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FORSKERE HAR UDVIKLET EN BAKTERIE, SOM IKKE KAN ANGRIBES AF VIRUS (FORDI DER ER INDSAT KUNSTIGE AMINOSYRER I BAKTERIECELLERNE): Scientists Used CRISPR to Engineer a New 'Superbug' That's Invincible to All Viruses
Read about how synthetic biologists are using CRISPR technology to replace codons (which code for amino acids) with synthetic amino acids in bacteria cells. This type of preliminary research holds great potential for countless scientific applications, such as changing the way we look at medicine.
Burger Bots Next time you hit up a McDonald's drive-thru, you might find yourself leaning out your window to bark your order to a robot rather than a pimply teenager. The fast food giant has been testing out a Siri-like voice-recognition system at ten drive-thru locations in Chicago, CEO Chris Kempczinski revealed during a Wednesday investor conference attended by Nation's Restaurant News . The s
The widely studied metallic asteroid known as 16 Psyche was long thought to be the exposed iron core of a small planet that failed to form during the earliest days of the solar system. But new University of Arizona-led research suggests that the asteroid might not be as metallic or dense as once thought, and hints at a much different origin story.
360 Degrees NASA's Perseverance Mars rover took a stunning 360-degree panorama of its surroundings while parked at the "Van Zyl Overlook" in the Jezero Crater, a region believed to be the dried up bed of an ancient lake. The six-wheeled rover was parked at the Overlook while its tiny helicopter companion, NASA's ingenuity Mars helicopter, completed its first flights between April 15 and 26. The g
Bad Bosses As more details emerge about Melinda and Bill Gates' relationship leading up to their recent divorce announcement, it's becoming increasingly clear that Bill's carefully-crafted public persona of an earnest geek who wants to save the world is in reality much more complicated. As that affable persona shatters, more people are speaking up about Gates' tendencies to pursue extramarital af
Australian scientists develop a microscope that works with 35% more clarity, raising hope for improvements in medical imaging Australian researchers have developed a microscope that can image tiny biological structures that were previously not visible in what has been described as a significant step for quantum technology. It is believed to be the first time that quantum technology has improved o
Carl Schoonover and Andrew Fink are confused. As neuroscientists, they know that the brain must be flexible but not too flexible. It must rewire itself in the face of new experiences, but must also consistently represent the features of the external world. How? The relatively simple explanation found in neuroscience textbooks is that specific groups of neurons reliably fire when their owner smell
Science can allow us to determine what happened trillionths of a second after the Big Bang. But it likely never will be possible to know what brought about the Big Bang. As frustrating as it might be, some things are entirely unknowable. And that's a good thing. Let's face it: to think that the universe has a history that started with a kind of birthday some 13.8 billion years ago is weird. It re
Democrats did not like the Fifteenth Amendment. In the late 1860s, as Congress debated the proposal to bar disenfranchisement on the basis of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude," Democratic senators and representatives charged Republicans with imposing a vile despotism on the southern states by enfranchising Black men. "I now come to this point to say that to deprive any citizen of
Tesla's sales seem to have rebounded from a seriously weak April, showing surprisingly strong revenues in the month of May. With the values of Bitcoin slipping even further , that wild ride is leading some to suspect the electric car company may have sold off some of its considerable Bitcoin holdings. According to Bloomberg columnist Liam Denning , the plummet, in addition to pressure from all si
Rock Stars The rock band The Flaming Lips has been a mainstay for decades, but the group still has its sights set on bigger and better things. Namely, frontman Wayne Coyne said on Audacy that he wants to be the first band to perform in space, adding that he hoped SpaceX CEO and notorious launcher of things Elon Musk was listening so he could help them out. "I still hold out hope with the likes of
For Shame According to NASA administrator Bill Nelson, the issue of space junk is about to become a lot more relevant as we spend more and more time in Earth's orbit — and, he admitted, it's partially the fault of the United States. "It's dangerous, and shameful for anybody — including the US — that has allowed space debris to be up there," Nelson told CNN in an interview on Tuesday. In fact, wit
DNA tests on ancient bones show men were related and died following violent incidents The skeletons of two Viking age men who were related but died on opposite sides of the North Sea are to be reunited in an exhibition in Copenhagen this month. DNA tests on the ancient bones suggest the men were either half-brothers or a nephew and an uncle, according to Prof Eske Willerslev, a Danish evolutionar
Wakey Wakey! A lot was happening about 24,000 years ago. Humanity may have been busy first arriving and settling in North America while enjoying hot new trends like artistic pottery and counting . Meanwhile, somewhere in Siberia, a microscopic critter called a bdelloid rotifer succumbed to the extreme cold of the ongoing Ice Age and went into a state of cryogenic sleep in the permafrost — where i
For nearly half a century, astrophysicists and organic chemists have been on the hunt for the origins of C6H6, the benzene ring—an elegant, hexagonal molecule comprised of 6 carbon and 6 hydrogen atoms.
At the heart of almost every sufficiently massive galaxy there is a black hole whose gravitational field, although very intense, affects only a small region around the center of the galaxy. Even though these objects are thousands of millions of times smaller than their host galaxies, our current view is that the Universe can be understood only if the evolution of galaxies is regulated by the activ
Our genetic material is stored in our cells in a specific way to make the meter-long DNA molecule fit into the tiny cell nucleus of each body cell. An international team of researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Biology of Aging, the CECAD Cluster of Excellence in Aging Research at the University of Cologne, the University College London and the University of Michigan have now been able to sh
Third of people say they use strong language more than they did five years ago, according to BBFC survey Swearing in everyday life is on the rise, according to research, but parents do not want to see it increase in the film and television their children watch. The British Board of Film Classification (BBFC) published a report on Thursday into attitudes towards swearing and whether people want a
Archaeologists are giving a grassy hilltop overlooking iconic Plymouth Rock one last look before a historical park is built to commemorate the Pilgrims and the Indigenous people who once called it home.
Laser-produced high energy density plasmas, akin to those found in stars, nuclear explosions, and the core of giant planets, may be the most extreme state of matter created on Earth. Now scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), building on nearly a decade of collaboration with the National Ignition Facility (NIF) at the DOE's Lawrence Livermor
In a new study, researchers demonstrate an automated, easy-to-operate quantum key distribution (QKD) system using the fiber network in the city of Padua, Italy. The field test represents an important step toward implementing this highly secure quantum communication technology using the type of communication networks already in place in many regions around the world.
Organic residues on ceramic pottery are a valuable resource for understanding medieval cuisines of Islamic-ruled Sicily, according to a study published June 9, 2021 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Jasmine Lundy of the University of York, UK and colleagues.
Nature, Published online: 10 June 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-01549-z Mass vaccination drives in several countries are providing new data on the extent to which adult vaccination protects children — but the conclusions are mixed.
When herring are filleted, more than half their weight becomes a low-value 'side stream' that never reaches our plates. Now, scientists from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, have developed a special dipping solution which can significantly extend the side streams' shelf life, and increase the opportunities to use them as food.
Treating transplant patients with mild to moderate cases of COVID-19 with monoclonal antibodies is safe and helps prevent serious illness, according to a Mayo Clinic study recently published in Open Forum Infectious Diseases. These results are especially important because transplant patients who are infected with COVID-19 have a higher risk of severe illness and death.
Underage youth consumed $17.5 billion worth, or 8.6 percent, of the alcoholic drinks sold in 2016. Products from three alcohol companies – AB Inbev, MillerCoors and Diageo – accounted for nearly half of youth consumption, according to a new study from researchers at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Johns Hopkins and Boston University.
When the G7 group of rich democracies assemble this weekend in southwest England, they will discuss issues including COVID-19, taxes, and climate change. One item overhanging the formal agenda, however, will be the global deterioration of democracy itself, and the nation on which this question may hinge won't be any of the hosts, but a guest invited to this year's confab: India. Democracy's fate
Americans are consuming more higher alcohol-content craft beer but are drinking less beer by volume, according to a new analysis led by epidemiologists at the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health. The study looked at beer purchased in stores between 2004 and 2014 and is the first to examine trends not only in the volume of beer purchased, but the "beer specific" alcohol conten
Children with reading and writing difficulties who are presented with text on screens with flickering white noise both read better and remember what they have read better, according to a Swedish-Norwegian study.
Investigators find that eligible patients who discuss bariatric surgery options with their primary care providers or specialists from disciplines ranging from cardiology to urology are more likely to undergo surgery and lose more weight than those who do not have such discussions.
Despite knowing about decompression sickness – or 'the bends' – for more than a century, researchers are still mystified about how this condition occurs. A new study published by the open access journal Frontiers is the first to explore the genetic changes that occur in humans with the bends. It reveals that genes involved in white blood cell activation and inflammation are upregulated in divers w
There are more than 7,000 languages spoken on Earth, but by the end of the century, 30% of these could be lost. This week, research warns that knowledge of medicinal plants is at risk of disappearing as human languages become extinct. Phoebe Weston speaks to Rodrigo Cámara Leret about the study, and the links between biological and cultural diversity Continue reading…
There are more than 7,000 languages spoken on Earth, but by the end of the century, 30% of these could be lost. This week, research warns that knowledge of medicinal plants is at risk of disappearing as human languages become extinct. Phoebe Weston speaks to Rodrigo Cámara Leret about the study, and the links between biological and cultural diversity. Help support our independent journalism at the
If you could soar high in the sky, as red kites often do in search of prey, and look down at the domain of all things known and yet to be known, you would see something very curious: a vast class of things that science has so far almost entirely neglected. These things are central to our understanding of physical reality, both at the everyday level and at the level of the most fundamental phenome
People often ask me whether human-level artificial intelligence will eventually become conscious. My response is: Do you want it to be conscious? I think it is largely up to us whether our machines will wake up. That may sound presumptuous. The mechanisms of consciousness—the reasons we have a vivid and direct experience of the world and of the self—are an unsolved mystery in neuroscience, and so
The boy was only a month old but had developed the amount of health problems that other people don't acquire in a lifetime. He was constantly suffering from bacterial infections, battling unexplained inflammation, not gaining weight, and—scariest of all—having bloody diarrhea, a puzzling symptom that made some doctors think he had a pediatric version of an irritable bowel disease. Artemio Miguel
Orion, a SolarWinds product, was designed to monitor the users' networks to make sure they were functioning properly and, ironically, kept safe. Photograph by Camilo Concha / Shutterstock Last year, hackers made headlines after they breached SolarWinds, a software company that specializes in network monitoring software. About 33,000 organizations, including the Pentagon, the U.S. State Department
PLUS. Danskerne er nervøse for, at de ikke kan finde ladestandere, hvis de køber en elbil. Det viser en meningsmåling, Ingeniøren har foretaget. FDM mener, at det haster med en national plan for ladeinfrastrukturen.
Hi r/Futurology ! ENMAX recently introduced Canada's first Hybrid Electric Gas Turbine at our Crossfield Energy Centre north of Calgary, Alberta. This unique technology provides enhanced flexibility in how electricity is provided to market while significantly lowering greenhouse gas emissions. By combining an existing natural gas-fueled turbine with a new 10 MW / 4.3 MWh lithium-ion battery energ
Group of scientists contest privacy concerns that they say are hampering research into illnesses such as long Covid Researchers have said they could struggle to find new treatments for conditions dealt with by GPs, from long Covid to depression, if they cannot get access to the patient data held by GPs because of concerns over privacy. Related: Why has the NHS patient data-sharing scheme been pus
A new study published by the open access publisher Frontiers is the first to research the link between functional brain network connectivity and behavioral temperament in newborns and one-month-old babies. The findings, which show that functional brain connectivity networks with behavioral relevance are already present in young infants, help further bridge the research gap between the human brain
The increased use of ridesharing apps was linked to a decrease in motor vehicle collisions and impaired driving convictions in Houston, according to published research by The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston (UTHealth).
Results from the multi-cohort Phase I/II ARROW clinical trial, conducted by The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center researchers, showed that a once-daily dose of pralsetinib, a highly selective RET inhibitor, was safe and effective in treating patients with advanced RET fusion-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and RET-altered thyroid cancer.
The Perseverance rover will no doubt make monumental contributions to science during its mission on Mars, but the ride-along Ingenuity helicopter is stealing the show right now. NASA's ambitious flying drone has now completed its seventh flight on the red planet, and NASA confirms the robot encountered no issues as it traveled to yet another new landing zone in Jezero Crater. Not bad for a "demo"
The moons of planets that have no parent star can possess an atmosphere and retain liquid water. Astrophysicists at LMU have calculated that such systems could harbor sufficient water to make life possible – and sustain it.
Jeff Bezos founded his spaceflight company two decades ago, at the turn of the millennium. You may not have known that, because Blue Origin spent years developing its rocket technology in secret. But by now you've probably heard, because Bezos wants everyone to know: Blue Origin is sending passengers to space, and he's going on the inaugural trip himself. He shared the news this week on Instagram
Inside each proton or neutron there are three quarks bound by gluons. Until now, it has often been assumed that two of them form a 'stable' pair known as a diquark. It seems, however, that it's the end of the road for the diquarks in physics. This is one of the conclusions of the new model of proton-proton or proton-nucleus collisions, which takes into account the interactions of gluons with the s
Two gene variants found in African American women may explain why they are more likely to be diagnosed with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) than white women of European ancestry, according to Weill Cornell Medicine and NewYork-Presbyterian investigators. The study findings may have implications for developing better risk assessment tools for TNBC in African-American women and for understandin
An international research team led by members from the Technical University of Munich, the Deutsches Museum, and the Linköping University has developed a method to manufacture two-dimensional polymers with the thickness of a single molecule. The polymers are formed on a surface by the action of light. The discovery paves the way to new ultrathin and functional materials.
Researchers have found that a single, one-hour treatment that involves breathing in a mixture of oxygen and the anesthetic drug nitrous oxide — otherwise known as laughing gas — can significantly improve symptoms in people with treatment-resistant depression.
A new study identifies a novel biomarker indicating resilience to chronic stress. This biomarker is largely absent in people suffering from major depressive disorder, and this absence is further associated with pessimism in daily life, the study finds.
Research shows that children from lower-income backgrounds and those who go through greater adverse childhood experiences get their first permanent molars sooner. The findings align with a broader pattern of accelerated development often seen under conditions of early-life stress.
Scientists have developed polypeptide-based materials that act as effective vectors for delivering gene therapies. The new platform enables the vectors to be adapted to suit the specific gene therapy cargo.
New research has revealed that people with the ability to visualize vividly have a stronger connection between their visual network and the regions of the brain linked to decision-making. The study also sheds light on memory and personality differences between those with strong visual imagery and those who cannot hold a picture in their mind's eye.
The routes and schedules of public transit, the presence or absence of sidewalks, the availability of different transportation options, and the design of highways that divide cities–these are examples of aspects of transportation systems that can profoundly impact underserved communities' access to basic needs like jobs, health care, education and even food.
In a review published in the journal Cancer Cell of 200 patients with a wide spectrum of cancer diagnoses, researchers found that after full vaccination, 94%of patients overall demonstrated seroconversion, which was determined by the presence of antibodies to the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. Response rates were very high among patients with solid tumors and were lower in people with certain blood can
Europa kan få en havsnivåhöjning på en meter eller mer under en period av 100 år. Konsekvenserna blir stora, inte bara för kuststäderna. Det kommer att få enorma följdeffekter för våra samhällen, menar forskare i de europeiska vetenskapsakademiernas rådgivande organ. Kontinenten kommer även att drabbas av omfattande kusterosion och påverkan på hela ekosystem. Det framgår av en rapport som nyligen
University of Illinois Chicago researchers studying birth outcomes in marmoset monkeys found there were no adult maternal characteristics like age or weight gain during pregnancy to predict stillbirth or early neonatal death, but that a mother's birth weight or litter size were associated with early neonatal death.
Smokers needed their blocked arteries fixed nearly a decade earlier than non-smokers, and patients with obesity underwent these procedures four years earlier than non-obese patients, according to a new study from across Michigan.
Researchers from the University of Maryland School of Medicine (UMSOM) and their colleagues found that nearly 20 percent of patients with unexplained sudden cardiac death – most of whom were under age 50 – carried rare genetic variants. These variants likely raised their risk of sudden cardiac death.
A new study led by Penn paleontologist Aja Carter documents distinct patterns in how early amphibians' spines evolved. Certain modifications, the research team found, correlated with the animals' habitat: terrestrial or aquatic.
Russian scientists have found a way to increase photoluminescence in silicon, the notoriously poor emitter and absorber of photons at the heart of all modern electronics. This discovery may pave the way to photonic integrated circuits, boosting their performance.
Researchers have developed a new tomography method with which they can measure chemical properties inside catalyst materials in 3-D extremely precisely and faster than before. The application is equally important for science and industry.
The fairy circles of the Namib are one of nature's greatest mysteries. Millions of these circular barren patches extend over vast areas along the margins of the desert in Namibia. An early hypothesis by G.K. Theron was that poisonous substances from Euphorbia damarana leaves induced fairy circles. Now new research found the original experiment and, 40 years later, the researchers are able to concl
Buying Used The secondhand market for electric vehicles has a serious issue, Vice reports : it's nearly impossible to figure out the health of any given electric car's battery. The shortcoming represents a major challenge for automakers. To truly take over the market, they're going to have to persuade secondhand customers that their vehicles are just as reliable used — and, unfortunately, there's
How are the squirrels doing this year? The bears? The armadilloes? How would you know? A new paper published June 8 sets up the framework for answering these questions across the United States by releasing the data from the first national mammal survey made up of 1,509 motion-activated camera traps from 110 sites located across all 50 states.
Researchers from York University and the University of British Columbia have found social media use to be one of the factors related to the spread of COVID-19 within dozens of countries during the early stages of the pandemic.
Small pieces of plastic are everywhere, stretching from urban environments to pristine wilderness. Left to their own devices, it can take hundreds of years for them to degrade completely. Catalysts activated by sunlight could speed up the process, but getting these compounds to interact with microplastics is difficult. In a proof-of-concept study, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & I
Chronic inflammation in the gut may propel processes in the body that give rise to Parkinson's disease, according to a study by scientists at Van Andel Institute and Roche.The study, published in Free Neuropathology, is the latest in a growing list that links the gut and the immune system to Parkinson's.
Organic photovoltaics max out at 15%-20% efficiency. Lehigh University researchers are using physics-informed machine learning to improve this efficiency. Their findings suggest a machine learning model, trained on coarse grained molecular models, can identify the optimal parameters for manufacturing in much less time than traditional methods. The researchers are currently exploring alternative ma
The World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control recommend keeping a certain distance between people to prevent the spread of COVID-19. These social distancing recommendations are estimated from a variety of studies, but further research about the precise mechanism of virus transport from one person to another is still needed.
Engineers at Duke University have demonstrated a prototype X-ray scanning machine that reveals not just the shape of an object but its molecular composition. With unprecedented resolution and accuracy, the technology could revolutionize a wide range of fields such as cancer surgery, pathology, drug inspection and geology.
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An international team of collaborators has made the first direct observation of the anionic redox reaction in a lithium-rich battery material. The research opens up pathways for improving existing battery cathodes–and designing new ones.
The movement of electrons can have a significantly greater influence on spintronic effects than previously assumed. Until now, a calculation of these effects took, above all, the spin of electrons into consideration. The study offers a new approach in developing spintronic components.
Scientists have developed a new, highly sensitive analytical method that can detect degraded beta-lactam antibacterial agents used in the treatment of bacterial infections. With this method, researchers found that reactive sulfur species produced by bacteria degrade and inactivate beta-lactam antibiotics.
Indigenous peoples pass on their knowledge of medicinal plants orally. If their languages go extinct, valuable medical knowledge will be lost. A study estimates that 75% of the world's medicinal plant applications are only known in one language.
Research, development, and production of novel materials depend heavily on the availability of fast and at the same time accurate simulation methods. Machine learning, in which artificial intelligence autonomously acquires and applies new knowledge, will soon enable researchers to develop complex material systems in a purely virtual environment. How does this work, which applications will benefit?
Watching honeybees buzz among flowers, it's easy to see how the expression "busy as a bee" arose. One of many movements a bee's body makes is the repetitive curving and straightening of its abdomen. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces have found that tiny hairs reduce friction from these motions, saving energy for the industrious insects' daily activities while reducin
On June 8, World Oceans Day, the President of Panama, Laurentino Cortizo, signed an executive decree that expands the limits of the Cordillera de Coiba protected area, a step that will double the amount of Panamanian marine surface that is under some degree of protection. The scientific basis for this initiative was a multidisciplinary effort led by marine biologist Hector M. Guzman, from the Smit
NASA's Nancy Grace Roman Space Telescope team recently flight-certified all 24 of the detectors the mission needs. When Roman launches in the mid-2020s, these devices will convert starlight into electrical signals, which will then be decoded into 300-megapixel images of large patches of the sky. These images will allow astronomers to explore a vast array of celestial objects and phenomena, bringin
How are the squirrels doing this year? The bears? The armadillos? How would you know? A new paper published June 8, 2021 sets up the framework for answering these questions across the United States by releasing the data from the first national mammal survey made up of 1,509 motion-activated camera traps from 110 sites located across all 50 states.
Bristle worms have remarkably stable jaws. They are made of a very unusual material containing protein structures and metal atoms. Scientists have now been able to analyze and explain the properties of these structures, which could lead to novel industrially usable materials.
Two articles describe how ground-breaking image reconstruction and analysis algorithms developed for surface-based MicroBooNE detector filter out cosmic ray tracks to pinpoint elusive neutrino interactions with unprecedented clarity.
A research team has uncovered new insights into the role of polyphenols in the soil microbiome, known as a black box for its complexity. They proffer an updated theory that soils – much like the human gut – can be food sources for the microbes that live there.
A phenomenon in which an RNA named NORAD drives a protein named Pumilio to form liquid droplets in cells, much like oil in water, appears to tightly regulate the activity of Pumilio. A new study suggests that such RNA-driven 'phase separation,' in turn, protects against genome instability, premature aging, and neurodegenerative diseases, and may represent a previously unrecognized way for RNAs to
Microphones are perhaps the most common electronic sensor in the world, with an estimated 320 million listening for our commands in the world's smart speakers. The trouble is that they're capable of hearing everything else, too.
Scientists studying the link between cholesterol and breast cancer report that a byproduct of cholesterol metabolism causes some cells to send out cancer-promoting signals to other cells. These signals are packaged in membrane-bound compartments called extracellular vesicles.
Hundratusentals skolelever kommer dagligen i kontakt med mobbning – som offer, mobbare eller vittnen. Forskning visar vad som avgör om andra elever kommer till offrets undsättning eller inte. I två nya studier har forskarna undersökt det som kallas "bystander-effekten", det vill säga ögonvittnens villighet att rycka in till offrets försvar vid mobbning, och vad det är som påverkar denna. Enligt e
Forskare har utvecklat molekyler med utgångspunkt i naturliga hartssyror som finns i gran och tall. Flera av molekylerna har visat sig verksamma mot epilepsi. Vid epilepsi är nervcellerna i hjärnan överaktiva, vilket utlöser epileptiska anfall. De nya molekylerna har lovande egenskaper för att kunna utvecklas till läkemedel mot epilepsi, menar forskarna vid Linköpings universitet. – Över 60 miljo
When the DAVINCI+ and VERITAS missions to Venus were given the green light by NASA last week , the scientific community was stunned. Most had expected that NASA, which hadn't launched a dedicated mission to Venus in 30 years, would be sending at least one mission to the second planet from the sun by the end of the decade. Two missions, however, blew everyone's mind. Maybe NASA anticipated somethi
A study shows that a deep neural network model can accurately predict the brain age of healthy patients based on electroencephalogram data recorded during an overnight sleep study, and EEG-predicted brain age indices display unique characteristics within populations with different diseases.
Galanin receptor1 (GalR1) transcript levels are elevated in the rat ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) after chronic mild stress (CMS) and are related to depression-like behavior. To explore the mechanisms underlying the elevated GalR1 expression, we carried out molecular biological experiments in vitro and in animal behavioral experiments in vivo. It…
Global cooling and glacial–interglacial cycles since Antarctica's isolation have been responsible for the diversification of the region's marine fauna. By contrast, these same Earth system processes are thought to have played little role terrestrially, other than driving widespread extinctions. Here, we show that on islands along the Antarctic Polar Front,…
DNA replication is dramatically slowed down under replication stress. The regulation of replication speed is a conserved response in eukaryotes and, in fission yeast, requires the checkpoint kinases Rad3ATR and Cds1Chk2. However, the underlying mechanism of this checkpoint regulation remains unresolved. Here, we report that the Rad3ATR-Cds1Chk2 checkpoint directly targets…
Social scientists and community advocates have expressed concerns that many social and cultural impacts important to citizens are given insufficient weight by decision makers in public policy decision-making. In two large cross-sectional surveys, we examined public perceptions of a range of social, cultural, health, economic, and environmental impacts. Findings suggest…
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has raged for more than a year in the United States, upending life as we knew it. Nevertheless, we have seen incredibly rapid advances in vaccines, therapeutics, and diagnostic testing technology. There is tremendous need and economic interest in reopening our businesses and schools…
Patients with severe COVID-19 infection exhibit a low level of oxygen in affected tissue and blood. To understand the pathophysiology of COVID-19 infection, it is therefore necessary to understand cell function during hypoxia. We investigated aspects of human monocyte activation under hypoxic conditions. HMGB1 is an alarmin released by stressed…
A once in a century new viral outbreak, COVID-19, has caused unfathomable numbers of deaths, toward 4 million. Yet an ancient disease, malaria, endemic to the residents of more than half of Earth, is even more devastating than this pandemic over time: It caused about 12 million deaths in the…
Previous research suggests that COVID-19 has disproportionately affected some demographic groups. A new analysis using more individual-level data and including both inpatients and outpatients confirms a large role of structural factors. Data indicates striking disparities in the pandemic's impact.
Darkening just half of a building's windows can make a big difference for migrating birds, a new study shows. Every night during the spring and fall migration seasons, thousands of birds are killed when they crash into illuminated windows, disoriented by the light. Using decades' worth of data and birds collected by Field Museum scientists at Chicago's McCormick Place convention center, researche
Researchers have developed a blueprint for designing new materials using difficult combinations of nanocrystals. The work could lead to improvements in nanocrystals already used in displays , medical imaging , and diagnostics, and enable new materials with previously impossible properties. Researchers can make materials with new and interesting properties by bringing together nanocrystals of diff
The prolonged impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and the interaction restrictions created widespread lockdown fatigue and increased social tension in multiunit housing. But small improvements in quality-of-life routines may help people cope with the health restrictions better than they previously could.
Like champagne, roquefort and Kalamata olives, South Africa's world-famous rooibos tea has been added to a European Union list of protected agricultural products and foodstuffs, an industry official said Wednesday.
New Curtin research has shown how a readily available, cheap and safe-to-use product found in the medicine cabinet of most homes could be the key to better ecological restoration practices with major benefits for the environment and agriculture.The study revealed that aspirin, which naturally occurs in the bark of the willow tree and other plants, can improve the survival of grass species importan
A single one-hour treatment with nitrous oxide — also known as laughing gas — can relieve symptoms of treatment-resistant depression for several weeks, according to a phase 2 clinical trial involving 28 participants.
Should treatment of alcoholics be different based on gender? Yes, according to a new study that shows that alcoholic men and women respond differently to their disease resulting in different levels of brain activity and brain abnormalities. Research indicates that they distinguish facial expressions differently and that this is an important clue as to how treatment strategies might be tailored.
A new study unexpectedly identified tiny deposits of elemental copper and iron within the brains of two deceased people with Alzheimer's disease. The findings could help scientists better understand how these elemental metals, which were uncovered in the cores of amyloid plaques, contribute to neurodegenerative diseases and could point to a target for alternative Alzheimer's therapies.
A new study at the University of Chicago Medicine and Washington University found that a single inhalation session with 25% nitrous oxide gas was nearly as effective as 50% nitrous oxide at rapidly relieving symptoms of treatment-resistant depression, with fewer adverse side effects.
The worst drought in nearly a century to hit two key regions in Brazil is wreaking havoc on hydroelectric dams and crops—and threatening the nascent pandemic recovery of Latin America's biggest economy.
In humans and animals, fat cells produce and store fat in special organelles, which are specialized subunits within the cell, called lipid droplets. The lipid droplets make up the largest part of the volume of these fat cells, also known as adipocytes. Adipocytes fulfill vital tasks protecting our organs, as well as parts of the body that are sensitive to cold, and they serve as a source of reserv
Purdue University engineers have developed a method to transform existing cloth items into battery-free wearables resistant to laundry. These smart clothes are powered wirelessly through a flexible, silk-based coil sewn on the textile.
Postpartum women in bad romantic relationships are not only more likely to suffer symptoms of depression, but are also at greater long-term risk of illness or death, according to a new study. Researchers examined how relationships and partner behavior are linked to depression and heart rate variability (HRV) in women between the third trimester of pregnancy and one year postpartum. "The quality o
The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) on platinum catalysts is essential in fuel cells. Quantitative predictions of the relative ORR activity in experiments, in the range of 1 to 50 times, have remained challenging because of incomplete mechanistic understanding and lack of computational tools to account for the associated small differences in activation energies (
Muscle stem cells (satellite cells) are distributed throughout the body and have heterogeneous properties among muscles. However, functional topographical genes in satellite cells of adult muscle remain unidentified. Here, we show that expression of Homeobox-A (Hox-A) cluster genes accompanied with DNA hypermethylation of the Hox-A locus was robustly maintained in both somite-derived muscles and
Engineered tumor-homing neural stem cells (NSCs) have shown promise in treating cancer. Recently, we transdifferentiated skin fibroblasts into human-induced NSCs (hiNSC) as personalized NSC drug carriers. Here, using a SOX2 and spheroidal culture-based reprogramming strategy, we generated a new hiNSC variant, hiNeuroS, that was genetically distinct from fibroblasts and first-generation hiNSCs and
Excitatory synapses on dendritic spines of pyramidal neurons are considered a central memory locus. To foster both continuous adaption and the storage of long-term information, spines need to be plastic and stable at the same time. Here, we advanced in vivo STED nanoscopy to superresolve distinct features of spines (head size and neck length/width) in mouse neocortex for up to 1 month. While LTP-
Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) regulates numerous important physiological functions, including immune response and vascular integrity, via its cognate receptors (S1PR1 to S1PR5); however, it remains unclear how S1P activates S1PRs upon binding. Here, we determined the crystal structure of the active human S1PR3 in complex with its natural agonist S1P at 3.2-Å resolution. S1P exhibits an unbent con
The large range of H 2 O contents recorded in minerals from exhumed mantle rocks has been challenging to interpret, as it often records a combination of melting, metasomatism, and diffusional processes in spatially isolated samples. Here, we determine the temporal variations of H 2 O contents in pyroxenes from a 24-Ma time series of abyssal peridotites exposed along the Vema fracture zone (Atlant
The chemistry of copper and iron plays a critical role in normal brain function. A variety of enzymes and proteins containing positively charged Cu + , Cu 2+ , Fe 2+ , and Fe 3+ control key processes, catalyzing oxidative metabolism and neurotransmitter and neuropeptide production. Here, we report the discovery of elemental (zero–oxidation state) metallic Cu 0 accompanying ferromagnetic elemental
The recognition of oligomannose-type glycans in innate and adaptive immunity is elusive due to multiple closely related isomeric glycan structures. To explore the functions of oligomannoses, we developed a multifaceted approach combining mass spectrometry assignments of oligomannose substructures and the development of a comprehensive oligomannose microarray. This defined microarray encompasses b
The performance of functional materials is either driven or limited by nanoscopic heterogeneities distributed throughout the material's volume. To better our understanding of these materials, we need characterization tools that allow us to determine the nature and distribution of these heterogeneities in their native geometry in 3D. Here, we introduce a method based on x-ray near-edge spectroscop
Efforts to stem the transmission of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) led to rapid, global ancillary reductions in air pollutant emissions. Here, we quantify the impact on tropospheric ozone using a multiconstituent chemical data assimilation system. Anthropogenic NO x emissions dropped by at least 15% globally and 18 to 25% regionally in April and May 2020, which decreased free tropospheric oz
In animal embryos, gene regulatory networks control the dynamics of gene expression in cells and coordinate such dynamics among cells. In ascidian embryos, gene expression dynamics have been dissected at the single-cell resolution. Here, we revealed mathematical functions that represent the regulatory logics of all regulatory genes expressed at the 32-cell stage when the germ layers are largely s
Skillful near-term climate predictions of rainfall over the Tibetan Plateau (TP), the Asian water tower, benefit billions of people. On the basis of the state-of-the-art decadal prediction models, we showed evidence that although the raw model outputs show low predicted ability for the summer Inner TP (ITP) rainfall due to low signal-to-noise ratios in models, we can produce realistic predictions
Although targeting BRAF mutants with RAF inhibitors has achieved promising outcomes in cancer therapy, drug resistance remains a remarkable challenge, and underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. Here, we characterized a previously unknown group of oncogenic BRAF mutants with in-frame insertions (LLR ins506 or VLR ins506 ) of αC-β4 loop. Using structure modeling and molecular dyn
Dopamine signaling is constrained to discrete tracts yet has brain-wide effects on neural activity. The nature of this relationship between local dopamine signaling and brain-wide neuronal activity is not clearly defined and has relevance for neuropsychiatric illnesses where abnormalities of cortical activity and dopamine signaling coexist. Using simultaneous PET-MRI in healthy volunteers, we fin
Photodetection spanning the short-, mid-, and long-wave infrared (SWIR-LWIR) underpins modern science and technology. Devices using state-of-the-art narrow bandgap semiconductors require complex manufacturing, high costs, and cooling requirements that remain prohibitive for many applications. We report high-performance infrared photodetection from a donor-acceptor conjugated polymer with broadban
The organs and metabolic pathways involved in energy metabolism, and the process of ATP production from nutrients, are comparable between humans and Drosophila melanogaster . This level of conservation, together with the power of Drosophila genetics, makes the fly a very useful model system to study energy homeostasis. Here, we discuss the major organs involved in energy metabolism in Drosophila
Heat shock factor 2 (HSF2) regulates the transcription of the male-specific region of the mouse Y chromosome long arm (MSYq) multicopy genes only in testes, but the molecular mechanism underlying this tissue specificity remains largely unknown. Here, we report that the testicular germ cell–specific long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), NR_038002 , displays a characteristic spatiotemporal expression patter
Recent studies have identified impaired type 2 alveolar epithelial cell (ATII) renewal in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) human organoids and severe fibrosis when ATII is defective in mice. ATIIs function as progenitor cells and require supportive signals from the surrounding mesenchymal cells. The mechanisms by which mesenchymal cells promote ATII progenitor functions in lung fibrosis are in
Neuropathological staging studies have suggested that tau pathology spreads through the brain in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other tauopathies, but it is unclear how neuroanatomical connections, spatial proximity, and regional vulnerability contribute. In this study, we seed tau pathology in the brains of nontransgenic mice with AD tau and quantify pathology development over 9 months in 134 brai
CAR T cell therapy remains ineffective in solid tumors, due largely to poor infiltration and T cell suppression at the tumor site. T regulatory (T reg ) cells suppress the immune response via inhibitory factors such as transforming growth factor–β (TGF-β). T reg cells expressing the C-C chemokine receptor 8 (CCR8) have been associated with poor prognosis in solid tumors. We postulated that CCR8 c
When America's richest are paying proportionately less in tax than those struggling from paycheck to paycheck, the tax system demands a radical overhaul This week, Jeff Bezos announced his plan to become the first billionaire in space . Next month, on the 52nd anniversary of the launch of Apollo 11, he will fly about 100 km above the rest of us, see the curve of the Earth and experience a few min
A group of ancient amphibians called temnospondyls evolved stiffer spinal columns to adapt to aquatic life, contrary to previous hypotheses, according to a study published June 9, 2021 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Aja Mia Carter of the University of Pennsylvania and colleagues.
New Curtin research has shown how a readily available, cheap and safe-to-use product found in the medicine cabinet of most homes could be the key to better ecological restoration practices with major benefits for the environment and agriculture.
New research seeks to resolve lingering questions about the rate at which the Atchafalaya River captured water from the Mississippi River and the degree to which it would have changed the course of the river.
Summer rainfall on the Tibetan Plateau is highly predictable on multiyear timescales in large ensemble predictions, according to a research team led by Zhou Tianjun from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
PSI researchers have developed a new tomography method with which they can measure chemical properties inside catalyst materials in 3D extremely precisely and faster than before. The method has applications for science and industry. The researchers published their results today in the journal Science Advances.
Their findings, published this week in Scientific Reports, could lead to a way to protect patients at highest risk for severe complications and death from out-of-control inflammatory responses to microbial infections, including COVID-19.
A new model lets a drone shoot a video based on a desired emotion or viewer reaction. It takes skill to fly a drone smoothly and without crashing. Once someone has mastered flying, there are still camera angles, panning speeds, trajectories, and flight paths to plan. A team of researchers imagined that with all the sensors and processing power onboard a drone and embedded in its camera, there mus
Researchers say species exposed for long periods to light pollution near the shore were less likely to survive than those living farther away Young clownfish on coastal reefs are dying faster as a result of exposure to artificial light at night, according to new research. An international team of scientists studying reefs on Moorea, a tiny island of French Polynesia, have found that orange-fin an
The SARS-CoV-2 papain-like protease (PLpro) plays an essential role in processing viral proteins needed for replication. In addition, the enzyme can cut and inactivate some human proteins important for an immune response. Now, researchers reporting in ACS Infectious Diseases have found other targets of PLpro in the human proteome, including proteins involved in cardiovascular function, blood clott
In the battle between hunter and hunted, sound plays an integral part in success or failure. In the case of bats vs. moths, the insects are using acoustics against their winged foes. During the 180th ASA Meeting, Thomas Neil from the University of Bristol will discuss how moth wings have evolved in composition and structure to help them create anti-bat defenses. The session, "Moth wings are acoust
A new urine screening test can detect new or recurrent cases of bladder cancer, researchers report. The test uses a protein called keratin 17 as a cancer biomarker. Accurate detection of bladder cancer, or urothelial carcinoma (UC), is often difficult, expensive, and involves invasive testing. Going forward, this new method, based on the detection of K17 in urine specimens, could improve diagnost
New research found that 22 percent of Americans identify as somewhat or fully resistant to vaccination. Researchers used two social psychology theories to explore the causes of vaccine resistance. The more one identifies with an anti-vaccine group, the harder it is to dissuade them from their ideas. Vaccine hesitancy is top of mind for global public health officials, and the reasons for this resi
These days, there is an endless number of ways to invest money in the stock market. However, there aren't an endless number of resources to ensure you're investing wisely. Especially, if you don't want to get stuck paying a financial advisor. Most advisors' fees are based on how much of your money they're managing. Typically, that yearly fee can range anywhere from 0.25-to-1 percent of what you'r
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. To understand America, you must first assemble the pieces. In the latest issue of our magazine, my colleague George Packer argues that the country has fragmented into four groups, each informed by
In her doctoral research, Eeva Siljamäki has explored the possibilities of improvisation for music education. Her aim has been to increase understanding of how playful collaborative improvisation can enhance not only musical learning but also the quality of life.
Researchers from the University of Cincinnati found that while N95 masks are effective barriers against airborne diseases like COVID-19, poorly fitting masks can have substantial leaks around the face that reduce their effectiveness and increase the risk of infection.
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