Ancient Planet According to a new analysis, ScienceAlert reports , a meteorite found last year in Algeria is actually older than the Earth itself. Instead, an international team of scientists behind the research say, it appears to be a remnant of an ancient protoplanet — making the space rock an extraordinary curiosity that could offer unprecedented insights into the early years of our solar syst
Distance Tattoo As part of a marketing stunt for telecom T-Mobile Netherlands, Dutch TV personality Stijn Fransen got a tattoo by a tattoo artist — but remotely, through the use of a 5G-enabled robot. Tattoo artist Wes Thomas tattooed Fransen remotely through the use of a cleverly engineered robotic arm that used machine learning to learn the placement of Fransen's arm and map the placement onto
The fossil in question is that of an oviraptorosaur, a group of bird-like theropod dinosaurs that thrived during the Cretaceous Period, the third and final time period of the Mesozoic Era (commonly known as the 'Age of Dinosaurs') that extended from 145 to 66 million years ago. The new specimen was recovered from uppermost Cretaceous-aged rocks, some 70 million years old, in Ganzhou City in southe
Pierfranco Demontis said in 1988, "Ice becomes a fast-ion conductor at high pressure and high temperatures," but his prediction was only hypothetical until recently. After 30 years of study, superionic water ice was verified experimentally in 2018. Superionicity may eventually explain the strong magnetic field in giant planetary interiors.
Wormholes play a key role in many science fiction films—often as a shortcut between two distant points in space. In physics, however, these tunnels in spacetime have remained purely hypothetical. An international team led by Dr. Jose Luis Blázquez-Salcedo of the University of Oldenburg has now presented a new theoretical model in the science journal Physical Review Letters that makes microscopic w
Light microscopes have revolutionized our understanding of the microcosmos, but their resolution is limited to about 100 nanometers. To see how molecules bond, break, or change their structure, we need at least 1000 times better resolution.
Researchers have come up with a better way to test which fabrics work best for masks that are meant to slow the spread of COVID-19. By testing those fabrics under conditions that mimic the humidity of a person's breath, the researchers have obtained measurements that more accurately reflect how the fabrics perform when worn by a living, breathing person.
Pollen exposure weakens the immunity against certain seasonal respiratory viruses by diminishing the antiviral interferon response. Here we investigate whether the same applies to the pandemic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which is sensitive to antiviral interferons, if infection waves coincide with high airborne pollen concentrations. Our original…
The age of iron meteorites implies that accretion of protoplanets began during the first millions of years of the solar system. Due to the heat generated by 26Al decay, many early protoplanets were fully differentiated with an igneous crust produced during the cooling of a magma ocean and the segregation…
Elucidating when Neanderthal populations disappeared from Eurasia is a key question in paleoanthropology, and Belgium is one of the key regions for studying the Middle to Upper Paleolithic transition. Previous radiocarbon dating placed the Spy Neanderthals among the latest surviving Neanderthals in Northwest Europe with reported dates as young as…
The current pandemic of COVID-19 caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) highlights an urgent need to develop a safe, efficacious, and durable vaccine. Using a measles virus (rMeV) vaccine strain as the backbone, we developed a series of recombinant attenuated vaccine candidates expressing various forms of the…
A two-week course of high doses of CBD helps restore the function of two proteins key to reducing the accumulation of beta-amyloid plaque, a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease, and improves cognition in an experimental model of early onset familial Alzheimer's, investigators report.
Nitrogenases utilize Fe–S clusters to reduce N2 to NH3. The large number of Fe sites in their catalytic cofactors has hampered spectroscopic investigations into their electronic structures, mechanisms, and biosyntheses. To facilitate their spectroscopic analysis, we are developing methods for incorporating 57Fe into specific sites of nitrogenase cofactors, and we…
Consumer and predator foraging behavior can impart profound trait-mediated constraints on community regulation that scale up to influence the structure and stability of ecosystems. Here, we demonstrate how the behavioral response of an apex predator to changes in prey behavior and condition can dramatically alter the role and relative contribution…
The Mre11-Rad50-Nbs1 complex (MRN) is important for repairing DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR). The endonuclease activity of MRN is critical for resecting 5′-ended DNA strands at DSB ends, producing 3′-ended single-strand DNA, a prerequisite for HR. This endonuclease activity is stimulated by Ctp1, the Schizosaccharomyces pombe homolog…
Cyanobacteria must prevent imbalances between absorbed light energy (source) and the metabolic capacity (sink) to utilize it to protect their photosynthetic apparatus against damage. A number of photoprotective mechanisms assist in dissipating excess absorbed energy, including respiratory terminal oxidases and flavodiiron proteins, but inherently reduce photosynthetic efficiency. Recently, it has.
Legume trees form an abundant and functionally important component of tropical forests worldwide with N2-fixing symbioses linked to enhanced growth and recruitment in early secondary succession. However, it remains unclear how N2-fixers meet the high demands for inorganic nutrients imposed by rapid biomass accumulation on nutrient-poor tropical soils. Here, we…
A 4-y college degree is increasingly the key to good jobs and, ultimately, to good lives in an ever-more meritocratic and unequal society. The bachelor's degree (BA) is increasingly dividing Americans; the one-third with a BA or more live longer and more prosperous lives, while the two-thirds without face rising…
Approximately two years after establishing a human cerebral organoid system to study Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), National Institutes of Health researchers have further developed the model to screen drugs for potential CJD treatment. The scientists, from NIH's National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), describe their work in Scientific Reports.
The changes will restore protections that were taken away under former president Donald Trump. But they will take time, and wildlife advocates say many bird species already face a risk of extinction. (Image credit: Elaine Thompson/AP)
Biak island residents say SpaceX launchpad would devastate island's ecology and displace people from their homes Papuans whose island has been offered up as a potential launch site for Elon Musk's SpaceX project have told the billionaire Tesla chief his company is not welcome on their land, and its presence would devastate their island's ecosystem and drive people from their homes. Musk was offer
African swine fever led to mass cull of pigs in China and may have increased human-virus contact as people turned to other meat Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage An outbreak of a deadly pig disease may have set the stage for Covid-19 to take hold in humans, a new analysis has suggested. African swine fever (ASF), which first swept through China in 2018, disrupted pork
The submissions to this year's World Nature Photography Awards have been judged, and the winning images and photographers have just been announced. Thomas Vijayan was the Grand Prize winner, with his image of an orangutan climbing a tree. The contest organizers have shared with us some of the winning images, shown below, from their 13 categories. Captions were provided by the photographers and ha
Two studies fail to find evidence to support claims supplements protect against coronavirus Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage The idea that vitamin D supplements can reduce susceptibility to, and the severity of, Covid-19 is seductive – it offers a simple, elegant solution to a very complex and lethal problem. But analyses encompassing large European datasets suggest t
In July, Clare Wenham—and her daughter, Scarlett, and Scarlett's picture of a unicorn—went viral. Wenham researches global health policy at the London School of Economics, and she was giving an interview to the BBC about Britain's attempts to manage the coronavirus pandemic. But Scarlett had another pressing issue on her mind: Which shelf displayed her unicorn to its best advantage? Wenham soldie
New findings cement idea that ritual and religion was invoked using talismans to soothe nerves With sky-high levels of maternal mortality, the science of obstetrics virtually nonexistent and the threat of infectious disease always around the corner, pregnant medieval women put their faith in talismans to bring them divine protection during childbirth. From amulets to precious stones, the list of
What if we could traverse distances on an astronomical scale, in a blink of an eye, through the use of a wormhole? It's a topic rife with speculation — but if recently published research is anything to go by, traversing through an interdimensional wormhole may not be quite as far-fetched as it sounds. Two separate groups of researchers have suggested new theories as to how to make wormholes safe
Moon Pact Now it's official. Back in February, the governments of Russia and China agreed, informally, to collaborate on an upcoming Moon base . Now, both countries have gone ahead and signed a memorandum of understanding that formalizes those plans — an intriguing collaboration which, if it goes anywhere, could cut NASA out of both nations' goal for a long term Moon presence. Red Moon The collab
New research has found that warmer autumns are driving the extinction of monarch butterflies. Globally, 40 percent of insect populations are in decline; one-third are in danger of extinction. Insects pollinate three-fourths of the world's crop supply, resulting in 1.4 billion jobs. Insects might often seem like a nuisance, yet life on this planet would be impossible without them. Sure, mosquitoes
The two countries, moving increasingly closer, signed a memorandum of agreement to collaborate on lunar missions, including the establishment of a research station in orbit or on the surface of the moon.
Some ecologists think these hippos may have happened upon a valuable niche once occupied by semiaquatic hoofed mammals that roamed South America 100,000 years ago. (Jacqueline Oakley/) In 1981, notorious drug lord Pablo Escobar imported four hippos from Africa to his estate near Medellín, Colombia. After his death in 1993, the herd meandered into the nearby Magdalena River. Ecologists estimate th
Picture your favorite place in nature. How would you feel if it disappeared tomorrow? In this love letter to the planet, social worker and environmental activist Knut Ivar Bjørlykhaug invites us to confront the deep, difficult emotions — love, sorrow and even rage — born from climate-driven ecological loss in order to act in service of our collective home.
In 2019, a romance blossomed between an eligible European royal and a Black commoner whom traditionalists considered unsuitable for a royal marriage. The lovebirds were not Meghan Markle and Prince Harry, who had already been married for a year. They were Princess Märtha Louise of Norway and her boyfriend, a Californian named Durek Verrett. Like Prince Harry, Princess Märtha Louise is a spare hei
The melting of the Earth's ice cover intensified in the 20th century, with glaciers and sea ice in the Arctic and Antarctic regions melting at alarming speeds. In fact, The Antarctic Peninsula (AP), which is the only landmass of Antarctica extending out past the Antarctic Circle, was found to be one of the most rapidly warming regions on the planet during the second half of the 20th century. This
Russian space agency Roscomos and Chinese counterpart CNSA to develop research facilities on surface of moon or in its orbit Russia and China have unveiled plans for a joint lunar space station, with the Russian space agency Roscomos saying it has signed an agreement with China's National Space Administration (CNSA) to develop a "complex of experimental research facilities created on the surface
Safe Mode NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has encountered a software glitch and had to put itself into a protective "safe mode" over the weekend, Space.com reports . In the early morning hours of Sunday, "the Hubble Space Telescope went into safe mode due to an onboard software error," reads a tweet by the telescope's official Twitter account. "All science systems appear normal and Hubble is safe a
Arkeologer på Island har nyligen grävt fram en gård som man menar tillhör den mytomspunna vikingakvinnan Gudrid Torbjörnsdottir. Hon tros vara den första europeiska kvinnan att korsa Atlanten. – Det kom som en överraskning att hitta okända, begravda vikingabyggnader, säger arkeologen Douglas Bolender.
The scientific community are rising to the challenge, undertaking an unprecedented global health programme Pascal Soriot is the chief executive officer of AstraZeneca Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Covid-19 is a virus that knows no boundaries and has inflicted terrible suffering across the world. Now more than ever, we must remember that no one is safe until everyon
On Sunday, NASA announced that the Hubble Space Telescope had gone into safe mode once again , "due to an onboard software error." The telescope's science systems were not affected at all, but all science operations were suspended while crews on the ground worked to fix the problem. The agency didn't release any details as to what exactly the glitch was, what had caused it, or what was being done
Illustration by Paul Spella / Rendering by Patrick White This article was published online on March 10, 2021. T he United States had long been a holdout among Western democracies, uniquely and perhaps even suspiciously devout. From 1937 to 1998, church membership remained relatively constant, hovering at about 70 percent. Then something happened. Over the past two decades, that number has dropped
Big-brained cephalopods could shine light on the evolution and neurobiology of intelligence, complexity, and more—and inspire medical and technological breakthroughs — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
The recent synthesis of one-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures, a type of heterostructure made by layering two-dimensional materials that are one atom thick, may lead to new, miniaturized electronics that are currently not possible, according to a team of Penn State and University of Tokyo researchers.
Researchers at Utah State University are using silkworm silk to grow skeletal muscle cells, improving on traditional methods of cell culture and hopefully leading to better treatments for muscle atrophy.
In a recent study, scientists observed two species of sea slug that were able to self-decapitate, survive for weeks without organs, and regenerate entirely new bodies. The study authors proposed that the slugs are able to survive as severed heads because of the unique way they obtain energy from algae. While other animals engage in self-amputation (known as autotomy) to avoid predators, the study
Many actions that would be considered heinous to humans — cannibalism, eating offspring, torture and rape — have been observed in the animal kingdom. Most (but not all) eyebrow-raising behaviors among animals have an evolutionary underpinning.
University of Arizona researcher Jekan Thanga is taking scientific inspiration from an unlikely source: the biblical tale of Noah's Ark. Rather than two of every animal, however, his solar-powered ark on the moon would store cryogenically frozen seed, spore, sperm and egg samples from 6.7 million Earth species.
Science-fiction author honoured in Nasa's chosen name for Mars rover's touchdown "Mars is a rock – cold, empty, almost airless, dead. Yet it's heaven in a way," Octavia E Butler wrote in her acclaimed novel Parable of the Sower. Decades later, Nasa has informally named the touchdown site of the Mars rover Perseverance after the late science fiction novelist. Nasa said there was "no better person"
The relationship between the Hawaiian bobtail squid and the bioluminescent bacteria living in its light organ has been studied for decades as a model of symbiosis. Now researchers have used a powerful chemical analysis tool to identify a small molecule produced by the bacteria that appears to play an important role in their colonization of the light organ.
Farmers in the Midwest may be able to bypass the warming climate not by getting more water for their crops, but instead by adapting to climate change through soil management says a new study from Michigan State University.
Since the early 2010s, ultrafast probing of materials at atomic-level resolution has been enabled by terahertz scanning tunneling microscopes (THz-STM). But these devices can't detect the dissipation of energy that happens during events such as when photons are emitted via recombination process of an electron-hole pair in a light emitting diode (LED). However, a new technique allows the tracking o
A controversial 2018 research paper about the discovery of an elusive subatomic particle has been retracted by the reputable journal Nature , the BBC reports . The team, led by researchers from Microsoft, claimed at the time to have discovered evidence of the " Majorana particle ," named after the famed 1930s Italian physicist Ettore Majorana. The particle, the researchers claimed, could make qua
It's IP67 rated for ruggedness, which means it can survive up to a half-hour in three feet of water. (Sonos /) Until now, Sonos users have only had one option for adding a portable speaker to their favorite music-streaming platform. The Move debuted back in 2019 with the high-quality sound and meticulously designed hardware you'd expect from the brand. It was also bulky, heavy, and $400, which pu
In a new study in PNAS, an international team of researchers including scientists from the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Ecology has shown that Arabidopsis thaliana plants produce beta-cyclocitral when attacked by herbivores and that this volatile signal inhibits the methylerythritol 4-phosphate (MEP) pathway. The MEP pathway is instrumental in plant growth processes, such as the production of
For ice, so-called 'surface melting' was postulated as early as the 19th century by Michael Faraday: Already below the actual melting point, i.e. 0 °C, a thin liquid film forms on the free surface because of the interface between ice and air. Scientists led by Markus Mezger, group leader at the Max Planck Institute for Polymer Research (department of Hans-Jürgen Butt) and professor at the Universi
The slowdown in global warming that was observed at the end of last century was reflected by a decrease in malaria transmission in the Ethiopian highlands, according to a study led by the Barcelona Institute for Global Health (ISGlobal) and the University of Chicago. The results, published in Nature Communications, underscore the close connection between climate and health.
Temperature constrains the transmission of many pathogens. Interventions that target temperature-sensitive life stages, such as vector control measures that kill intermediate hosts, could shift the thermal optimum of transmission, thereby altering seasonal disease dynamics and rendering interventions less effective at certain times of the year and with global climate change….
What would happen if we waved goodbye to capitalism and instead focused on nurturing trust? The British economic anthropologist Jason Hickel tells Paulina Wilk that a better world is possible – but we only have 20 years to build it. Paulina Wilk: In the middle of a pandemic caused by a new virus, you have published a book in which you call for a revolution and set humanity a new challenge that wi
Time on the internet can be informative, instructive and even pleasant, there is already significant literature on the potential harm caused by young children's problematic internet use (PIU). A new study is one of only a few that examines PIU's effects on older adolescents.
Have you ever wondered what was your great grandmother's favorite color to wear? Now you can know. (Jon Tyson / Unsplash /) You might be worrying about droids powered by artificial intelligence taking over the planet in the long term. But in the meantime, you can use that same technology for all kinds of helpful tasks. Colorizing old black and white photos is one of them. Several platforms can gi
Researchers have long searched for genetic influences in schizophrenia, a neurodevelopmental disorder that disrupts brain activity producing hallucinations, delusions, and other cognitive disturbances. However the disease's genetic mutations have been identified in only a small fraction — fewer than a quarter — of sequenced patients. A new study now shows that 'somatic' gene mutations in brain c
Scientists have described the infection of human cells by the intestinal pathogen Salmonella Typhimurium during spaceflight. They show how the microgravity environment of spaceflight changes the molecular profile of human intestinal cells and how these expression patterns are further changed in response to infection. The researchers were also able to detect molecular changes in the bacterial patho
Language difficulties and cultural barriers keep an "alarming" number of Chinese Americans from asking for cancer screenings that may protect their health, according to a new University of Central Florida study.
A drippy, congested nose can be part of mild COVID. (Unsplash/) Click here to see all of PopSci's COVID-19 coverage. Anywhere from one-fifth to one half of SARS-CoV-2 carriers are asymptomatic . In the rest, the virus can manifest as an unwitting selection from a buffet of COVID-19 symptoms—coughing, fever, loss of taste , lack of appetite, vomiting, diarrhea, brain fog, fatigue—that's made the c
A lawsuit in India weighs women's religious right to practice female circumcision in a Muslim minority group against those who condemn the tradition as genital mutilation. But according to hundreds of interviews of victims, sexual control is commonly cited as the primary motivation behind the practice.
Using the Zwicky Transient Facility (ZTF) and the Caucasus Mountain Observatory (CMO), Russian astronomers have investigated a peculiar source designated ZTF18abdlzhd. The observations revealed that this object is an SU UMa-type dwarf nova. The finding is reported in a paper published March 4 on the arXiv pre-print server.
If you haven't been the parent or caregiver of an infant in recent years, you'd be forgiven for missing the human milk oligosaccharide trend in infant formulas. These complex carbohydrate supplements mimic human breast milk and act like prebiotics, boosting beneficial microbes in babies' guts. Milk oligosaccharides aren't just for humans; all mammals make them. New research suggests milk oligosacc
Researchers have developed materials that can interface with an injured spinal cord and provide a scaffolding to facilitate healing. To do this, scaffolding materials need to mimic the natural spinal cord tissue, so they can be readily populated by native cells in the spinal cord, essentially filling in gaps left by injury. The researchers show how the pores improve efficiency of gene therapies ad
This shirt harvests and stores energy from the human body to power small electronics. UC San Diego nanoengineers call it a "wearable microgrid"– it combines energy from the wearer's sweat and movement to provide sustainable power for wearable devices.
Study conducted at a FAPESP-supported research center shows that anti-inflammatory peptide TnP could lead to drug development. Zebrafish Danio rerio is a popular aquarium species widely used as a model for in vivo trials in drug development.
A place to plug in all your tech. (Trinity Nguyen via Unsplash/) Finding the best surge protector for your electronics ensures that they'll remain guarded from potentially irreversible damage that comes from commonly occurring electrical spikes in building wiring and power grids. Power surges are a normal and inconvenient part of life that occur frequently when utility companies switch electricit
Updated at 9:35 a.m. ET on March, 10, 2021. A little after 8 p.m. eastern time on Friday, February 26—a time when people were logging off for the weekend, parents were putting kids to bed, and the last thing on anyone's mind was the Supreme Court—the justices issued their latest in a series of controversial orders blocking local and state restrictions on indoor religious services. Like most of th
In the largest ever study of its kind into an equine pathogen, scientists in 18 countries used the latest DNA sequencing techniques to track the bacteria responsible for a disease called 'strangles' in horses around the world.
Researchers have developed a new tissue-section analysis system for diagnosing breast cancer based on artificial intelligence (AI). For the first time, morphological, molecular and histological data are integrated in a single analysis. Furthermore, the system provides a clarification of the AI decision process in the form of heatmaps.
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene or transition metal dichalcogenides, can sometimes be assembled into bilayers with a twist between individual layers. In recent years, many researchers have been investigating the properties of these twisted double-layer structures and their potential advantages for fabricating electronic devices.
Flera studier pågår nu om hur snabbt varianterna av det ursprungliga viruset sprider sig och hur farliga de är. Enligt en ny klinisk studie har den brittiska varianten gett en ökad dödlighet på 30 till 100 procent jämfört med det tidigare dominerande viruset. Man vet ännu inte varför man blir sjukare av den brittiska varianten.
Researchers have developed a digital self-test that trains users to assess news items, images and videos presented on social media. The self-test has also been evaluated in a scientific study, which confirmed the researchers' hypothesis that the tool genuinely improved the students' ability to apply critical thinking to digital sources.
Calling the US Preventive Services Task Force's newly released recommendation statement to expand eligibility for annual lung cancer screening with low-dose computed tomography a step forward, researchers say future changes should address equity and implementation issues.
Researchers discovered a new, still-unnamed organelle that plays a role in bone metastasis and is formed via liquid-liquid phase separation — when liquid blobs of living materials merge into each other.
Scientists have implicated a type of immune cell in the development of chronic lung disease that sometimes is triggered following a respiratory viral infection. The evidence suggests that activation of this immune cell serves as an early switch that, when activated, drives progressive lung diseases, including asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Densifying ceramics using flash sintering reduces energy use and may be used to improve the viability of manufacturing complex ceramic structures such as those required for solid state batteries by lowering the temperatures and shortening the duration of the heat treatment.
A new study led by the University of Portsmouth has identified that one of the major factors of age-related brain deterioration is the loss of a substance called myelin. Myelin acts like the protective and insulating plastic casing around the electrical wires of the brain – called axons. Myelin is essential for superfast communication between nerve cells that lie behind the supercomputer power of
Those are the hands of someone who's complaining about an undated web page. (Headway/Unsplash/) Usually, the date an article or web page was published is on the screen in front of you. But sometimes a page will try to masquerade as an ageless wonder, which is problematic when you need to know if it's still relevant. Don't fret: There are ways to lift the veil of mystery. To be clear, unearthing a
The ability to identify our own body and its boundaries is crucial for survival. Ideally, the sooner we learn to discriminate external stimuli occurring close to our body from those occurring far from it, the better (and safer) we may interact with the sensory environment. However, when this mechanism emerges…
A new study by a team of international scientists jointly led by Stony Brook University Professor Liliana M. Dávalos, Ph.D., and Professor Samuel Turvey of the Zoological Society of London, reveals that the largest and smallest mammals in the Caribbean have been the most vulnerable to extinction. The findings, published in the Proceedings of the Royal Society B, help predict future extinction risk
If you haven't been the parent or caregiver of an infant in recent years, you'd be forgiven for missing the human milk oligosaccharide trend in infant formulas. These complex carbohydrate supplements mimic human breast milk and act like prebiotics, boosting beneficial microbes in babies' guts.
Material behaviors depend on factors including the composition of the material and the arrangement of its molecular parts. For the first time, researchers have found a way to coax carbon nanotubes into creating moiré patterns. Such structures could be useful in materials research, particularly in the field of superconducting materials.
A group of drug researchers has lost a pair of 2020 papers for a lack of reproducibility and other problems, including the unfortunate mislabeling of murine stem cells as having come from humans. (In case you're wondering, mouse and human stem cells are at once quite similar and highly divergent.) One article, "Divergent synthesis of … Continue reading
Researchers have studied the operation of a small device fabricated in the write gap of a hard disk drive's write head to extend its recording density. The device is based on microwave-assisted magnetic recording. This technology uses a spin-torque oscillator, which causes the magnetic particles of the recording medium to wobble. This makes them much easier to flip over when the write head applies
A worryingly high number of Asian bamboo longhorn beetles turn out to have been emerging across Europe for about a century already, finds an international research team. Curiously, the records of the invasive, non-native to the Old Continent species are mostly sourced from citizen scientists and online platforms, which proves the power of involving the public in species monitoring.
Results from Malaysian Borneo demonstrate that small, fragmented patches of regenerating logged forests left on hilltops will be slow to recover due to lower water availability, even more in the future as hotter and drier weather will be more common than now as a result of climate change.
From ice skating, it has been known for a long time that a thin liquid film forms on ice surfaces. This, along with other causes, is responsible for ice slipperiness. Scientists have now investigated a related effect at interfaces between ice and porous clay minerals. Such interfaces are found in nature for example in permafrost. The results may help to better understand changes in frozen soils as
The San Cristobal volcano, the highest in Nicaragua and one of its most active, spewed a cloud of ash Tuesday that blanketed the city of Chinandega and surrounding communities, a local journalist told AFP.
For the first time, two researchers have accurately dated the arrival of the first herbivorous dinosaurs in East Greenland. Their results demonstrate that it took the dinosaurs 15 million years to migrate from the southern hemisphere, as a consequence of being slowed down by extreme climatic conditions. Their long walk was only possible because as CO2 levels dropped suddenly, the Earth's climate b
Polymer scientists from the University of Groningen and NHL Stenden University of Applied Sciences, both in the Netherlands, have developed a polymer membrane from biobased malic acid. It is a superamphiphilic vitrimer epoxy resin membrane that can be used to separate water and oil. This membrane is fully recyclable. When the pores are blocked by foulants, it can be depolymerized, cleaned and subs
If playing the video game Assassin's Creed Origins is as close as you're likely to get to a pharaoh's tomb—especially in this time of pandemic-thwarted travel—look no further than UC Berkeley for an expedition into an Egyptian burial chamber that won't expose you to a mummy's curse.
As people in the UK were settling down to watch the late evening news on February 28, a fresh news story, quite literally, appeared in the night sky. A large and very bright fireball was seen over southern England and northern France at 21:54 GMT. It was recorded by many doorbell webcams, so it was a very well-observed fireball. More importantly, it was also captured by the automated cameras of th
Regions of the moon known as irregular mare patches—formed by magma cooling from a volcanic eruption—have almost no big craters, indicating that they must be relatively young. By studying the distribution of craters within them, we can estimate when these regions were formed: no more than 100 million years ago.
It sounds like science fiction, but building an enormous tower several kilometers high on the lunar surface may be the best way to harness solar energy for long-term lunar exploration. Such towers would raise solar panels above obstructing geological features on the lunar surface, and expand the surface area available for power generation.
You want to miss out on this because you didn't check your gear before leaving? (Dominik Jirovský / Unsplash/) It's happened to many outdoor enthusiasts. As soon as spring peeks its sunny face, you pack up and head to the nearest campsite, only to find you've made a big mistake. The gear you put away only three months ago is exactly the way you left it—or worse. Your fuel canisters are empty, you
Researchers identified and characterized rare cell types in the esophagus, stomach and upper part of the small intestine, using single cell RNA sequencing. They provide detailed gene expression analyses for all epithelial cells in these organs. Furthermore, they identified a rare cell type that is most likely responsible for the secretion of high volumes of water in humans, providing a link to gas
2D semiconductors (such as graphene) could revolutionize electronics: They can be used to produce extremely small transistors. However, in order to make a transistor, insulators are required too. So extremely thin insulating materials are needed as well. New results show: The materials used until now are not the way to go.
Magnetometry exploiting color center defects in diamond probes and magneto-optic imaging have been found to complement each other. This supports progress towards the creation of more effective data storage systems.
The Standard Model of particle physics is the best explanation to date for how the universe works at the subnuclear level and has helped explain, correctly, the elementary particles and forces between them. But the model is incomplete, requiring "extensions" to address its shortfalls.
New research shows that a single head injury could lead to dementia later in life. This risk further increases as the number of head injuries sustained by an individual increases. The findings also suggest stronger associations of head injury with risk of dementia among women compared to among men and among white as compared to among Black populations.
Spiders from the genus Phoneutria—also known as banana spiders—are considered aggressive and among the most venomous spiders in the world, with venom that has a neurotoxic action. These large nocturnal spiders usually inhabit environments disturbed by humans and are often found in banana plantations in the Neotropical region.
The application of solid-state (SS) nanopore devices to single-molecule nucleic acid sequencing has been challenging. Thus, the early successes in applying SS nanopore devices to the more difficult class of biopolymer, glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), have been surprising, motivating us to examine the potential use of an SS nanopore to analyze synthetic…
Everything was normal, until it wasn't. Last March, we scrambled home, used coffee mugs left on our desks, our worlds shrinking without time for a proper goodbye. In the days, weeks, and months that followed, our "new normal" became just that. Now, a year later, our brains are both grieving and forgetting the lives we once lived. We are still grieving our Last Good Days. "For me, it's the last ti
When NASA's Parker Solar Probe sent back the first observations from its voyage to the Sun, scientists found signs of a wild ocean of currents and waves quite unlike the near-Earth space much closer to our planet. This ocean was spiked with what became known as switchbacks: rapid flips in the Sun's magnetic field that reversed direction like a zig-zagging mountain road.
Material behaviors depend on many things including not just the composition of the material but also the arrangement of its molecular parts. For the first time, researchers have found a way to coax carbon nanotubes into creating moiré patterns. Such structures could be useful in materials research, in particular in the field of superconducting materials.
Electronic textiles offer revolutionary new opportunities in various fields, in particular healthcare. But to be sustainable, they need to be made of renewable materials. A research team now presents a thread made of conductive cellulose, which offers fascinating and practical possibilities for electronic textiles.
NASA's Perseverance Rover recently made a successful landing on Mars, embarking on a two-year mission to seek signs of ancient life and collect samples. Because Mars is extremely cold—nighttime temperatures can drop below -112 F—heaters are required to keep the rover's battery system from freezing. Now, researchers reporting in ACS' Nano Letters have 3D printed porous carbon aerogels for electrode
Armando Collazo Garcia III got more than he expected from a graduate course he took last spring. He developed a new understanding of the physics of transonic shocks produced across a laminar flow airfoil with boundary-layer suction and added a published paper to his resume.
Computational models of air quality have long been used to shed light on pollution control efforts in the United States and Europe, but the tools have not found widespread adoption in Latin America. New work from North Carolina State University and Universidad de La Salle demonstrates how these models can be adapted to offer practical insights into air quality challenges in the Americas outside th
The mosquito protein AEG12 is up-regulated in response to blood meals and flavivirus infection though its function remained elusive. Here, we determine the three-dimensional structure of AEG12 and describe the binding specificity of acyl-chain ligands within its large central hydrophobic cavity. We show that AEG12 displays hemolytic and cytolytic activity…
Evidence published in the Cochrane Library today will reassure people who want to stop smoking that quitting for at least 6 weeks may improve their mental wellbeing, by reducing anxiety, depression, and stress. People's social relationships are unlikely to suffer if they stop smoking.
Artwork produced by female artists comprise less than 4 per cent of art auction sales, despite a near equal share of women and men pursuing degrees in fine arts, new research by Monash University in Australia shows.Forty-two men occupy the top 0.03 per cent of the market, where 40 per cent of the sales value is concentrated.
A researcher at the Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias (IAC) is the lead author of a study with proposals for "technosignatures" -evidence for the use of technology or industrial activity in other parts of the Universe- for future NASA missions. The article, published in the specialized journal Acta Astronautica, contains the initial conclusions of a meeting of experts in the search for intellig
Researchers at the University of Alabama at Birmingham have identified a new molecular target that could potentially treat the deadly, aging-related lung disease idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF). The study, which will be published March 10 in the Journal of Experimental Medicine ( JEM ), suggests that targeting a protein called MDM4 could prevent respiratory failure by initiating a genetic prog
The world is missing a once-in-a-generation chance to rebuild a sustainable post-pandemic future, the United Nations said Wednesday in an assessment showing less than 20 percent of recovery finance can be considered "green".
In 2018, astronomers were shocked to find a bizarre explosion in a galaxy 200 million light-years away. It wasn't like any normal supernova seen before — it was both briefer and brighter. The event was given an official designation, AT2018cow, but soon went by a more jovial nickname: the Cow. The short-lived event — known as a transient — defied explanation. Some thought it might be a star being
Alpine landscapes are irrevocably changing: scientists estimate that the Alps may be glacier-free by the end of this century. As the ice melts, the unique ecosystems that exist at their edges are also fading. New research published in Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution untangled what changing flora might mean for the ecology, economy and culture of the region.
During the height of the first COVID-19 lockdown in the UK, women spent more time on unpaid housework and childcare than men, were more likely to reduce working hours, and reported higher levels of psychological distress, according to a new study published last week in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by Baowen Xue and Anne McMunn of University College London, UK.
Scientists have found a way to control the size of special nanoparticles to optimize their use for both magnetic resonance and near-infrared imaging. Their approach could help surgeons use the same nanoparticles to visualize tumors just before and then during surgery using the two different imaging techniques. Their findings were published in the journal Science and Technology of Advanced Material
When physicists need to understand the quantum mechanics that describe how atomic clocks work, how your magnet sticks to your refrigerator or how particles flow through a superconductor, they use quantum field theories.
The balance of human intestinal microbiota, consisting of hundreds of bacterial species and phages (bacteria viruses), is crucial to good health. A research team, including scientists from the CNRS and the Institut Pasteur, has characterized the phage-bacterial interaction networks of the microbiota in 10 healthy individuals, with unprecedented precision.
Infectious disease specialist Nahid Bhadelia discusses new recommendations on how vaccinated people can gather with one another and small groups of unvaccinated individuals — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
After the 2002 midterm elections, in which Republicans defied history and added to their House majority, excited GOP figures began speaking of a " permanent majority ," or at least one that would last a generation . George W. Bush's reelection victory two years later affirmed that Democrats were in disarray: The era of big government was over, Bill Clinton had left a vacuum behind, and Republican
Geoscientists at Sandia National Laboratories used 3D-printed rocks and an advanced, large-scale computer model of past earthquakes to understand and prevent earthquakes triggered by energy exploration.
An international team of researchers has observed two FK phases in the crystal structures of a derivative of pyridine. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes their work with hydrochloride salt of fampridine that crystallized into four different structures. Kathryn Ashe, a writer for Nature has published a News & Views piece in the same journal issue outlining Frank–Kas
For the first time, researchers have revealed the syringe-like type-III secretion system of Gram-negative bacteria in action. In the research study, published in Nature Communications, the group of Thomas Marlovits from the Centre for Structural Systems Biology (CSSB) at the DESY campus provides new insights into how pathogenic bacteria such as Salmonella infect human cells. According to the resea
Breast cancer patients who drink sugar-sweetened soda regularly are at increased risk for death from any cause and from breast cancer in particular, a new study suggests. Compared to women who never or rarely drank non-diet soda, those who reported drinking non-diet soda five or more times per week had a 62% higher likelihood of dying from any cause, and were 85% more likely to die from breast ca
Photosynthetic organisms harvest light from the sun to produce the energy they need to survive. A new paper published by University of Chicago researchers reveals their secret: exploiting quantum mechanics.
A team of researchers from Tohoku University have created a tin monosulfide (SnS) solar cell that boasts attractive performance levels, promoting affordable and clean energy and moving society closer to achieving the UN's sustainable development goals.
A team of UNLV neuroscientists is uncovering how psychedelics affect brain activity. Their work, published recently in Nature Scientific Reports, shows a strong connection in rodent models between brain activity and behaviors resulting from psychedelic treatment, a step forward in the quest to better understand their potential therapeutic effects.
Young people at ultra-high risk of developing psychosis have significantly higher psychotic symptoms if they are an evening person, researchers at Orygen, Australia's centre of excellence in youth mental health, have found.Their research, published last month in the journal Early Intervention in Psychiatry, investigated the link between sleep disturbance, chronotype – whether the young person was
Geological methane sources can be either anthropogenic or natural, such as the oil industry or mud volcanoes. Ground-based measurements combined with TROPOMI observations on the Javanese mud volcano Lusi now show that the natural geological emissions are probably higher than expected. It would mean that we have to attribute a smaller share to man-made geological sources. On the other hand, other h
A trio of researchers from the University of Göttingen, Université de Technologie de Troyes and Université Paris-Saclay, has developed a theoretical path to polarized electron-beam nano-spectroscopy. In their paper published in the journal Nature Physics, Hugo Lourenço-Martins, Davy Gérard and Mathieu Kociak, outline a theory that involves establishing a relationship between polarized optical spec
A year ago, infectious disease doctor Christine Johnston was leading a study on the use of hydroxychloroquine for the treatment of people with COVID-19. A year later, her team published results that showed the drug — once a political football — had no effect. Johnston talks about lessons learned under the world spotlight.
Overlægernes nye overenskomst faldt endelig på plads i dag, da det ekstraordinære repræsentantskabsmøde stemte for forslaget til en ny overenskomst, der bl.a. betyder nye titler og en lavere startløn til nyansatte overlæge.
The efficiency of solar cells can be increased by exploiting a phenomenon known as singlet fission. However, unexplained energy losses during the reaction have until now been a major problem. Scientists have now discovered what happens during singlet fission and where the 'lost' energy goes.
For birds, simple does not always equal simple—and that difference can create interesting variations in plumage, according to new findings from University of Colorado Boulder researchers and their colleagues.
Longitudinal imaging study provides evidence in patients that autologous bone marrow cells may lead to a reduction in white matter injury compared with stroke patients who did not receive bone marrow cells.
People have been making beer for thousands of years, and we have amassed a tremendous amount of knowledge on how to do it well. Over time, the art of brewing has evolved into a science that encompasses chemistry, microbiology and familiarity with various pieces of equipment that most people have no experience with.
For the first time, an international team of scientists has used magnetic data from ESA's Swarm satellite mission together with aeromagnetic data to help reveal the mysteries of the geology hidden beneath Antarctica's kilometers-thick ice sheets, and link Antarctica better to its former neighbors.
Nature, Published online: 10 March 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00597-9 Alice Hughes explains what it is like to work in China and what the country is doing to help tackle the global problem of biodiversity loss.
Osteosarcoma is a painful and aggressive bone tumor in dogs that is known to be more common in certain breeds than others. New research has now confirmed that larger breeds, such as Rottweiler, Great Dane and Rhodesian Ridgeback, have a greater risk of osteosarcoma than smaller breeds, as well as showing that breeds with shorter skulls and legs have lower osteosarcoma risk. The findings could info
In the recent years, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of people involved in the trade and vast numbers of scorpions are harvested from nature. This development is endangering the future of several scorpion species in a number of areas.
When the body detects a pathogen, such as bacteria or viruses, it mounts an immune system response to fight this invader. In some people, the immune system overreacts, resulting in an overactive immune response that causes the body to injure itself, which may prove fatal in some cases.
"Synchrotron (PS) is the beating heart of CERN's accelerator system. Situated at the center of the complex, it feeds particle beams not only to the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), but to many of CERN's major facilities, including the Antimatter Factory and the East Area." Klaus Hanke, head of the Proton Synchrotron operations team, chooses his words carefully to describe CERN's oldest accelerator sti
Scientists have long known that certain ingredients are needed to support life, especially water and key organic chemicals like carbon. In recent years, both ingredients have been found on giant asteroids and other celestial bodies.
A team of Russian scientists from South Ural State University and their Egyptian colleagues make healthy functional food products. Bread and drinks rich in iron and protein help treat anemia, and the other minerals they contain boost the immune system. Articles on the creation and benefits of functional foods were published in the Journal of Food Processing and Preservation and Plants.
Make sure you've got a place to store your bike whether you're in an apartment or have a big backyard. (Murillo de Paula via Unsplash/) Cycling is a go-to sport for people across the world, no matter what type of terrain they're surrounded by. You might live in a rural area and bike down old country roads for fun, or you may live in the city and bike to work as a cheap, eco-friendly means of tran
A recent study on spectacular fossil plants preserved in a volcanic ash fall deposit–known as China's "vegetational Pompeii," in Inner Mongolia, China–has resolved a mystery that puzzled palaeontology for over a century: What are Noeggerathiales?
Cognitive biases, patterns of errors in thinking that affect judgements and behaviors, often unconsciously, can help create and worsen outbreaks of foodborne disease. " Unethical behavior isn't always intentional; conflicts of interest and other unconscious motivations can lead people to behave in ways that help outbreaks emerge and spread," says Harvey James, associate director of the division o
Air conditioners, refrigerators and other machines that heat and cool work with a simple premise. Pressure is applied to a gaseous refrigerant to turn it into a liquid state and then removed again so cold air is released. That cycle repeats.
I mandags opfordrede 759 læger i åbent brev i Dagens Medicin repræsentantskabet i FAS til at forkaste årets OK-aftale, fordi den efter kritikernes opfattelse er et brud på Lægeforeningens vedtægter. Her kan du læse det fælles svar fra de tre foreninger.
Nature, Published online: 10 March 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00167-z Two researchers who turned to science later in life describe the obstacles and opportunities they faced, and the benefits of a mid-career change.
More than 30,000 people have signed a petition, launched by ex-Sydney school girl Chanel Contos, demanding for consent to be at the forefront of sexual education in schools. The text in the petition states: "Those who have signed this petition have done so because they are sad and angry that they did not receive an adequate education regarding what amounts to sexual assault and what to do when it
After decades of research, a new model was developed by University of Saskatchewan (USask) researchers that for the first time successfully predicted mountain snowpack with a high degree of accuracy and detail—information of critical importance for water management, agriculture, mining, recreation, and flood forecasting worldwide. Snow cover in the mountains is the principal driver of spring runof
Researchers at the University of Pennsylvania School of Veterinary Medicine (Penn Vet) have successfully developed a new test to systemically detect the local administration of illicit, gene doping therapies in equine athletes. The findings from the novel study, supported in part by the Pennsylvania Horse Breeders Association (PHBA) and the Pennsylvania State Horse Racing Commission, are a signifi
Högerextrema grupper normaliserar sin ideologi på nätet genom att paketera det som lättsmält och skämtsam underhållning. Vid sidan om män som marscherar i led hittar man numera poddar där högerextremister berättar om sin vardag. Det underliggande budskapet är dock detsamma. Rörelsens mediestrategi är att blanda det extrema med mainstream och paketera sitt budskap som ironiska skämt och lättsam un
When Australian's think of threatened species, we tend to think of cute, cuddly animals like koalas, kangaroos or wombats. Even our vibrant native birds get their own popularity contest thanks to Guardian Australia's Bird of the year poll, but where do plants feature in all of this?
Humans, as a species, love cats, so much so that we're willing to spend thousands trying to bring back a lost furry friend. Fortunately, if you want to know more about your favorite laser chaser, and get a sense of their future health needs, Basepaws can help. And you can test your kitty for just $129.99, 12% off the MSRP. How It Works Testing your cat's DNA is as simple as testing your own. Use
New research suggests that artificial intelligence (AI) might be able to identify and classify diseases in crop plants allowing more targeted application of treatments for specific fungal infections and other problems. The idea is discussed by a team from India in the International Journal of Sustainable Agricultural Management and Informatics.
When Samsung announced it would be shutting down its Austin production facility during last months' winter storm, the company expected to have the fab up and running in a few weeks. Last week, we reported that the restart was taking longer than expected. Now there are reports that the facility might not be back online until April. That means it probably won't ship hardware until May. Samsung's S2
The intellectual taming of comets began with Edmond Halley (with an assist from Newton) in the late 17th and early 18th centuries. In the April 11, 1908, supplementary edition of Scientific American, astronomer S. I. Bailey wrote, "Before Halley's time comets had been regarded as chance visitors to our solar system, except when they were looked upon as special messengers of divine wrath." Halley
Six-year-olds can't really talk to adults about the problems they may experience with mathematics. It is hard for teachers to know for certain who is keeping up and who is lagging, says Prof Elizabeth Henning from the University of Johannesburg.
A research team at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany has developed a completely new, environmentally friendly electrochemical procedure for producing sulfonamides rapidly and inexpensively. Sulfonamides are used in many drugs including antibiotics and Viagra as well as in agrochemicals and dyes, which makes them an important class of molecules for the pharmaceutical and chemical
Nature, Published online: 10 March 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00631-w Some sea slugs decapitate themselves to discard parasite-infested bodies. Plus, lab-supply shortages and what the data say about pregnancy and COVID.
Scientists from Qingdao Institute of BioEnergy and Bioprocess Technology (QIBEBT) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) and Procter & Gamble Company (P&G) reveal that within 24-72 hours of the interruption of oral hygiene, there was a steep decrease in the presence of 'good oral bacteria' and the beneficial anti-inflammatory chemicals they are associated with.
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21889-8 Incommensurate pairing is a type of stereoisomerism, observed in carbon bilayers, that arises from the twisted orientations of the graphitic layers. Here, the authors create a finite molecular version of an incommensurate carbon bilayer in the form of two concentrically assembled cylindrical molecules.
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21874-1 Cooperation between the ULK complex and autophagy receptors mediates targeting cargoes to autophagosomes. Here, the authors show that interactions of ULK subunit FIP200 with autophagy receptors CCPG1 and Optineurin can be regulated by phosphorylation, suggesting a general binding mode shared by autophagy recept
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21492-x The Kondo effect can serve as a powerful paradigm to understand strongly correlated many-body processes in physics. Here, Guo et al. utilize single molecule transistor devices as a testbed to study multi-level Kondo correlation and show electrical gate evolution and the universality of the two-stage Kondo effec
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21695-2 The phosphatidylinositol-3-phosphate (PI3P) is generated by the lipid kinase VPS34, in the context of VPS34 complex I on autophagosomes or complex II on endosomes. Biochemical and structural analyses provide insights into the mechanism of both VPS34 complexes recruitment to and activation on membranes by specif
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21815-y The effect of climate change on highland malaria transmission remains unclear because of increasing and decreasing trends. Here, Rodó et al. analyze malaria case data and climate data for the Ethiopian highlands from 1968 to 2008 and find that changes in temperature and associated climate variability facilitate
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 March 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21735-x It is challenging to map complex processes in brain tissue. Here the authors report a toolkit enabling large-scale multiplexed IHC and automated cell classification whereby they use a conventional epifluorescence microscope and deep neural networks to phenotype all major cell classes of the brain.
Material behaviors depend on many things including not just the composition of the material but also the arrangement of its molecular parts. For the first time, researchers have found a way to coax carbon nanotubes into creating moiré patterns. Such structures could be useful in materials research, in particular in the field of superconducting materials.
Predicting the future sucks. It does because we are never right. If what we say does not come to pass, we look bad. On the other hand, if what we say happens, naysayers will say that it's because the attackers read the blog too and we gave them ideas—the self-fulfilling prophecy. We're damned if we do and damned if we don't. That is how it is for infosec fortune tellers. Today's topic is very exc
Även i fåglarnas värld pågår en pandemi. Längs en kuststräcka i nordvästra Tyskland hittades 15 000 vilda fåglar som alla verkar ha dött av fågelinfluensa, och bland svenska tamfåglar ser vi det största utbrottet någonsin, enligt Henrik Uhlhorn som är biträdande statsveterinär på Statens veterinärmedicinska anstalt, SVA. I förra veckan tog han hand om två berguvar från Skövde som visade sig ha döt
Over the summer and fall, paper after paper revealed that mothers are one of the demographics hardest hit by the pandemic. From layoffs and leaving careers to do caretaking, to submission rate decreases and additional service projects, the data were clear, but the follow up less so. Many of the problems are not new and will remain after the pandemic. But a new paper, published this week in PLOS Bi
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In the Florida Straits at night, and under a new moon is the preference for spawning mahi-mahi, according to a new study by scientists at the University of Miami (UM) Rosenstiel School of Marine and Atmospheric Science.
A long-lasting, successful relationship between scientists at the MBL Ecosystems Center and the citizen-led Buzzards Bay Coalition has garnered a long-term record of water quality in the busy bay that lies west of Woods Hole. That record has already returned tremendous value and last week, it was published in Scientific Data, a Nature journal.
The mountain forests of Tanzania are more than 9,300 miles away from Salt Lake City, Utah. But, as in eastern Africa, the wild places of Utah depend on a diversity of birds to spread seeds, eat pests and clean up carrion. Birds keep ecosystems healthy. So if birds in Tanzania are in trouble in a warming climate, as found in a recent study by University of Utah researchers, people in Utah as well a
Forskare vid Uppsala universitet har tagit fram ett digitalt självtest som tränar människor i att granska nyheter, bilder och filmer som presenteras i sociala medier. Självtestet har också utvärderats i en vetenskaplig studie där forskarna fick ett kvitto på att verktyget verkligen förbättrade elevernas digitala källkritiska förmåga. – Målet är att eleverna ska bli bättre på att avslöja det som ä
Past studies on whether incarcerated people with mental illness are more likely to be placed in solitary confinement have yielded mixed results. A new study examined the issue in one state's prisons, taking into account factors related to incarcerated men and the facilities where they were imprisoned. It found that having a mental illness was associated with a significant increase in the likelihoo
Habits: You two were arguing, I just kept walking. Felt like the right thing to do. Photograph by evrymmnt / Shutterstock INT. HOME OFFICE—DAY BODY, a middle-aged woman, is working at a computer, trying to finish a plan for the household budget. Habits Oh! It's time to walk the dog. BODY stops typing. Central Executive Uh, oh right. The body has to walk the dog. Come on, girl. BODY walks outside
University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign aerospace engineering Ph.D. student Armando Collazo Garcia III developed a new understanding of the physics of transonic shocks produced across a laminar flow airfoil with boundary-layer suction. The technique he used can be applied to other flows and other data sets with the intent of understanding the underlying physics, the most important characteristics
New contact lens technology from Purdue University to help diagnose and monitor medical conditions may soon be ready for clinical trials. The team enabled commercial soft contact lenses to be a bioinstrumentation tool for unobtrusive monitoring of clinically important information associated with underlying ocular health conditions.
The efficiency of solar cells can be increased by exploiting a phenomenon known as singlet fission. However, unexplained energy losses during the reaction have until now been a major problem. A research group led by scientists at Linköping University, Sweden, has discovered what happens during singlet fission and where the lost energy goes. The results have been published in the journal Cell Repor
First grade maths is the foundation for 12th grade maths – and for technical and business careers. Teachers can see which first graders are struggling, and where to help them, with an accurate, evidence-based, diagnostic test. The test can be helpful for teachers after Covid-19 school reopening, especially in large, multilingual classrooms. A 15-week "maths boost" intervention program linked to th
The Korea Institute of Science and Technology (KIST) announced that the research teams of Doctors Il-Joo Cho and Nakwon Choi have developed a analysis system that can apply precise non-destructive stimuli to a 3D artificial neural circuit and measure neural signals in real-time from multiple locations inside the model at the cellular level.
Almenmedicinere i hoveduddannelse på sygehusene er traditionelt blevet betragtet som ekstra arbejdskraft, men den tankegang har Sygehus Sønderjylland gjort op med. Med stor succes er uddannelsen blevet opgraderet, bl.a. for at sikre tilgangen af læger i praksis. Andre sygehuse følger nu trop.
The Internet is undoubtedly the greatest thing to happen to the human pursuit of knowledge since the advent of the printing press . Never before has so much information been so widely available for anyone to consume, anywhere, any time. You can literally just pick up your phone and spend hours watching incredible videos about the evolution of birds, or the nature of space-time, or how quantum com
New international research published in Anaesthesia (a journal of the Association of Anaesthetists) concludes that surgery should be delayed for seven weeks after a patient tests positive for SARS-CoV-2, since the data show that surgery that takes place between 0 and 6 weeks after diagnosis is associated with increased mortality.
This paper presents a novel framework for speech-driven gesture production, applicable to virtual agents to enhance human-computer interaction. Specifically, we extend recent deep-learning-based, data-driven methods for speech-driven gesture generation by incorporating representation learning. Our model takes speech as input and produces gestures as output, in the form of a sequence of 3D coordin
Mindfulness practices may lead to the human brain's transcendence of previously established associations that lead to racial biases. A mindfulness-based program, which has a myriad of benefits, may be more effective than a specific racial bias training program and may benefit BIPOC youth and police officers alike. Professionally known as Director X, Julien Christian Lutz of the Toronto-based mind
A new SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate, developed by giving a key protein's gene a ride into the body while encased in a measles vaccine, has been shown to produce a strong immune response and prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection and lung disease in multiple animal studies.
The PhD degree prepares nurse scientists to advance knowledge through research that improves health, translates into policy, and enhances education. However, as the role of the nurse has changed, and health care has grown more complex, there is a need to re-envision how PhD programs can attract, retain, and create the nurse-scientists of the future and improve patient care.
Be more comfortable while you work. (Hillary Black via Unsplash /) Americans spent a big chunk of the past year sitting: while millions of us were laid off due to coronavirus budget cuts, millions more were sent away from the office to work from home, in less than ideal setups. Kitchen tables were converted into conference rooms, and Zoom calls were taken on the fly. But these were, of course, te
Among 52,805 health care employees who received mRNA COVID-19 vaccines, 2% experienced allergic reactions, and anaphylaxis occurred at a rate of 2.47 per 10,000 individuals. All vaccine recipients who experienced anaphylaxis recovered without going into anaphylactic shock or requiring a breathing tube.
Last fall, nearly half of older adults were on the fence about COVID-19 vaccination. But a new poll shows that 71% of people age 50-80 are now ready to get vaccinated against COVID-19 when a dose becomes available to them, up from 58% in October. The jump was even larger among older adults who are Black, Hispanic or in fair or poor health.
Announcing a new article publication for BIO Integration journal. In this article the authors Jingdun Xie, Zhenhua Qi, Xiaolin Luo, Fang Yan, Wei Xing, Weian Zeng, Dongtai Chen and Qiang Li; from Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, Guangdong, China discuss integration analysis of m6A regulators and m6A-related genes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).
Broad political, economic, and social factors influence disciplinary punishment. In particular, over the last half century, such considerations have shaped jurisdictions' use of the death penalty, which has declined considerably since the 1990s. A new study examined the factors associated with use of the death penalty at the county level to provide a fuller picture of what issues influence court o
Researchers at William & Mary's Virginia Institute of Marine Science are casting a wide net in search of fish photos. Their immediate goal is to use angler snapshots to train software to identify different fish species. Their ultimate goal is to put that artificial intelligence into a "RecFish" cell-phone app, giving anglers a multi-use field guide and scientists a collaborative tool for better ma
A new study finds that the increasingly high prices in the United States of the drugs used to treat three soil-transmitted helminth infections–hookworm, roundworm (ascariasis), and whipworm (trichuriasis)–is not only the major driver for the increase in costs to patients with either Medicaid or private insurance, but it also may have a damaging impact on the quality-of-care patients receive as c
Since 1983, the bacteria Pantoea ananatis has been known to infect several important crops including onions, rice, and corn. It was unclear, however, what molecules were involved. A new study, published in mBio, has identified one of the culprits: pantaphos. Intriguingly, the researchers have discovered that pantaphos can also act as an herbicide and it is toxic to glioblastoma cells, making it an
Coding for kids doesn't have to mean typing out code. (Unsplash/) Introducing computer coding as part of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) curriculums is an important part of every child's education. But with the complexity and fast-pace of today's technological advances, it's easy for parents to worry how they can instill a love of coding without having specialized training. Whil
What would a truly progressive city look like? A city that pays more than lip service to issues that directly affect low-income residents, seniors, marginalized communities and others whom neoliberal policies have seemingly left behind?
A Boyce Thompson Institute-led team has identified genes enabling peaches and their wild relatives to tolerate stressful conditions—findings that could help the domesticated peach adapt to climate change.
While many celebrate apple blossoms as classic signs of spring, they are also welcoming entry gates for pathogens. Full of nutrients to lure pollinators and promote pollen germination, flowers also attract bacteria like Erwinia amylavora, a pathogen that causes a damaging disease called fire blight. However, recent work by scientists at the Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station suggests that
Variants of the coronavirus are appearing in different parts of the world, many of them spreading with alarming speed. One contagious variant is the South African, or SA, variant, identified by an international team of researchers, including biomedical scientists from the University of California, Riverside.
Results provide insight into a model for launching and implementing collaborative care to meet the needs of a diverse group of patients who have a full range of mental health conditions often seen in primary care.
Delaying second doses of COVID-19 vaccines should reduce case numbers in the near term. But the longer-term case burden and the potential for evolution of viral "escape" from immunity will depend on the robustness of immune responses generated by natural infections and one or two vaccine doses.
Researchers are using Doppler to look inside living cells, introducing a method to detect pathogens and treat infections in ways that scientists never have before. Doppler radar improves lives by peeking inside air masses to predict the weather. In their new study, researchers used Doppler to sneak a peek inside cells and track their metabolic activity in real time, without having to wait for cul
According to two national surveys by researchers at the University of Michigan Medical School, US teens and young adults are engaged in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic with most being knowledgeable about the disease, concerned about its impacts on others, and practicing social distancing.
Nature, Published online: 09 March 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-00618-7 Bi-monthly injections of cabotegravir kept most people free of HIV, but also hid infections and fueled resistance in rare cases, study finds.
Compounds in both green and black tea relax blood vessels by activating ion channel proteins in the blood vessel wall, according to a new study. The discovery helps explain tea's antihypertensive properties and could lead to the design of new blood pressure-lowering medications. The findings, published in Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry , reveal that two catechin-type flavonoid compounds (ep
Strong evidence suggests that the coronavirus pandemic will affect mothers and infants through immune pathways that have, in previous research, shown links to deficits in maternal mental health and infant well-being and development across developmental stages.
Better brain health and performance for humankind is one step closer to reality with the successful trial of the groundbreaking BrainHealth Project. A cross-disciplinary team with the Center for BrainHealth® at The University of Texas at Dallas unveiled an easy-to-use online platform that delivers a novel, science-backed approach to measuring, improving and tracking one's own brain fitness.
Health care systems could save lives and minimize losses by optimizing resource allocation and implementing mitigation strategies, according to two new studies. Colorado State University researchers explored how our health care systems might perform under multiple disasters and multiple waves of COVID-19, and how we can keep them functioning when we need them most.
Many intracellular signaling pathways are composed of molecular switches, proteins that transition between two states—on and off. Typically, signaling is initiated when an external stimulus activates its cognate receptor that, in turn, causes downstream switches to transition from off to on using one of the following mechanisms: activation, in which…
Membrane bending is a ubiquitous cellular process that is required for membrane traffic, cell motility, organelle biogenesis, and cell division. Proteins that bind to membranes using specific structural features, such as wedge-like amphipathic helices and crescent-shaped scaffolds, are thought to be the primary drivers of membrane bending. However, many membrane-binding…
Sequence-specific protein ligations are widely used to produce customized proteins "on demand." Such chimeric, immobilized, fluorophore-conjugated or segmentally labeled proteins are generated using a range of chemical, (split) intein, split domain, or enzymatic methods. Where short ligation motifs and good chemoselectivity are required, ligase enzymes are often chosen, although they…
It is hypothesized that perinatal cerebellar injury leads to long-term functional deficits due to circuit dysmaturation. Using a novel integration of GCaMP6f fiber photometry with automated measurement of cerebellar behavior using the ErasmusLadder, we causally link cerebellar injury to altered Purkinje cell responses during maladaptive behavior. Chemogenetic inhibition of neonatal…
Photosynthetic species evolved to protect their light-harvesting apparatus from photoxidative damage driven by intracellular redox conditions or environmental conditions. The Fenna–Matthews–Olson (FMO) pigment–protein complex from green sulfur bacteria exhibits redox-dependent quenching behavior partially due to two internal cysteine residues. Here, we show evidence that a photosynthetic complex e
Phosphite is the most energetically favorable chemotrophic electron donor known, with a half-cell potential (Eo′) of −650 mV for the PO43−/PO33− couple. Since the discovery of microbial dissimilatory phosphite oxidation (DPO) in 2000, the environmental distribution, evolution, and diversity of DPO microorganisms (DPOMs) have remained enigmatic, as only two species…
A liquid–liquid transition (LLT) is a transformation from one liquid to another through a first-order transition. The LLT is fundamental to the understanding of the liquid state and has been reported in a few materials such as silicon, phosphorus, triphenyl phosphite, and water. Furthermore, it has been suggested that the…
A series of cubic network phases was obtained from the self-assembly of a single-composition lamellae (L)-forming block copolymer (BCP) polystyrene-block-polydimethylsiloxane (PS-b-PDMS) through solution casting using a PS-selective solvent. An unusual network phase in diblock copolymers, double-primitive phase (DP) with space group of Im3¯m, can be observed. With the reduction of…
For neuronal circuits in the brain to mature, necessary synapses must be maintained and redundant synapses eliminated through experience-dependent mechanisms. However, the functional differentiation of these synapse types during the refinement process remains elusive. Here, we addressed this issue by distinct labeling and direct recordings of presynaptic terminals fated for…
Cattle are natural hosts of the intracellular pathogen Brucella abortus, which inflicts a significant burden on the health and reproduction of these important livestock. The primary routes of infection in field settings have been described, but it is not known how the bovine host shapes the structure of B. abortus…
When we think of electric current, we often envision electrons traveling along a solid medium, such as a copper wire or a circuit board. Quantum mechanics, however, provides a different picture of current, one with no easily imaginable physical analogy. Instead of flowing particles, mathematical wave-functions represent the motion of…
James "Jim" Hurley's first introduction to crystal structures occurred when he was just 8 years old. While living north of Boulder, Colorado, his mother would take him to look for minerals near old mines in the mountains. "I learned the seven crystal systems at that age as part of learning…
Modified vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA) is a replication-restricted smallpox vaccine, and numerous clinical studies of recombinant MVAs (rMVAs) as vectors for prevention of other infectious diseases, including COVID-19, are in progress. Here, we characterize rMVAs expressing the S protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Modifications of full-length…
If you haven't been the parent or caregiver of an infant in recent years, you'd be forgiven for missing the human milk oligosaccharide trend in infant formulas. These complex carbohydrate supplements mimic human breast milk and act like prebiotics, boosting beneficial microbes in babies' guts. Milk oligosaccharides aren't just for humans; all mammals make them. New University of Illinois research
In a viewpoint perspective published in JAMA on March 9, 2021, a University of North Carolina Lineberger Comprehensive Cancer Center researcher and two other experts endorsed the Center for Medicare & Medicaid Services' (CMS) requirement for a patient and their doctor to engage in a shared discussion of benefits and harms before proceeding with a low-dose spiral computed tomography (LDCT) scan as
Princeton cancer researchers Mark Esposito and Yibin Kang discovered a new, still-unnamed organelle that plays a role in bone metastasis and is formed via liquid-liquid phase separation — when liquid blobs of living materials merge into each other. "We believe this is the first time that phase separation has been implicated in cancer metastasis," said Kang.
University of Cincinnati researchers have discovered that cooperation between two key genes drive cancer growth, spread and treatment resistance in one particularly aggressive type of breast cancer. The good news is, though, with this knowledge, they can continue to aim their targeted treatments at these genes, singularly and together, to stop breast cancer in its tracks.
Intervention research focusing on patients with multiple, simultaneous chronic illnesses is a priority for health organizations such as the National Institutes of Health and Canadian Institutes of Health Research. This is important as physicians seek to better understand how one disease may influence the course of another coexisting one, and how to best care for patients who are battling multiple
Although the prevalence of opioid use among Black people is comparatively low, the rate of opioid deaths has increased the sharpest and fastest among that population in recent years, according to an article in the March/April issue of Harvard Review of Psychiatry. The journal is published in the Lippincott portfolio by Wolters Kluwer.
The first episode of a new podcast series presents a startling comparison: White households in Boston have a median net worth of about $247,000 dollars. The median net worth of a Black household there is a mere $8 dollars. Inequality like this is a national issue, so the latest season of the Ways and Means podcast, called "The ARC of Justice—From Here to Equality," focuses on the topic. What coul
In the midst of a pandemic that has claimed more than 2 million lives worldwide and disrupted nearly every facet of society since it appeared more than a year ago, understanding the factors that facilitate disease outbreaks is more important than ever. Now, researchers at the University of Missouri have determined that cognitive biases — patterns of errors in thinking that affect judgments and be
Cancer patients often experience fragmented care, particularly as they undergo cancer treatments. Although family physicians seek to provide continuous and comprehensive care, they often lose touch with their cancer patients during the treatment phase.
Researchers at Skoltech and their colleagues proposed a photonic device from two optical resonators with liquid crystals inside them to study optical properties of this system that can be useful for future generations of optoelectronic and spinoptronic devices.
Researchers from the HealthPartners Institute and University of Minnesota in Minneapolis conducted an observational analysis of interviews and characteristics of primary care clinics, comparing the strategies, facilitators and barriers to high performance in treating patients with diabetes.
A unique curved barrier has been designed by researchers at Imperial College London, who publish new findings in the peer-reviewed journal Cities & Health on how the structure can protect people from the damaging effects of air pollution.
Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) is the most prevalent form of lung cancer, accounting for more than 80 percent of all lung cancer cases. Despite the aggressive nature of NSCLC, circulating tumor cells that lead to metastases often go undetected in the blood compared to breast, prostate, colorectal, and other cancers. Now, scientists have developed a novel method to better detect the circulating
A fall-prevention program that includes a tablet-based, gamified exercise app improved exercise frequency for low-income, homebound older adults and reduced their risk for falls, a new study shows. The program addresses the fact that many older adults are unable to utilize community-based fall prevention programs due to their mobility limitations. "Our participants were highly receptive to the pr
ANTHROPOLOGY Wine trade in medieval Islamic Sicily An amphora produced in Palermo between 900 and 1100 CE. Wine was a popular good traded amid the Roman Empire. However, it is unclear whether wine trade in Sicily continued during the Byzantine–Islamic transition. To distinguish remnants of grapevine products from other fruit-based…
CD47 is an antiphagocytic "don't eat me" signal that inhibits programmed cell removal of self. As red blood cells (RBCs) age they lose CD47 expression and become susceptible to programmed cell removal by macrophages. CD47−/− mice infected with Plasmodium yoelii, which exhibits an age-based preference for young RBCs, were previously…
Gene expression profiles of a cellular population, generated by single-cell RNA sequencing, contains rich information about biological state, including cell type, cell cycle phase, gene regulatory patterns, and location within the tissue of origin. A major challenge is to disentangle information about these different biological states from each other, including…
Ultrasound and optical imagers are used widely in a variety of biological and medical applications. In particular, multimodal implementations combining light and sound have been actively investigated to improve imaging quality. However, the integration of optical sensors with opaque ultrasound transducers suffers from low signal-to-noise ratios, high complexity, and bulky…
The control of apical dominance involves auxin, strigolactones (SLs), cytokinins (CKs), and sugars, but the mechanistic controls of this regulatory network are not fully understood. Here, we show that brassinosteroid (BR) promotes bud outgrowth in tomato through the direct transcriptional regulation of BRANCHED1 (BRC1) by the BR signaling component BRASSINAZOLE-RESISTANT1…
New therapeutic approaches to resolve persistent pain are highly needed. We tested the hypothesis that manipulation of cytokine receptors on sensory neurons by clustering regulatory cytokine receptor pairs with a fusion protein of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-10 (IL4–10 FP) would redirect signaling pathways to optimally boost pain-resolution pathways. We demonstrate…
Interferonopathies, interferon (IFN)-α/β therapy, and caveolin-1 (CAV1) loss-of-function have all been associated with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Here, CAV1-silenced primary human pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) were proliferative and hypermigratory, with reduced cytoskeletal stress fibers. Signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT) and phosphoinositide 3-kina
Depression and posttraumatic stress disorder increase the risk of idiopathic preterm birth (iPTB); however, the exact molecular mechanism is unknown. Depression and stress-related disorders are linked to increased FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51) expression levels in the brain and/or FKBP5 gene polymorphisms. Fkbp5-deficient (Fkbp5−/−) mice resist stress-induced depressive and anxiety-like behavi
The importance of warfare in the evolution of human social behavior remains highly debated. One hypothesis is that intense warfare between groups favored altruism within groups, a hypothesis given some support by computational modeling and, in particular, the work of Choi and Bowles [J.-K. Choi, S. Bowles, Science 318, 636–640…
The diversity of genome sizes across the tree of life is of key interest in evolutionary biology. Various correlates of variation in genome size, such as accumulation of transposable elements (TEs) or rate of DNA gain and loss, are well known, but the underlying molecular mechanisms driving or constraining genome…
Upon treatment removal, spontaneous reactivation of latently infected T cells remains a major barrier toward curing HIV. Therapies that reactivate and clear the latent reservoir are only partially effective, while latency-promoting agents (LPAs) used to suppress reactivation and stabilize latency are understudied and lack diversity in their mechanisms of action….
Unlike other epithelial cancer types, circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are less frequently detected in the peripheral blood of non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients using epithelial marker–based detection approaches despite the aggressive nature of NSCLC. Here, we demonstrate hexokinase-2 (HK2) as a metabolic function–associated marker for the detection of CTCs….
The molecular networks involved in the regulation of HIV replication, transcription, and latency remain incompletely defined. To expand our understanding of these networks, we performed an unbiased high-throughput yeast one-hybrid screen, which identified 42 human transcription factors and 85 total protein–DNA interactions with HIV-1 and HIV-2 long terminal repeats. We…
International cooperation on the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, disarmament, or free trade needs to be negotiated. The success of such negotiations depends on how they are designed. In the context of international climate change policy, it has been proposed [e.g., M. L. Weitzman J. Assoc. Environ. Resour. Econ. 1,…
Measles virus (MeV) is highly infectious by the respiratory route and remains an important cause of childhood mortality. However, the process by which MeV infection is efficiently established in the respiratory tract is controversial with suggestions that respiratory epithelial cells are not susceptible to infection from the apical mucosal surface….
Noeggerathiales are enigmatic plants that existed during Carboniferous and Permian times, ∼323 to 252 Mya. Although their morphology, diversity, and distribution are well known, their systematic affinity remained enigmatic because their anatomy was unknown. Here, we report from a 298-My-old volcanic ash deposit, an in situ, complete, anatomically preserved noeggerathialean….
Information manipulation is widespread in today's media environment. Online networks have disrupted the gatekeeping role of traditional media by allowing various actors to influence the public agenda; they have also allowed automated accounts (or bots) to blend with human activity in the flow of information. Here, we assess the impact…
Understanding magnetic-field generation and amplification in turbulent plasma is essential to account for observations of magnetic fields in the universe. A theoretical framework attributing the origin and sustainment of these fields to the so-called fluctuation dynamo was recently validated by experiments on laser facilities in low-magnetic-Prandtl-number plasmas (Pm<1). However, the…
Noroviruses are the predominant cause of acute gastroenteritis, with a single genotype (GII.4) responsible for the majority of infections. This prevalence is characterized by the periodic emergence of new variants that present substitutions at antigenic sites of the major structural protein (VP1), facilitating escape from herd immunity. Notably, the contribution…
Technological advances have allowed improvements in genome reference sequence assemblies. Here, we combined long- and short-read sequence resources to assemble the genome of a female Great Dane dog. This assembly has improved continuity compared to the existing Boxer-derived (CanFam3.1) reference genome. Annotation of the Great Dane assembly identified 22,182 protein-coding…
Neurotransmitter release during synaptic transmission comprises a tightly orchestrated sequence of molecular events, and Munc13-1 is a cornerstone of the fusion machinery. A forward genetic screen for defects in neurotransmitter release in Caenorhabditis elegans identified a mutation in the Munc13-1 ortholog UNC-13 that eliminated its unique and deeply conserved C-terminal…
Human adaptive-like "memory" CD56dimCD16+ natural killer (NK) cells in peripheral blood from cytomegalovirus-seropositive individuals have been extensively investigated in recent years and are currently explored as a treatment strategy for hematological cancers. However, treatment of solid tumors remains limited due to insufficient NK cell tumor infiltration, and it is unknown…
Plant viruses employ diverse virulence strategies to achieve successful infection, but there are few known general strategies of viral pathogenicity and transmission used by widely different plant viruses. Here, we report a class of independently evolved virulence factors in different plant RNA viruses which possess active transcriptional repressor activity. Rice…
DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, introduces negative supercoils into DNA using ATP hydrolysis. The highly effective gyrase-targeted drugs, fluoroquinolones (FQs), interrupt gyrase by stabilizing a DNA-cleavage complex, a transient intermediate in the supercoiling cycle, leading to double-stranded DNA breaks. MfpA, a pentapeptide-repeat protein in mycobacteria, protects gyrase from FQs,…
Human clinical trials suggest that inhibition of enzymes in the DNA base excision repair (BER) pathway, such as PARP1 and APE1, can be useful in anticancer strategies when combined with certain DNA-damaging agents or tumor-specific genetic deficiencies. There is also evidence suggesting that inhibition of the BER enzyme 8-oxoguanine DNA…
Classical pharmacological models have incorporated an "intrinsic efficacy" parameter to capture system-independent effects of G protein–coupled receptor (GPCR) ligands. However, the nonlinear serial amplification of downstream signaling limits quantitation of ligand intrinsic efficacy. A recent biophysical study has characterized a ligand "molecular efficacy" that quantifies the influence of ligan
Apparent critical phenomena, typically indicated by growing correlation lengths and dynamical slowing down, are ubiquitous in nonequilibrium systems such as supercooled liquids, amorphous solids, active matter, and spin glasses. It is often challenging to determine if such observations are related to a true second-order phase transition as in the equilibrium…
The alteration of the enteric nervous system (ENS) and its role in neuroimmune modulation remain obscure in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs). Here, by using the xCell tool and the latest immunolabeling-enabled three-dimensional (3D) imaging of solvent-cleared organs technique, we found severe pathological damage of the entire ENS…
Intracellular protein homeostasis is maintained by a network of chaperones that function to fold proteins into their native conformation. The eukaryotic TRiC chaperonin (TCP1-ring complex, also called CCT for cytosolic chaperonin containing TCP1) facilitates folding of a subset of proteins with folding constraints such as complex topologies. To better understand…
The brain requires continuously high energy production to maintain ion gradients and normal function. Mitochondria critically undergird brain energetics, and mitochondrial abnormalities feature prominently in neuropsychiatric disease. However, many unique aspects of brain mitochondria composition and function are poorly understood. Developing improved neuroprotective therapeutics thus requires mor
Protein–protein interactions are essential for life but rarely thermodynamically quantified in living cells. In vitro efforts show that protein complex stability is modulated by high concentrations of cosolutes, including synthetic polymers, proteins, and cell lysates via a combination of hard-core repulsions and chemical interactions. We quantified the stability of a…
For organisms to have robust locomotion, their neuromuscular organization must adapt to constantly changing environments. In jellyfish, swimming robustness emerges when marginal pacemakers fire action potentials throughout the bell's motor nerve net, which signals the musculature to contract. The speed of the muscle activation wave is dictated by the passage…
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) can cause cellular damage and promote cancer development. Besides such harmful consequences of overproduction of ROS, all cells utilize ROS for signaling purposes and stabilization of cell homeostasis. In particular, the latter is supported by the NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) that constitutively produces low amounts of…
White adipose tissue (WAT) is a key regulator of systemic energy metabolism, and impaired WAT plasticity characterized by enlargement of preexisting adipocytes associates with WAT dysfunction, obesity, and metabolic complications. However, the mechanisms that retain proper adipose tissue plasticity required for metabolic fitness are unclear. Here, we comprehensively showed that…
Energy conversion in aerobic organisms involves an electron current from low-potential donors, such as NADH and succinate, to dioxygen through the membrane-bound respiratory chain. Electron transfer is coupled to transmembrane proton transport, which maintains the electrochemical proton gradient used to produce ATP and drive other cellular processes. Electrons are transferred…
Multiple sclerosis (MS), a putative autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), commonly presents as relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS), characterized by recurrent episodes of peripheral disabling symptoms resulting from inflammatory CNS damage. Many RRMS patients transition to a chronic disease course with progressive neurological dysfunctions (secondary progressive MS, SPMS), with…
Protein aggregation is associated with a wide range of degenerative human diseases with devastating consequences, as exemplified by Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases. In vitro kinetic studies have provided a mechanistic understanding of the aggregation process at the molecular level. However, it has so far remained largely unclear to what…
Thrombomodulin (TM) is a thrombin receptor on endothelial cells that is involved in promoting activation of the anticoagulant protein C pathway during blood coagulation. TM also exerts protective anti-inflammatory properties through a poorly understood mechanism. In this study, we investigated the importance of TM signaling to cellular functions by deleting…
Basement membrane (BM) is a thin layer of extracellular matrix that surrounds most animal tissues, serving as a physical barrier while allowing nutrient exchange. Although they have important roles in tissue structural integrity, physical properties of BMs remain largely uncharacterized, which limits our understanding of their mechanical functions. Here, we…
Extensive spatial and temporal distribution of high-quality data are essential for understanding regional and global behaviors of the geomagnetic field. We carried out chronological and archaeomagnetic studies at the Angkor-era iron-smelting site of Tonle Bak in Cambodia in Southeast Asia, an area with no data available to date. We recovered…
The telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) has long been pursued as a direct therapeutic target in human cancer, which is currently hindered by the lack of effective specific inhibitors of TERT. The FOS/GABPB/(mutant) TERT cascade plays a critical role in the regulation of mutant TERT, in which FOS acts as a…
Time- and space-resolved excited states at the individual nanoparticle level provide fundamental insights into heterogeneous energy, electron, and heat flow dynamics. Here, we optically excite carbon dots to image electron–phonon dynamics within single dots and nanoscale thermal transport between two dots. We use a scanning tunneling microscope tip as a…
Blood oxygenation level–dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been widely used to localize brain functions. To further advance understanding of brain functions, it is critical to understand the direction of information flow, such as thalamocortical versus corticothalamic projections. For this work, we performed ultrahigh spatiotemporal resolution fMRI at…
Retinal neovascularization is a leading cause of severe visual loss in humans, and molecular mechanisms of microglial activation-driven angiogenesis remain unknown. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we identified a subpopulation of microglia named sMG2, which highly expressed necroptosis-related genes Rip3 and Mlkl. Genetic and pharmacological loss of function demonstrated that hypoxia-induced…
The COVID-19 pandemic has reemphasized the need to identify safe and scalable therapeutics to slow or reverse symptoms of disease caused by newly emerging and reemerging viral pathogens. Recent clinical successes of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in therapy for viral infections demonstrate that mAbs offer a solution for these emerging biothreats….
We read, with great interest, the recent PNAS publication by Kundu et al. (1). We wish to comment on several aspects of this research. The abstract states that subjects included were free of symptoms. However, figure 7 in ref. 1 shows that the inclusion definition was a total Western Ontario…
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a devastating disease characterized by arteriopathy in the small to medium-sized distal pulmonary arteries, often accompanied by infiltration of inflammatory cells. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR), a nuclear receptor/transcription factor, detoxifies xenobiotics and regulates the differentiation and function of various immune cells. However, the role of…
Mycobacterial AdnAB is a heterodimeric helicase–nuclease that initiates homologous recombination by resecting DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The N-terminal motor domain of the AdnB subunit hydrolyzes ATP to drive rapid and processive 3′ to 5′ translocation of AdnAB on the tracking DNA strand. ATP hydrolysis is mechanically productive when oscillating protein…
Cellulose is synthesized by cellulose synthases (CESAs) from the glycosyltransferase GT-2 family. In plants, the CESAs form a six-lobed rosette-shaped CESA complex (CSC). Here we report crystal structures of the catalytic domain of Arabidopsis thaliana CESA3 (AtCESA3CatD) in both apo and uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glucose (UDP-Glc)–bound forms. AtCESA3CatD has an overall…
Hole hopping through tryptophan/tyrosine chains enables rapid unidirectional charge transport over long distances. We have elucidated structural and dynamical factors controlling hopping speed and efficiency in two modified azurin constructs that include a rhenium(I) sensitizer, Re(His)(CO)3(dmp)+, and one or two tryptophans (W1, W2). Experimental kinetics investigations showed that the two…
We thank Roemer and Guermazi for their Letter, "Biochemical cartilage changes based on MRI-defined T2 relaxation times do not equal OA detection" (1). In their comments on our paper (2), the authors (1) raise questions about osteoarthritis (OA) incidence, visual signs of disease on the images, MRI-based scoring systems, and…
The prevalent view on whether Ras is druggable has gradually changed in the recent decade with the discovery of effective inhibitors binding to cryptic sites unseen in the native structures. Despite the promising advances, therapeutics development toward higher potency and specificity is challenged by the elusive nature of these binding…
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