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Ancient DNA reveals origin of first Bronze Age civilizations in Europe
The first civilisations to build monumental palaces and urban centres in Europe are more genetically homogenous than expected, according to genomes gathered from archaeological sites around the Aegean. Individuals from the northern Aegean were considerably different by the Middle Bronze Age, sharing half their ancestry with people from the Pontic-Caspian steppe. These populations were highly simil


Detailed look at how charge transfer distorts a molecule's structure
When light hits certain molecules, it dislodges electrons that then move from one location to another, creating areas of positive and negative charge. This 'charge transfer' is highly important in many areas of chemistry, photosynthesis and semiconductor devices and solar cells. A new study reveals how a molecule's structure changes as charge is redistributed, with some chemical bonds getting long
Researchers have discovered a key molecule that allows cancer stem cells to bypass the body's natural immune defenses, spurring the growth and spread of head and neck squamous cell cancers. Their study, conducted in mice, also demonstrates that inhibiting this molecule derails cancer progression and helps eliminate these stem cells.
Thin, large-area device converts infrared light into images
An infrared imager developed by engineers could be used to see through smog and fog; easily locate blood vessels on a patient; and see through silicon wafers to inspect the quality of electronic boards. It is also slim, compact and less costly to fabricate than similar technologies.
The Saga Struggles to Save Its Life Raft | Deadliest Catch
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TV and Facebook weren't good news sources early in pandemic
People who trust television and Facebook to provide them with accurate news about the coronavirus pandemic are less knowledgeable about COVID-19, according to a new study. The study assessed people's knowledge of the virus in the earliest stages of the pandemic. The study in Current Medical Research & Opinion , surveyed 5,948 adults in Pennsylvania between March 25-31, 2020, and found that those
Reply to Nagle et al.: The universal stiffening effects of cholesterol on lipid membranes [Physical Sciences]
Based on neutron spin-echo (NSE), solid-state NMR, and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, we report clear evidence that cholesterol stiffens 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) membranes (1). Contrary to statements by Nagle et al. (2), the relaxations measured by NSE and NMR directly relate to elastic membrane constants (3, 4). While both NSE and…
Impaired inhibitory GABAergic synaptic transmission and transcription studied in single neurons by Patch-seq in Huntington's disease [Neuroscience]
Transcriptional dysregulation in Huntington's disease (HD) causes functional deficits in striatal neurons. Here, we performed Patch-sequencing (Patch-seq) in an in vitro HD model to investigate the effects of mutant Huntingtin (Htt) on synaptic transmission and gene transcription in single striatal neurons. We found that expression of mutant Htt decreased the…
Hypoxia-inducible factor-dependent ADAM12 expression mediates breast cancer invasion and metastasis [Medical Sciences]
Breast cancer patients with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) in primary tumor biopsies are at increased risk of metastasis, which is the major cause of breast cancer-related mortality. The mechanisms by which intratumoral hypoxia and HIFs regulate metastasis are not fully elucidated. In this paper, we report that exposure…
Galectin-3 N-terminal tail prolines modulate cell activity and glycan-mediated oligomerization/phase separation [Biochemistry]
Galectin-3 (Gal-3) has a long, aperiodic, and dynamic proline-rich N-terminal tail (NT). The functional role of the NT with its numerous prolines has remained enigmatic since its discovery. To provide some resolution to this puzzle, we individually mutated all 14 NT prolines over the first 68 residues and assessed their…
Tau forms oligomeric complexes on microtubules that are distinct from tau aggregates [Cell Biology]
Tau is a microtubule-associated protein, which promotes neuronal microtubule assembly and stability. Accumulation of tau into insoluble aggregates known as neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) is a pathological hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases. The current hypothesis is that small, soluble oligomeric tau species preceding NFT formation cause toxicity. However, thus far, visualizing…
Immune evasion in HPV- head and neck precancer-cancer transition is driven by an aneuploid switch involving chromosome 9p loss [Medical Sciences]
An aneuploid-immune paradox encompasses somatic copy-number alterations (SCNAs), unleashing a cytotoxic response in experimental precancer systems, while conversely being associated with immune suppression and cytotoxic-cell depletion in human tumors, especially head and neck cancer (HNSC). We present evidence from patient samples and cell lines that alterations in chromosome dosage contribute…
Density-independent plasmons for terahertz-stable topological metamaterials [Applied Physical Sciences]
To efficiently integrate cutting-edge terahertz technology into compact devices, the highly confined terahertz plasmons are attracting intensive attention. Compared to plasmons at visible frequencies in metals, terahertz plasmons, typically in lightly doped semiconductors or graphene, are sensitive to carrier density (n) and thus have an easy tunability, which leads to…
One-trial perceptual learning in the absence of conscious remembering and independent of the medial temporal lobe [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
A degraded, black-and-white image of an object, which appears meaningless on first presentation, is easily identified after a single exposure to the original, intact image. This striking example of perceptual learning reflects a rapid (one-trial) change in performance, but the kind of learning that is involved is not known. We…
Opinion: Compound risks and complex emergencies require new approaches to preparedness [Sustainability Science]
Increasingly, we face compounding and interrelated environmental, socioeconomic, and political crises. Yet our approaches to these problems are often siloed, fragmented, and inadequate. The current pandemic, for instance, continues to collide with a number of other threats to human life and livelihoods. These include violent conflicts, displacement, insect swarms, droughts,…
Dark matter detection
University of Delaware's Swati Singh is among a small group of researchers across the dark matter community that have begun to wonder if they are looking for the right type of dark matter. Singh, Jack Manley, a UD doctoral student, and collaborators at the University of Arizona and Haverford College, have proposed a new way to look for the particles that might make up dark matter by repurposing ex
Supersymmetry-inspired microlaser arrays pave way for powering chip-sized optical systems
Ring microlasers are eyed as potential light sources for photonic applications, but they first must be made more powerful. Combining multiple microlasers into an array solves only half of the problem, as this adds noisy "modes" to the resulting laser light. Now, thanks to the math behind supersymmetry theory, Penn Engineers have achieved single-mode lasing from such an array. By calculating the ne
Our immune systems blanket the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein with antibodies
A previously underappreciated part of the body's natural defense against SARS-CoV-2, called non-RBD-directed antibodies, actually plays a major role in combating the virus, according to a new study. That's good news for scientists designing the next generation of vaccines to protect against variants of the virus or future emerging coronaviruses.
New study deconstructs Dunbar's number (number of friends)
An individual human can maintain stable social relationships with about 150 people, not more. This is the proposition known as 'Dunbar's number' – that the architecture of the human brain sets an upper limit on our social lives. A new study indicates that a cognitive limit on human group sizes cannot be derived in this manner.
Long-term monitoring shows successful restoration of mining-polluted streams
Many miles of streams and rivers are polluted by toxic metals in acidic runoff draining from abandoned mining sites, and major investments have been made to clean up acid mine drainage at some sites. A new study based on long-term monitoring data from four sites in the western United States shows that cleanup efforts can allow affected streams to recover to near natural conditions within 10 to 15
Robinhood Went Down Yet Again, This Time Due to Dogecoin Spike
Not Again The popular financial trading app Robinhood crashed on Tuesday morning after a spike in the price of the cryptocurrency Dogecoin sent a massive influx of users to the app. Robinhood confirmed on Twitter that the partial outage ended after about an hour and a half, during which users were unable to buy or sell Dogecoin as the crypto's price fluctuated between 40 and a record-breaking 60
New, almost non-destructive archaeogenetic sampling method developed
An Austrian-American research team (University of Vienna, Department Evolutionary Anthropology and Harvard Medical School, Department of Genetics), in collaboration of Hungarian experts from Eötvös Loránd University, has developed a new method that allows the almost non-destructive extraction of genetic material from archaeological human remains. The method allows anthropologists, archaeologists a
Strange isotopes: Scientists explain a methane isotope paradox of the seafloor
Deep down in the seafloor anaerobic microbes consume large amounts of methane, a potent greenhouse gas. Even though this process is a crucial element of the global carbon cycle, it is still poorly understood. Scientists from Bremen and Israel now found the solution to a long-standing enigma in this process: why methane carbon isotopes behave so differently than expected. In a joint effort with the

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