail prolines of Gal-3 mediate its oligomerization/phase separation [Biochemistry]
Galectins are a class of proteins that bind to β-galactose–containing glycoconjugates and play critical roles in developmental, homeostatic, and pathological contexts (1, 2). Expressed across animal tissues, galectins are synthesized in the cytoplasm and trafficked to the extracellular milieu via the unconventional secretion pathway, although they may also be localized…
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Colorectal Cancer: UVA Health Expert Helps Develop New National Screening Guidelines
Most Americans should get screened for colorectal cancer beginning at age 45 instead of age 50, according to new recommendations from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, which includes UVA Health's Li Li, MD, PhD, MPH. This recommendation applies to Americans without symptoms who do not have a history of colorectal polyps or a personal or family health history of genetic disorders that increa
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Newly approved targeted therapy sotorasib prolongs survival in KRAS G12C-mutated lung cancer
Results from the Phase II cohort of the CodeBreaK 100 study showed that treatment with the KRAS G12C inhibitor sotorasib achieved a 37.1% objective response rate and 12.5 months median overall survival in previously treated patients with KRAS G12C-mutated non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), according to researchers from The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center.
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Newly approved drug effective against lung cancer caused by genetic mutation
The new drug sotorasib reduces tumor size and shows promise in improving survival among patients with lung tumors caused by a specific DNA mutation, according to results of a global phase 2 clinical trial led by Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis. The drug is designed to shut down the effects of the mutation, which is found in about 13% of patients with lung adenocarcinoma, a co
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Inference and influence of network structure using snapshot social behavior without network data
Population behavior, like voting and vaccination, depends on the structure of social networks. This structure can differ depending on behavior type and is typically hidden. However, we do often have behavioral data, albeit only snapshots taken at one time point. We present a method jointly inferring a model for both network structure and human behavior using only snapshot population-level behavio
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Natural climate solutions for Canada
Alongside the steep reductions needed in fossil fuel emissions, natural climate solutions (NCS) represent readily deployable options that can contribute to Canada's goals for emission reductions. We estimate the mitigation potential of 24 NCS related to the protection, management, and restoration of natural systems that can also deliver numerous co-benefits, such as enhanced soil productivity, cl
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Experimental quantum conference key agreement
Quantum networks will provide multinode entanglement enabling secure communication on a global scale. Traditional quantum communication protocols consume pair-wise entanglement, which is suboptimal for distributed tasks involving more than two users. Here, we demonstrate quantum conference key agreement, a cryptography protocol leveraging multipartite entanglement to efficiently create identical
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The CHD8/CHD7/Kismet family links blood-brain barrier glia and serotonin to ASD-associated sleep defects
Sleep disturbances in autism and neurodevelopmental disorders are common and adversely affect patient's quality of life, yet the underlying mechanisms are understudied. We found that individuals with mutations in CHD8 , among the highest-confidence autism risk genes, or CHD7 suffer from disturbed sleep maintenance. These defects are recapitulated in Drosophila mutants affecting kismet , the sole
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Magnetic soft micromachines made of linked microactuator networks
Soft untethered micromachines with overall sizes less than 100 μm enable diverse programmed shape transformations and functions for future biomedical and organ-on-a-chip applications. However, fabrication of such machines has been hampered by the lack of control of microactuator's programmability. To address such challenge, we use two-photon polymerization to selectively link Janus microparticle-
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PDLLA-Zn-nitrided Fe bioresorbable scaffold with 53-{mu}m-thick metallic struts and tunable multistage biodegradation function
Balancing the biodegradability and mechanical integrity of a bioresorbable scaffold (BRS) with time after implantation to match the remodeling of the scaffolded blood vessel is important, but a key challenge in doing so remains. This study presents a novel intercalated structure of a metallic BRS by introducing a nanoscale Zn sacrificial layer between the nitrided Fe platform and the sirolimus-ca
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Large historical carbon emissions from cultivated northern peatlands
When a peatland is drained and cultivated, it behaves as a notable source of CO 2 . However, we lack temporally and spatially explicit estimates of carbon losses from cultivated peatlands. Using a process-based land surface model that explicitly includes representation of peatland processes, we estimate that northern peatlands converted to croplands emitted 72 Pg C over 850–2010, with 45% of this
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New fluctuation theorems on Maxwells demon
With increasing interest in the control of systems at the nano- and mesoscopic scales, studies have been focused on the limit of the energy dissipation in an open system by refining the concept of the Maxwell's demon. To uncover the underlying physical principle behind a system controlled by a demon, we prove a previously unexplored set of fluctuation theorems. These fluctuation theorems imply th
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A conserved rRNA switch is central to decoding site maturation on the small ribosomal subunit
While a structural description of the molecular mechanisms guiding ribosome assembly in eukaryotic systems is emerging, bacteria use an unrelated core set of assembly factors for which high-resolution structural information is still missing. To address this, we used single-particle cryo–electron microscopy to visualize the effects of bacterial ribosome assembly factors RimP, RbfA, RsmA, and RsgA
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Autophagy suppresses the formation of hepatocyte-derived cancer-initiating ductular progenitor cells in the liver
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is driven by repeated rounds of inflammation, leading to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and, ultimately, cancer. A critical step in HCC formation is the transition from fibrosis to cirrhosis, which is associated with a change in the liver parenchyma called ductular reaction. Here, we report a genetically engineered mouse model of HCC driven by loss of macroautophagy and hemiz
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Anisotropic nanocrystal shape and ligand design for co-assembly
The use of nanocrystal (NC) building blocks to create metamaterials is a powerful approach to access emergent materials. Given the immense library of materials choices, progress in this area for anisotropic NCs is limited by the lack of co-assembly design principles. Here, we use a rational design approach to guide the co-assembly of two such anisotropic systems. We modulate the removal of geomet
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Budding yeast relies on G1 cyclin specificity to couple cell cycle progression with morphogenetic development
Two models have been put forward for cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) control of the cell cycle. In the qualitative model, cell cycle events are ordered by distinct substrate specificities of successive cyclin waves. Alternatively, in the quantitative model, the gradual rise of Cdk activity from G 1 phase to mitosis leads to ordered substrate phosphorylation at sequential thresholds. Here, we study
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Structural basis for activation and allosteric modulation of full-length calcium-sensing receptor
Calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) is a class C G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) that plays an important role in calcium homeostasis and parathyroid hormone secretion. Here, we present multiple cryo–electron microscopy structures of full-length CaSR in distinct ligand-bound states. Ligands (Ca 2+ and -tryptophan) bind to the extracellular domain of CaSR and induce large-scale conformational changes
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Tracking interfacial single-molecule pH and binding dynamics via vibrational spectroscopy
Understanding single-molecule chemical dynamics of surface ligands is of critical importance to reveal their individual pathways and, hence, roles in catalysis, which ensemble measurements cannot see. Here, we use a cascaded nano-optics approach that provides sufficient enhancement to enable direct tracking of chemical trajectories of single surface-bound molecules via vibrational spectroscopy. A
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ERK signaling mediates resistance to immunomodulatory drugs in the bone marrow microenvironment
Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) have markedly improved patient outcome in multiple myeloma (MM); however, resistance to IMiDs commonly underlies relapse of disease. Here, we identify that tumor necrosis factor (TNF) receptor-associated factor 2 ( TRAF2 ) knockdown (KD)/knockout (KO) in MM cells mediates IMiD resistance via activation of noncanonical nuclear factor B (NF-B) and extracellular signal
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Remote and local drivers of Pleistocene South Asian summer monsoon precipitation: A test for future predictions
South Asian precipitation amount and extreme variability are predicted to increase due to thermodynamic effects of increased 21st-century greenhouse gases, accompanied by an increased supply of moisture from the southern hemisphere Indian Ocean. We reconstructed South Asian summer monsoon precipitation and runoff into the Bay of Bengal to assess the extent to which these factors also operated in
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Conversion of mouse embryonic fibroblasts into neural crest cells and functional corneal endothelia by defined small molecules
Reprogramming of somatic cells into desired functional cell types by small molecules has vast potential for developing cell replacement therapy. Here, we developed a stepwise strategy to generate chemically induced neural crest cells (ciNCCs) and chemically induced corneal endothelial cells (ciCECs) from mouse fibroblasts using defined small molecules. The ciNCCs exhibited typical NCC features an
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Enhanced avionic sensing based on Wigners cusp anomalies
Typical sensors detect small perturbations by measuring their effects on a physical observable, using a linear response principle (LRP). It turns out that once LRP is abandoned, new opportunities emerge. A prominent example is resonant systems operating near N th-order exceptional point degeneracies (EPDs) where a small perturbation
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Standalone real-time health monitoring patch based on a stretchable organic optoelectronic system
Skin-like health care patches (SHPs) are next-generation health care gadgets that will enable seamless monitoring of biological signals in daily life. Skin-conformable sensors and a stretchable display are critical for the development of standalone SHPs that provide real-time information while alleviating privacy concerns related to wireless data transmission. However, the production of stretchab
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RNase L limits host and viral protein synthesis via inhibition of mRNA export
RNase L is widely thought to limit viral protein synthesis by cleaving host rRNA and viral mRNA, resulting in translation arrest and viral mRNA degradation. Here, we show that the mRNAs of dengue virus and influenza A virus largely escape RNase L–mediated mRNA decay, and this permits viral protein production. However, activation of RNase L arrests nuclear mRNA export, which strongly inhibits infl
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Special Invitation
Hi All! Not to bother anyone but I'm currently helping my friends who are building this website https://www.telosx.com/ TelosX is a platform for exchanging ordered lists of links (URLs) which guide you in understanding subject matter. Most information is already out there on the internet, people just don't know where to look and in what order. We think this would, in particular, be of value to cr
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'Electronic nose' sniffs out cancer in blood samples
An odor-based test that sniffs out vapors emanating from blood samples was able to distinguish between benign and pancreatic and ovarian cancer cells with up to 95% accuracy, according to a new study. The findings suggest that the tool—which uses artificial intelligence and machine learning to decipher the mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitting off cells in blood plasma samples—cou
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Elephant trunks suck stuff up at 330 miles per hour
The way an elephant manipulates its trunk to eat and drink could lead to better robots, researchers say. Elephants dilate their nostrils to create more space in their trunks, allowing them to store up to 5.5 liters (1.45 gallons) of water, according to their new study. They can also suck up three liters (0.79 gallons) per second—a speed 30 times faster than a human sneeze (150 meters per second/3
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Black bears may play important role in protecting gray fox
Bears are known for being devoted and protective of their baby cubs, but research shows that they may also play a significant role in shielding gray fox from predators like coyotes, who compete with the fox for food and space. The research is one of the first studies to show how black bears provide a buffer to allow other, smaller carnivores to safely co-exist.
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Remote patient monitoring may reduce need to hospitalize cancer patients
A study by researchers at Mayo Clinic Cancer Center has found that cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19 who received care at home via remote patient monitoring were significantly less likely to require hospitalization for their illness, compared to cancer patients with COVID-19 who did not participate in the program. Results of the study were presented Friday, June 4, at the American Society of
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Early warning system for COVID-19 gets faster through wastewater detection and tracing
A new research paper builds on previous research of COVID-19 testing in municipal sewer systems and subsequent tracing the virus back to the source by more accurately modelling a system's treelike network of one-way pipes and manholes, and by speeding up the detection/tracing process through automatic sensors installed in specific manholes, chosen according to an easier-to-use algorithm.
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Wide variation in cost and transparency of payer-negotiated prices for thyroid cancer care
Since Jan. 1, 2021, hospitals in the US have been required by The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) to provide pricing information online about items and services. A team of researchers from Brigham and Women's Hospital and Massachusetts Eye and Ear leveraged the newly available data to analyze price transparency and price variation for the treatment of thyroid cancer.
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Plant competition during climate change
How plants cope with stress factors has already been broadly researched. Yet what happens when a plant is confronted with two stressors simultaneously? A research team working with Simon Haberstroh and Prof. Dr. Christiane Werner of the Chair of Ecosystem Physiology at the Institute of Forest Sciences and Natural Resources (UNR) of the University of Freiburg is investigating this. Together with co
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How to retard time for cells
Scientists at Leipzig University, in collaboration with colleagues from Germany and England, have succeeded in reversibly slowing down cellular processes. A team of biophysicists led by Professor Josef Alfons Käs and Dr Jörg Schnauß were able to show in experiments that cells can be transferred into slow motion without changing the temperature.
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Structural uniqueness of the green- and red-light sensing photosensor in cyanobacteria
Certain cyanobacteria can change the absorbing light colors for photosynthesis using a green- and red-light sensing photosensor protein. A Japanese research group elucidated the molecular structure of RcaE, a representative member of the photosensors. They revealed the unique conformation of the bilin chromophore and the unique protein structure that potentially functions as a proton transfer rout
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Attraction and repulsion cooperate during brain-circuit wiring
Nature, Published online: 04 June 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-01502-0 Examination of the molecular interactions that govern the assembly of neural circuits in a brain region called the hippocampus reveals that neuronal projections are guided to their targets by both attractive and repulsive cues.
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New hybrid OSSE method improves local severe storm forecasts
Since the era of meteorological satellites began in the 1950s, continuous remote sensing instrument improvements have elevated Earth science and have significantly increased available atmospheric observations. Likewise, scientists have made considerable advancements in understanding Earth's atmosphere, climate, and environment.
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COVID-19 pandemic has had significant impact on the mental health of adolescents
A study of over 59,000 Icelandic adolescents by a team of Icelandic and North American behavioral and social scientists found that COVID-19 has had a significant, detrimental impact on adolescent mental health, especially in girls. The study is the first to investigate and document age- and gender-specific changes in adolescent mental health problems and substance use during the COVID-19 pandemic,
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Underground storage of carbon captured directly from air—green and economical
The global threat of ongoing climate change has one principal cause: carbon that was buried underground in the form of fossil fuels being removed and released into the atmosphere in the form of carbon dioxide (CO2). One promising approach to addressing this problem is carbon capture and storage: using technology to take CO2 out of the atmosphere to return it underground.
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Is now a good time to get a PhD? We ask those who've done it
The number of Australian PhD graduates reached around 10,000 a year in 2019, twice as many as in 2005. However, the number of PhDs has been exceeding the available academic positions since as early as the mid-1990s. In 2020, universities purged around 10% of their workforce due to the pandemic, and many university careers are still vulnerable . Given these statistics, you might wonder if doing a
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Gene protection for COVID-19 identified
A genetic link has been discovered explaining why some people catch Covid but don't get sick. The gene is found three times as often in people who are asymptomatic. This is the first clear evidence of genetic resistance because the study compared severely affected people with an asymptomatic COVID group and used next generation sequencing to focus in detail and at scale on the HLA genes which are
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Geostationary Earth Orbit Hyperspectral Infrared Radiance data improve local severe storm forecasts proofed by using a new Hybrid OSSE method
Scientists are developing data assimilation methods for Numerical Weather Prediction models that will increase the quality of initialization data from satellites. The Observing System Simulation Experiment (OSSE) is designed to use data assimilation to investigate the potential impact of future atmospheric observing systems. Traditional OSSE processes require significant effort to compute, simulat
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Algorithm takes the grunt work out of quilting
A new algorithm automates the notoriously complicated—and often frustrating—process of figuring out the order of steps in advanced quilting patterns. That lets quilters focus on design and creativity, instead. Stanford University computer science graduate student Mackenzie Leake has quilted since age 10, but she never imagined the craft would be the focus of her doctoral dissertation. Included in
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Multisensory facilitation near the body in all directions
Researchers at Toyohashi University of Technology, Keio University, and the University of Tokyo investigated audio-tactile multisensory integration near the body using touch detection with task-irrelevant approaching and receding sounds in all directions: front, rear, left, and right. They found that the tactile stimulus was detected faster near the body space than far from it when a sound approac
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Public awareness, willingness to use gun violence restraining orders
This survey study in California assesses what the public knows about extreme risk protection orders and if people are willing to use them to prevent firearm-related harm, both in general and when a family member is at risk, and if not, why not. The orders temporarily suspend firearm and ammunition access by individuals a judge has deemed to be at substantial risk of harming themselves or others.
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ADHD medications associated with reduced risk of suicidality in certain children
ADHD medications may lower suicide risk in children with hyperactivity, oppositional defiance and other behavioral disorders, according to new research from the Lifespan Brain Institute (LiBI) of Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) and the University of Pennsylvania. The findings, published today in JAMA Network Open, address a significant knowledge gap in childhood suicide risk and could i
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Tiny implant cures diabetes in mice
Researchers have demonstrated that using a miniscule device to implant insulin-secreting cells cures diabetes in mice. Once implanted, the cells secrete insulin in response to blood sugar, reversing diabetes without requiring drugs to suppress the immune system. "We can take a person's skin or fat cells, make them into stem cells and then grow those stem cells into insulin-secreting cells," says
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A better way to introduce digital tech in the workplace
After a detailed study of digital technology in a hospital, researchers find that experimenting with the technology, and then working to implement the best practices through coordinated governance, can help organizations better integrate technology in the workplace.
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Life stage differences shield ecological communities from collapse
A new study by ecologists shows that differences between juveniles and adults of the same species are crucial for the stability of complex ecological communities. The research represents a major advance in ecological modeling at a time when biodiversity is declining and species around the world are rapidly going extinct.
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Don't like your greens? Blame it on Brassica domestication
Delicious to some, but a bitter bane to others' taste buds, vegetables like broccoli rabe, bok choy and turnips are a dinner staple — and picky eater conflict — around the world. It all likely started in the mountains near present-day Afghanistan, where humans first domesticated turnips 3,500 to 6,000 years ago, according to a new study recently published in the journal Molecular Biology and Evo
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The 2001 Album That Captured Modern Dread
Whenever someone disses agnosticism as pointless, bleak, or weak, Radiohead's 2001 song "I Might Be Wrong" starts playing in my head. A guitar riff conveys all the tension of a bar that's about to erupt into a brawl. Thom Yorke sings, in his meekest mumble, "I used to think there was no future left at all." That's an unsurprising confession from a notoriously gloomy bandleader, but it's paired wi
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The Books Briefing: Works That Chart New Queer Narratives
In A Little Life , a novel by the author Hanya Yanagihara, the tone is exaggerated, almost melodramatic . But the book brings nuance to a key realm—its portrayal of queerness—as its four protagonists each arrive at complex understandings of their sexuality. Indeed the best works of queer literature create space for this complexity. For example, the critic Andrea Long Chu questions simplistic narr
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The Atlantic Daily: Republicans' Election-Fraud Claims Are Here to Stay
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. Donald Trump is gone, but one of his favorite talking points—that everything is "rigged"—isn't fading away. In fact, our writers warn, the GOP is actively promoting theories of fraud and coalescin
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How to talk to people about diseases from animals
Certain types of messages could influence how people perceive information about the spread of diseases from wildlife to humans, according to a new study. The findings, published in the journal Frontiers in Communication , could help scientists, policymakers, and others more effectively communicate with diverse audiences about zoonotic diseases and the role of wildlife management in preventing the
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Shoot better drone videos with a single word
Researchers developed a model that enables a drone to shoot a video based on a desired emotion or viewer reaction. The drone uses camera angles, speeds and flight paths to generate a video that could be exciting, calm, enjoyable or nerve-wracking — depending on what the filmmaker tells it.
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New algorithm for modern quilting
When it comes to the art of quilting, determining the feasibility and order of steps in advanced patterns can be notoriously complicated – and frustrating. By automating that process, a new algorithm enables quilters to focus on design and creation.
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New technology 'listens' for endangered right whales
Researchers have developed technology that will help to protect North American right whales, one of the world's most endangered marine species. The new techniques can remove unwanted noises from recordings, thereby increasing the reliability of detecting right whales before they reach close proximity to large vessels. This can both protect animals and avoid costly shutdowns of offshore operations.
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Tropics will see more record-breaking temperatures
More record-breaking temperatures will occur in the tropics, where there is a large and rapidly growing population, a new study shows. "People recognize that polar warming is much faster than the mid-latitudes and tropics; that's a fact," says study lead author Xubin Zeng, director of the University of Arizona Climate Dynamics and Hydrometeorology Center and a professor of atmospheric sciences. "
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Mason scientists explore herbal treatment for COVID-19
Could an over-the-counter health "shot" help fight COVID-19? George Mason University researchers think it just might. Cell and Bioscience recently highlighted research led by Yuntao Wu and Ramin Hakami in which they examined the potential anti-coronavirus activities of an over-the-counter drink called Respiratory Detox Shot (RDS).
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A social network for global ecosystem restoration
ETH spin-off Restor aims to increase the success rate of ecosystem restoration and conservation projects by connecting people with better data and ecological transparency. To do this, it combines practical knowledge on the ground with data from ecosystem researchers and satellite imagery.
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Pollution-loving plants key to predicting adaptation to environmental change
Environmental change is happening so quickly that wild organisms can't keep up, and face substantial challenges. But some organisms may be able to adapt surprisingly rapidly to new circumstances. Predicting which species will be able to adapt quickly is far from straightforward, but an unassuming coastal plant may just hold the key to understanding how species adapt quickly to man-made habitats.
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The cut and restore protein trick: Self-excising designer proteins
Our proteome is much bigger than our genome because one gene produces several variants of proteins called protein isoforms, whose disbalance is implicated in many diseases. A new bioengineered reporter system developed at Helmholtz Zentrum München and the Technical University of Munich now allows for the first time to follow protein isoform expression over time in live cells. The method helps to d
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Underground storage of carbon captured directly from air — green and economical
Conventional carbon capture is limited by high transportation costs and the need for intensive purification. Membrane-based direct air capture is a promising alternative because capture and storage can be performed at the same remote sites, and low CO2 purity is acceptable for geological storage because the impurities are not hazardous. Molecular dynamics simulations of geological storage of CO2-N
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Mockingbird song decoded
The North American mockingbird is famous for its ability to imitate the song of other birds. But it doesn't just mimic its kindred species, it actually composes its own songs based on other birds' melodies. An interdisciplinary research team has now worked out how exactly the mockingbird constructs its imitations. The scientists determined that the birds follow similar musical rules as those found
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The pandemic blew up the American office—for better and worse
The COVID-19 pandemic will eventually abate, but it will leave behind a profound change in what it means to go to work. After being forced into a massive yearlong experiment in working from home, employers and employees alike have discovered that remote work not only is more feasible than they had thought but actually boosts productivity.
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Lake habitats are disappearing as the climate changes
Global warming is increasing the temperatures of lakes worldwide—are species finding the temperatures they need to survive? Researchers led by scientists at the Leibniz Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries (IGB) have quantified the long-term temperature changes in 139 lakes worldwide. Those lakes represent about 69% of the Earth's freshwater habitats by volume. The researchers anal
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Health effects of the eruption of Mount Nyiragongo will be felt for a long time
The eruption of Mount Nyiragongo, an active volcano in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), led to the deaths of at least 30 people. There could however be longer term health implications for residents of the area. Patrick DMC Katoto, who has studied the health effects of volcanoes in the DRC, provides insights into the health risks that a volcanic eruption brings.
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Electric eels and gladiator blood: the curious beginnings of modern medicine
Ancient "medicine" once consisted of sacrificial offerings and divine petition. Disease was a supernatural infliction; health was a gift. Hippocrates invented medical science, and his theory of the humors and holistic health dominated Western medical thought for more than two thousand years. Today, medicine is much more disease centred, and perhaps something has been lost from the Hippocratic doc
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Average-sized 'dead zone' forecast for Gulf of Mexico
A team of scientists including a University of Michigan aquatic ecologist is forecasting this summer's Gulf of Mexico hypoxic area or "dead zone," an area of low to no oxygen that can kill fish and other marine life, to be approximately 4,880 square miles, a bit smaller than the state of Connecticut.
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Handwriting examiners in the digital age
People are writing more than ever with their keyboards and phones, but handwritten notes have become rare. Even signatures are going out of style. Most credit card purchases no longer require them, and if they do, you can usually just scratch one out with your fingernail. The age-old art of handwriting is in decline.
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Research points to strong impact from water purification to drug manufacturing
Water is weird—and yet so important. In fact, it is one of the most unusual molecules on Earth. It boils at a temperature it shouldn't. It expands and floats when it is in the solid-state. Its surface tension is higher than it should be. Now, new research published in the journal Nature has added one other equally strange property to water's list of oddities. The implications of this new revelatio
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Spotting tar spot disease sooner
Dispatching drones equipped with remote sensing technology in the air and taking smartphone images on the ground, a Michigan State University researcher is helping farmers more quickly predict and quantify tar spot, a disease found in maize crops.
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Fossilised moa poo paints a picture of the past
Knowledge of the diets of New Zealand's extinct moa (Aves: Dinornithiformes) comes from careful analysis of moa coprolites (fossilized poop) and gizzard contents. Moa coprolites and gizzard contents can be dissected and analyzed under the microscope or using DNA identification techniques to decipher what the birds ate. The contents can also be screened to see what seeds the birds may have disperse
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Arctic sea ice thinning faster than expected
Sea ice thickness is inferred by measuring the height of the ice above the water, and this measurement is distorted by snow weighing the ice floe down. Scientists adjust for this using a map of snow depth in the Arctic that is decades out of date. In the new study, researchers swapped this map for the results of a new computer model designed to estimate snow depth as it varies year to year.
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NASA Will Send 2 Probes to Venus for the First Time in Decades
NASA has announced the winner of a competition to determine targets for a new round of exploration missions. The space exploration agency has opted for a pair of missions to Venus, the first for NASA in over 30 years. These missions were launched as part of NASA's Discovery Program, which funds small-scale space programs of $500M or less per launch. The two probes, DAVINCI+ and VERITAS, will retu
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Is carbon the 'crop' of the future?
An increasing awareness and concern about the environment, changes in government policy, America's re-entry into the Paris Agreement and a robust demand for carbon offsets all point toward an appetite for a different type of agricultural crop—carbon.
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High wave flooding in West Maui predicted through new online tool
A high-resolution, real-time wave run-up forecast tool, able to predict coastal flooding up to six days in advance, has been developed for the West Maui shoreline. The Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS) created the novel online tool , which will increase preparedness and coastal resiliency for West Maui community members, property owners, businesses, as well as state and county offic
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Svenska forskare kritiserar corona-modeller
Under år 2020 togs flera matematiska modeller fram för att förutspå smittspridning, dödsfall och vårdbelastning i Sverige till följd av covid-19. Dessa prediktioner hjälpte beslutsfattare i deras planeringsarbete till viss del, men hade samtidigt ett flertal brister. Det konstaterar en oberoende forskargrupp efter att på uppdrag av Folkhälsomyndigheten ha granskat covid-19-modeller från år 2020. O
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Learn American Sign Language And Open Up A New World With This Training
When we talk about language, we tend to focus on spoken language. Even artificial intelligence is working to "speak" in our voices . Yet gesture is just as important as words, and American Sign Language (ASL) has quickly evolved into a language all its own. The Ultimate Learn American Sign Language Bundle is designed not just to teach you a new language, but a new appreciation for what it means t
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New findings show pigeons act selflessly when under threat
A new study of pigeons has revealed that they flock together in the presence of predators for the collective benefit, rather than for selfish interest. This is in stark contrast to the long-held 'selfish herd' theory that animal movements in herds are determined by self-preservation alone.
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The App That Monetized Doing Nothing
Photographs by Sarah Johnson A cathedral-like mountain towers above me; a lake laps at my feet; sunshine distilled through pine needles warms my skin. Close your eyes , a voice intones . Let your shoulders fall naturally and keep your chest open. Take a few full, deep breaths to settle into this moment, inhaling deeply and slowly releasing your breath, allowing any tension you may be holding to s
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First, this paper was corrected. Now it has an expression of concern. And maybe, just maybe, it will be retracted.
Never let it be said that journals are not deliberative when it comes to correcting the record. Of course, "deliberative" also means "slow." Take a 2018 article in the Journal of Infectious Diseases (JID) by a group of authors in India. The article, "System Wide Analysis Unravels Differential Regulation and In Vivo Essentiality of VapBC … Continue reading
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China's Tiananmen anniversary crackdowns reach far beyond the firewall
The 24-hour vigil started just after 8 a.m. US Eastern Time on June 3—more or less on schedule, and without any major disruptions. The event, hosted on Zoom and broadcast live on other platforms such as YouTube, was put together by Chinese activists to commemorate the Tiananmen Square Massacre, Beijing's bloody clampdown on a student-led pro-democracy movement that took place on June 4, 1989. The
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SepF is the FtsZ anchor in archaea, with features of an ancestral cell division system
Nature Communications, Published online: 04 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23099-8 Most archaea divide by binary fission using an FtsZ-based system that is poorly understood. Here, the authors combine structural, cellular, and evolutionary analyses to show that the SepF protein acts as the FtsZ anchor in the archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii.
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Nät-kbt hjälper unga med social ångest
Social ångest debuterar oftast innan femton års ålder och innebär en stark och ihållande rädsla för att bli granskad eller bedömd i sociala sammanhang. Kognitiv beteendeterapi, kbt, har tidigare visat sig hjälpa. – Men eftersom tillgången till psykologer som kan ge behandling ansikte mot ansikte är begränsad ville vi undersöka hur internet-kbt fungerar, säger Martina Nordh, legitimerad psykolog oc
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Growing fruit/vegetables hydroponically
I fully admit up-front that I know almost nothing about the subject matter. Please treat this as science fiction or speculation. But, I would really like to hear from subject-matter experts. What do we need to do to make fruit/vegetables more economical in terms of money, energy, water and other resources put into the growing of the product? For argument's sake, let's focus on discussion about or
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Getting they/them pronouns right
A growing number of people use they/them pronouns to signal their gender identity, but for many people, use of "they" to refer to a single individual takes some getting used to.
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Book Review: A Humanizing Portrait of Stephen Hawking
In "Hawking Hawking," science writer Charles Seife explores the life and work of celebrated physicist Stephen Hawking, and his unusual path to global fame. Seife covers a double or even triple existence: There was Hawking the scientist, Hawking the man, and Hawking the bestselling author and media darling.
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Americans Say Immigrants Should Learn English. But U.S. Policy Makes That Hard.
"Speak English!" can be one of the cruelest things for an immigrant to hear. It can sound simultaneously like a demand for instant assimilation, an accusation of disloyalty, and a presumption of stubbornness or ignorance. In some circles, the call for immigrants to speak English has fused with a call for less immigration in general, as though language differences are themselves offensive. It's no
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»Jeg kan ikke levere den kvalitet, jeg mener, der er behov for«
Efter 15 måneder som konstitueret ledende overlæge for Diagnostisk Center på Regionshospitalet i Silkeborg vender Mikkel Callsen 1. september tilbage til jobbet som specialeansvarlig overlæge for reumatologien på centret. Forklaringen er, at han med det nuværende set up ikke kan levere den kvalitet, han ønsker.
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Photos of the Week: Ice Children, Caged Cat, Tango Protest
Memorial Day remembrances in the U.S., Fashion Week in Australia, drought conditions in California, a sinkhole in Mexico, sheep shearing in Germany, a post-pandemic concert experiment in Paris, an oil-refinery fire in Iran, a daffodil festival in Austria, and much more
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Some gripes about groupthink
'While dissent leads to better decisions, it also leads to discomfort. Disagreement is valuable but agreement feels so much more comfortable'
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I developed a mental health related app based on cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)!
So basically last year I was feeling a bit low. I really didn't know how to become better since I had never faced this before. I used to not get proper sleep and woke up after having dreams due to my anxiety. So I just started noting what activities I did and whom I did it with in a google doc. Slowly I also started rating how I felt about the interaction. Soon I started to notice a pattern that
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How does a human being become able to experience nostalgia?
At what age? Is a certain development of the brain required for this sentimentality to occur? After the age of ~3 your longterm memory starts developing, so is this age needed (for starters)? After that, is it more a matter of time passed? For example, can you at the age of 8 experience nostalgia for memories from the age of 4? Or does more time have to pass, and more experiences must be lived? s
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Genetic base editing treats sickle cell disease in mice
Sickle cell disease leads to chronic pain, organ failure, and early death in patients worldwide. A team has demonstrated a gene editing approach that efficiently corrects the mutation underlying SCD in patient blood stem cells and in mice. This treatment rescued disease symptoms in animal models, enabling long-lasting production of healthy blood cells, and could inspire a therapeutic strategy for
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Front-row view reveals exceptional cosmic explosion
Scientists have gained the best view yet of the brightest explosions in the universe: A specialised observatory in Namibia has recorded the most energetic radiation and longest gamma-ray afterglow of a so-called gamma-ray burst to date. The observations with the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.) challenge the idea of how gamma-rays are produced in these colossal stellar explosions which a
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A shark mystery millions of years in the making
The biggest shark attack in history did not involve humans. A new study by earth scientists has turned up a massive die-off of sharks roughly 19 million years ago. It came at a period in history when there were more than 10 times more sharks patrolling the world's oceans than there are today.
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Biocompatible hydrogel materials can rapidly recover from mechanical stress
Hydrogels are polymer materials made mostly from water. They can be used in a wide range of medical and other applications. However, previous incarnations of the materials suffered from repeated mechanical stress and would easily become deformed. A novel crystal that can reversibly form and deform, allows hydrogels to rapidly recover from mechanical stress. This opens up the use of such biocompati
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Podcast: Breakthrough Infections and Lonely Puppies
While COVID-19 case counts in the United States continue to drop, you might still be reading worrisome headlines about variants and "breakthrough" infections. Fortunately, The Atlantic staff writer Katherine Wu explains to James Hamblin and Maeve Higgins why these shouldn't alarm us just yet. And staff writer Sarah Zhang drops in to help figure out how to keep pandemic puppies from being too anxi
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Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine recipients have lower antibody levels targeting the Delta variant
Levels of antibodies in the blood of vaccinated people that are able to recognise and fight the new SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant first discovered in India (B.1.617.2) are on average lower than those against previously circulating variants in the UK, according to new laboratory data from the Francis Crick Institute and the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) UCLH Biomedical Research Centre, p
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NASA's Mars Lander Cleaned Sand Off Its Solar Panels Using More Sand
The NASA InSight lander. NASA's InSight lander has been on the red planet since 2018, and it relies on solar panels for power, unlike the nuclear-powered Perseverance rover. That means there's the potential for dust build-up on the solar panels, which is becoming an issue as the planet descends into another frigid winter. Luckily, engineers at JPL devised an ingenious way to get the sand off the
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Cognitive Biases – an exploration on how we are influenced and make decisions
Hello all 👋🏼 ✨ Of late, I've been spending quite some time understanding Cognitive Biases and how our behaviours and in fact our life is shaped by them. Have put a good effort in writing my views on a five of them. Would love to get your feedback! 💬 Do give a read… 📰 🔗 Below are the links: 1️⃣ Confirmation Bias: https://link.medium.com/PoCBTkWgNgb 2️⃣ Fundamental Attribution Error: https:/
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The dream team: Scientists find drug duo that may cure COVID-19 together
While preventative care for COVID-19 has made much noise (with vaccines having rolled out in most countries), the soaring infection rates indicate the need for effective treatments. Using cultured cells to study SARS-CoV-2 infections, researchers at the Tokyo University of Science and other institutions have discovered that the drugs cepharanthine and nelfinavir are effective at combating the viru
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Athletic competition after COVID
Cardiovascular imaging demonstrated no evidence of myocardial injury or myocarditis in athletes after COVID-19 infection, according to a research letter published in Circulation by Le Bonheur Children's Hospital and the University of Tennessee Health Science Center cardiologists.
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Secret shopper study sheds light on barriers to opioid treatment for women
After a 2020 Vanderbilt University Medical Center study showed women have a difficult time accessing treatment for opioid use disorder (OUD), investigators analyzed comments received from the study's participants to further shed light on barriers to care, which included everything from long on-hold times to difficult interactions with clinic receptionists during phone calls seeking appointments.
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Other laws affecting pregnancy lag behind legal pot
The legalization of cannabis, without repealing certain policies, could widen gaps in health and social equity around pregnancy, a new commentary argues. A number of states across the country have legalized recreational cannabis. "This is the perfect time to consider repealing policies that criminalize pregnant women for substance use and instead focus on health education, treatment, and supporti
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Samtal med Årets folkbildare nu på video
Till Årets folkbildare 2020 utsågs Åsa Wikforss, professor i teoretisk filosofi på Stockholms universitet, och Fri Tanke Förlag för deras berömvärda gärning att under året gratis distribuera 65000 exemplar av … Continued Inlägget dök först upp på Vetenskap och Folkbildning .
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CO2 reduction on pure Cu produces only H2 after subsurface O is depleted: Theory and experiment [Sustainability Science]
We elucidate the role of subsurface oxygen on the production of C2 products from CO2 reduction over Cu electrocatalysts using the newly developed grand canonical potential kinetics density functional theory method, which predicts that the rate of C2 production on pure Cu with no O is ∼500 times slower than…
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Developmental influence on evolutionary rates and the origin of placental mammal tooth complexity [Evolution]
Development has often been viewed as a constraining force on morphological adaptation, but its precise influence, especially on evolutionary rates, is poorly understood. Placental mammals provide a classic example of adaptive radiation, but the debate around rate and drivers of early placental evolution remains contentious. A hallmark of early dental…
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Genomics-informed models reveal extensive stretches of coastline under threat by an ecologically dominant invasive species [Evolution]
Explaining why some species are widespread, while others are not, is fundamental to biogeography, ecology, and evolutionary biology. A unique way to study evolutionary and ecological mechanisms that either limit species' spread or facilitate range expansions is to conduct research on species that have restricted distributions. Nonindigenous species, particularly those…
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A catalog of tens of thousands of viruses from human metagenomes reveals hidden associations with chronic diseases [Microbiology]
Despite remarkable strides in microbiome research, the viral component of the microbiome has generally presented a more challenging target than the bacteriome. This gap persists, even though many thousands of shotgun sequencing runs from human metagenomic samples exist in public databases, and all of them encompass large amounts of viral…
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Dopaminergic neuromodulation of prefrontal cortex activity requires the NMDA receptor coagonist d-serine [Neuroscience]
Prefrontal control of cognitive functions critically depends upon glutamatergic transmission and N-methyl D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, the activity of which is regulated by dopamine. Yet whether the NMDA receptor coagonist d-serine is implicated in the dopamine–glutamate dialogue in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and other brain areas remains unexplored. Here, using electrophysiological…
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LRRC8A-containing chloride channel is crucial for cell volume recovery and survival under hypertonic conditions [Physiology]
Regulation of cell volume is essential for tissue homeostasis and cell viability. In response to hypertonic stress, cells need rapid electrolyte influx to compensate water loss and to prevent cell death in a process known as regulatory volume increase (RVI). However, the molecular component able to trigger such a process…
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Monitoring war destruction from space using machine learning [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Existing data on building destruction in conflict zones rely on eyewitness reports or manual detection, which makes it generally scarce, incomplete, and potentially biased. This lack of reliable data imposes severe limitations for media reporting, humanitarian relief efforts, human-rights monitoring, reconstruction initiatives, and academic studies of violent conflict. This article…
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A combination of Class-I fumarases and metabolites ({alpha}-ketoglutarate and fumarate) signal the DNA damage response in Escherichia coli [Microbiology]
Class-II fumarases (fumarate hydratase, FH) are dual-targeted enzymes occurring in the mitochondria and cytosol of all eukaryotes. They are essential components in the DNA damage response (DDR) and, more specifically, protect cells from DNA double-strand breaks. Similarly, the gram-positive bacterium Bacillus subtilis class-II fumarase, in addition to its role in…
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Structure and function at the lipid-protein interface of a pentameric ligand-gated ion channel [Physiology]
Although it has long been proposed that membrane proteins may contain tightly bound lipids, their identity, the structure of their binding sites, and their functional and structural relevance have remained elusive. To some extent, this is because tightly bound lipids are often located at the periphery of proteins, where the…
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Spatial distribution of LTi-like cells in intestinal mucosa regulates type 3 innate immunity [Immunology and Inflammation]
Lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi)-like cells are tissue resident innate lymphocytes that rapidly secrete cytokines that promote gut epithelial integrity and protect against extracellular bacterial infections.Here, we report that the retention of LTi-like cells in conventional solitary intestinal lymphoid tissue (SILT) is essential for controlling LTi-like cell function and is maintained…
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Coevolutionary phage training leads to greater bacterial suppression and delays the evolution of phage resistance [Evolution]
The evolution of antibiotic-resistant bacteria threatens to become the leading cause of worldwide mortality. This crisis has renewed interest in the practice of phage therapy. Yet, bacteria's capacity to evolve resistance may debilitate this therapy as well. To combat the evolution of phage resistance and improve treatment outcomes, many suggest…
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How membrane receptors tread the fine balance between symbiosis and immunity signaling [Plant Biology]
Throughout their life cycle, plants have to respond appropriately to diverse microorganisms. While living alongside harmless commensals and warding off disease-causing and nutrient-seeking pathogens, plants also engage in intimate endosymbiosis with microorganisms that deliver scarce mineral nutrients. In particular, the mutually beneficial symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) is prev
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Teens have a hard time finding truth online
A new national study shows a woeful inability by high schoolers to detect fake news on the internet. The research suggests an urgent need for schools to integrate new tools and curriculum into classrooms that boost students' digital skills, the study's authors say. In the largest such study undertaken, researchers from Stanford Graduate School of Education devised a challenge for 3,446 American h
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Healing hydrogels
Hydrogels are polymer materials made mostly from water. They can be used in a wide range of medical and other applications. However, previous incarnations of the materials suffered from repeated mechanical stress and would easily become deformed. A novel crystal that can reversibly form and deform, allows hydrogels to rapidly recover from mechanical stress. This opens up the use of such biocompati
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First cells reprogrammed to make synthetic polymers; also making them resistant to viruses
Scientists have developed the first cells that can construct artificial polymers from building blocks that are not found in nature, by following instructions the researchers encoded in their genes. The study, led by scientists from the Medical Research Council (MRC) Laboratory of Molecular Biology, in Cambridge, UK, also found the synthetic genome made the bacteria entirely resistant to infection
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Analysis of Baltimore City's urban farms and gardens finds safe levels of metals at vast majority of sites
A new report that examined soil, water, and produce from urban farms and gardens in Baltimore City found low levels of lead and other metals that pose no reason for concern at the majority of growing sites. Researchers from the Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health found that 96 percent of soil samples and 95 percent of irrigation water sa
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2-drug combo shrinks breast cancer tumors
Researchers have discovered a new targeted combination drug therapy that efficiently reduces tumor growth in metastatic breast cancer. Their findings could lead to the development of a new first line targeted therapy for the treatment of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), with the prospect of rapidly transitioning to clinical trials in humans. Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death
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Structures of the human Mediator and Mediator-bound preinitiation complex
The 1.3-megadalton transcription factor IID (TFIID) is required for preinitiation complex (PIC) assembly and RNA polymerase II (Pol II)–mediated transcription initiation on almost all genes. The 26-subunit Mediator stimulates transcription and cyclin-dependent kinase 7 (CDK7)–mediated phosphorylation of the Pol II C-terminal domain (CTD). We determined the structures of human Mediator in the Tail
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Extensive pleiotropism and allelic heterogeneity mediate metabolic effects of IRX3 and IRX5
Whereas coding variants often have pleiotropic effects across multiple tissues, noncoding variants are thought to mediate their phenotypic effects by specific tissue and temporal regulation of gene expression. Here, we investigated the genetic and functional architecture of a genomic region within the FTO gene that is strongly associated with obesity risk. We show that multiple variants on a comm
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Household COVID-19 risk and in-person schooling
In-person schooling has proved contentious and difficult to study throughout the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. Data from a massive online survey in the United States indicate an increased risk of COVID-19–related outcomes among respondents living with a child attending school in person. School-based mitigation measures are associated with significant reduc
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Antarctic surface temperature and elevation during the Last Glacial Maximum
Water-stable isotopes in polar ice cores are a widely used temperature proxy in paleoclimate reconstruction, yet calibration remains challenging in East Antarctica. Here, we reconstruct the magnitude and spatial pattern of Last Glacial Maximum surface cooling in Antarctica using borehole thermometry and firn properties in seven ice cores. West Antarctic sites cooled ~10°C relative to the preindus
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Antibody fucosylation predicts disease severity in secondary dengue infection
Although antiviral antibodies generally confer protective functions, antibodies against dengue virus (DENV) are associated with enhanced disease susceptibility. Antibodies can mediate DENV infection of leukocytes via Fc receptors, likely contributing to dengue disease pathogenesis. To determine if this mechanism accounts for variable disease severity, we examined Fab and Fc structures of anti-DEN
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An early Miocene extinction in pelagic sharks
Shark populations have been decimated in recent decades because of overfishing and other anthropogenic stressors; however, the long-term impacts of such changes in marine predator abundance and diversity are poorly constrained. We present evidence for a previously unknown major extinction event in sharks that occurred in the early Miocene, ~19 million years ago. During this interval, sharks virtu
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Comment on "Individual heterozygosity predicts translocation success in threatened desert tortoises"
Scott et al . (Reports, 27 November 2020, p. 1086) bring much-needed attention to species conservation by demonstrating heterozygote superiority among translocated tortoises. However, we believe that their recommended heterozygosity decision rule risks taking conservation genomics backward. We argue that their advice could misguide conservation management aimed at establishing viable populations,
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Prevalent, protective, and convergent IgG recognition of SARS-CoV-2 non-RBD spike epitopes
The molecular composition and binding epitopes of the immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies that circulate in blood plasma after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are unknown. Proteomic deconvolution of the IgG repertoire to the spike glycoprotein in convalescent subjects revealed that the response is directed predominantly (>80%) against epitopes residing outside
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Response to Comment on "Individual heterozygosity predicts translocation success in threatened desert tortoises"
Hansson et al . argue that our main finding could provide an overly simplistic metric for maximizing genetic rescue. They agree that translocating the most genetically diverse individuals led to a large increase in translocated tortoise survival, but recommend instead moving individuals that have low genetic load and the greatest representation of metapopulation diversity. Their recommendation is
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The first 5 years of gravitational-wave astrophysics
Gravitational waves are ripples in spacetime generated by the acceleration of astrophysical objects; a direct consequence of general relativity, they were first directly observed in 2015. Here, I review the first 5 years of gravitational-wave detections. More than 50 gravitational-wave events have been found, emitted by pairs of merging compact objects such as neutron stars and black holes. These
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Canonical T cell receptor docking on peptide-MHC is essential for T cell signaling
T cell receptor (TCR) recognition of peptide–major histocompatibility complexes (pMHCs) is characterized by a highly conserved docking polarity. Whether this polarity is driven by recognition or signaling constraints remains unclear. Using "reversed-docking" TCRβ-variable (TRBV) 17 + TCRs from the naïve mouse CD8 + T cell repertoire that recognizes the H-2D b –NP 366 epitope, we demonstrate that
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Sense codon reassignment enables viral resistance and encoded polymer synthesis
It is widely hypothesized that removing cellular transfer RNAs (tRNAs)—making their cognate codons unreadable—might create a genetic firewall to viral infection and enable sense codon reassignment. However, it has been impossible to test these hypotheses. In this work, following synonymous codon compression and laboratory evolution in Escherichia coli , we deleted the tRNAs and release factor 1,
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Establishing gold and platinum standards to 1 terapascal using shockless compression
New techniques are advancing the frontier of high-pressure physics beyond 1 terapascal, leading to new discoveries and offering stringent tests for condensed-matter theory and advanced numerical methods. However, the ability to absolutely determine the pressure state remains challenging, and well-calibrated pressure-density reference materials are required. We conducted shockless dynamic compress
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Reciprocal repulsions instruct the precise assembly of parallel hippocampal networks
Mammalian medial and lateral hippocampal networks preferentially process spatial- and object-related information, respectively. However, the mechanisms underlying the assembly of such parallel networks during development remain largely unknown. Our study shows that, in mice, complementary expression of cell surface molecules teneurin-3 (Ten3) and latrophilin-2 (Lphn2) in the medial and lateral hi
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CO2 electrolysis to multicarbon products in strong acid
Carbon dioxide electroreduction (CO 2 R) is being actively studied as a promising route to convert carbon emissions to valuable chemicals and fuels. However, the fraction of input CO 2 that is productively reduced has typically been very low, 2 activation to enable efficient CO 2 R in acid. We achieve CO 2 R on copper at pH 2 utilization of 77%, including a conversion efficiency of 50% toward mul
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Tough hydrogels with rapid self-reinforcement
Most tough hydrogels are reinforced by introducing sacrificial structures that can dissipate input energy. However, because the sacrificial damage cannot rapidly recover, the toughness of these gels drops substantially during consecutive cyclic loadings. We propose a damageless reinforcement strategy for hydrogels using strain-induced crystallization. For slide-ring gels in which polyethylene gly
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Mixed farming methods could reduce US emissions and increase productivity
Small-scale mixed-use agriculture that avoids synthetic fertilizers in favor of manure could eliminate agricultural greenhouse gas emissions if established across the United States' 100 million hectares of lush high quality cropland, according to a study by Gidon Eshel, publishing 3rd June 2021 in the open-access journal PLOS Biology. The minor catch: beef consumption would need to decrease, but b
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Computer simulations animate in atomic detail how DNA opens
Researchers from the Hubrecht Institute in Utrecht (The Netherlands) and the Max Planck Institute for Molecular Biomedicine in Münster (Germany) used computer simulations to reveal in atomic detail how a short piece of DNA opens while it is tightly wrapped around the proteins that package our genome. These simulations provide unprecedented insights into the mechanisms that regulate gene expression
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Atomic scale symmetry and polar nanoclusters in the paraelectric phase of ferroelectric materials
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 June 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-23600-3 The existence and atomic-level structure of the hypothetical polar nanoclusters above the Curie temperature is one of the oldest open questions in the physics of ferroelectrics. Here, the authors find the polar nanoclusters in the paraelectric phases of classical perovskite ferroelectrics.
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Unique microscope to film molecules in motion
A unique electron microscope, set to break new ground in biological imaging, is being installed today at the Rosalind Franklin Institute in the UK. The machine is able to image biological samples at up to a million frames a second, a thousand times faster than the current standard.
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Partners play key role in pregnant women's drinking
Partners can directly influence the likelihood that a pregnant woman will drink alcohol and feel depressed, which affects fetal development, new research shows. The study, published in Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research , highlights the importance of engaging partners in intervention and prevention efforts to help pregnant women avoid drinking alcohol. Prenatal alcohol exposure carries
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Genes wire puppies to communicate with people
Puppies may be wired to communicate with people, according to a new study. Dogs' social skills may be present shortly after birth rather than learned, the research suggests. The study in the journal Current Biology also finds that genetics may help explain why some dogs perform better than others on social tasks such as following pointing gestures. "There was evidence that these sorts of social s
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