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Multiple migrations to the Philippines during the last 50,000 years [Anthropology]
Island Southeast Asia has recently produced several surprises regarding human history, but the region's complex demography remains poorly understood. Here, we report ∼2.3 million genotypes from 1,028 individuals representing 115 indigenous Philippine populations and genome-sequence data from two ∼8,000-y-old individuals from Liangdao in the Taiwan Strait. We show that the…
5h
Experimental competition induces immediate and lasting effects on the neurogenome in free-living female birds [Evolution]
Periods of social instability can elicit adaptive phenotypic plasticity to promote success in future competition. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have primarily been studied in captive and laboratory-reared animals, leaving uncertainty as to how natural competition among free-living animals affects gene activity. Here, we experimentally generated social competition among wild,…
5h
Supercell tornadoes are much stronger and wider than damage-based ratings indicate [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Tornadoes cause damage, injury, and death when intense winds impact structures. Quantifying the strength and extent of such winds is critical to characterizing tornado hazards. Ratings of intensity and size are based nearly entirely on postevent damage surveys [R. Edwards et al., Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 94, 641–653 (2013)]. It…
5h
Watch This Awesome Video of Clouds Drifting Across the Martian Sky
Martian Storm A stunning video that went viral over the weekend shows a fierce, dark cloud passing over a rocky landscape. But this isn't Arizona — it's the desolate surface of Mars. Clouds in the sky, gently passing overhead. On Mars, Friday, March 19, 2021. pic.twitter.com/jJpemPefIV — Prof. Paul Byrne (@ThePlanetaryGuy) March 20, 2021 The eight images were taken by NASA's Curiosity rover on Ma
7h
Just-Launched Spacecraft Will Use Grappling Hook to Destroy Space Junk
Drag and Drop A Japanese company called Astroscale is tackling the increasingly dangerous cloud of space junk orbiting our planet and the real threat it poses to satellites and other spacecraft. The company launched a new kind of satellite called the End of Life Services by Astroscale-demonstration (ELSA-d) on Monday, Quartz reports . Soon, ELSA-d will use a powerful magnet to latch onto a doomed
3h
NASA Chooses "Airfield" Location for Mars Helicopter
NASA has chosen the location where it will attempt a historic first: the first time a manmade object will try to take flight off the surface of another planet. As early as April , NASA's Ingenuity Mars helicopter will attempt to fly to roughly ten feet, according to acting NASA administrator Steve Jurczyk, who spoke during a Tuesday media briefing . The agency has officially chosen the "airfield"
4h
Plans Unveiled for Grand Mars City
Breaking Ground The architecture firm ABIBOO just released the plans for its — and perhaps the — first human city on Mars. Nüwa City, as it's called, would house 250,000 people and be built into the side of a giant Martian cliff, according to ABIBOO's press release , where residents would get the benefit of sunlight access while also being protected from the deadly onslaught of cosmic radiation.
8h
Scientists Detect Chemicals Inside Pregnant Women They Can't Even Identify
An alarming new study found dozens of "mystery chemicals" inside the bodies of pregnant women, leaving scientists both concerned and confused. Of the 109 unusual, human-made chemicals identified in the study, 55 had never been found inside the human body before, according to research published last week in the journal Environmental Science & Technology . Another 42 were complete mysteries — both
2h
Caltech Scientists Say They Can Read Human Brain With Ultrasound
A new trick uses precise ultrasound imaging — the same kind that lets parents-to-be see their kid before it's born — to read and even predict activity within the brain. Scientists at Caltech were able to use ultrasound to listen in as blood sloshed around in different parts of the brain, which they quickly realized was a proxy for which neural regions were active at any given moment, according to
6h
Another new chameleon from the Bale region of Ethiopia
The Bale Mountains in south-central Ethiopia are considered to be one of the most unique centers of endemism, with an extraordinary number of plants and animals that can only be found there. Numerous species are already known from this Afromontane high-elevation plateau, making it a biodiversity hotspot, but ongoing research continues to reveal the presence of so far unknown and undescribed organi
4h
I Just Want to Date Like Every Other 20-Something
Two months into the pandemic, I gave in and tried Zoom dating. After a few days of chatting on OKCupid, I found myself across the screen from a perfectly nice match. It was one hour in hell: Trapped in a two-way-hostage video, I was hyperaware of everything that was missing—the smell of her perfume, how she moved through space, seeing the way she ordered a drink. If I was going to date, it had to
6h
Haunting Photos Show Missiles Milliseconds Before Exploding
Fatal Frame If you're interested in seeing some images taken just moments before (intentional, well-planned) disaster, boy do we have a highlight reel for you. Live weapon tests are an important part of making sure that new bombs, missiles, and drones actually do what the military wants them to do upon impact, lest the armed forces accidentally fire a dud during actual combat. Now, The Drive put
4h
Fungal species causing candidiasis use distinct infection strategies
Candidiasis is a fungal infection caused by a yeast called Candida. It is a serious global health problem and it can be vaginal, oral or systemic. The latter is the most severe form of infection, as it can lead to death, but vaginal candidiasis infection is the most prevalent, affecting 80% of women at some point in their lives.
7h
An exotic metal-insulator transition in a surface-doped transition metal dichalcogenide
Metal-insulator transition (MIT) driven by many-body interactions is an important phenomenon in condensed matter physics. Exotic phases always emerge around the metal-insulator transition points where quantum fluctuations arise from a competition among spin, charge, orbital, and lattice degrees of freedom. Two-dimensional (2D) materials are a large class of materials. Their simple structure, low d
7h
A synthesis of health benefits of natural sounds and their distribution in national parks [Environmental Sciences]
Parks are important places to listen to natural sounds and avoid human-related noise, an increasingly rare combination. We first explore whether and to what degree natural sounds influence health outcomes using a systematic literature review and meta-analysis. We identified 36 publications examining the health benefits of natural sound. Meta-analyses of…
5h
Elon Musk Has an Interesting Argument Against UFOs
The Strongest Argument Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk waded in to the world of UFO sightings this week, claiming his latest meme is the "strongest argument against aliens." Strongest argument against aliens pic.twitter.com/eF2FFZpJQE — Elon Musk (@elonmusk) March 23, 2021 The graph shows how the resolution of cameras has risen since the 19th century — even while images of UFO sightings have remai
2h
The CysLT2R receptor mediates leukotriene C4-driven acute and chronic itch [Neuroscience]
Acute and chronic itch are burdensome manifestations of skin pathologies including allergic skin diseases and atopic dermatitis, but the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. Cysteinyl leukotrienes (CysLTs), comprising LTC4, LTD4, and LTE4, are produced by immune cells during type 2 inflammation. Here, we uncover a role for LTC4…
5h
Babies prefer baby talk, whether they're learning one language or two
A study finds babies prefer baby talk, whether they're learning one language or two. Scientists knew infants learning one language preferred the sing-song tones of parents' baby talk, and now scientists have found babies learning two languages are developmentally right on track. Bilingual babies showed the same interest in baby talk, at the same age, as monolingual babies.
7h
How human cells coordinate the start of DNA replication
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) President and CEO Bruce Stillman has been dissecting DNA replication, a critical step in cell division, since the 1980s. His lab studies how Origin Recognition Complexes—ORCs—coordinate DNA duplication. They discovered how our cells assemble and disassemble ORCs during the cell division cycle. One ORC protein is sequestered into small liquid droplets, keeping i
2h
The producer benefits of implicit fossil fuel subsidies in the United States [Sustainability Science]
This paper estimates the financial benefits accruing to fossil fuel producers (i.e., the producer incidence) that arise because of implicit fossil fuel subsidies in the United States. The analysis takes account of coal, natural gas, gasoline, and diesel, along with the implicit subsidies due to externalized environmental damages, public health…
5h
A simple laser for quantum-like classical light
Tailoring light is much like tailoring cloth, cutting and snipping to turn a bland fabric into one with a desired pattern. In the case of light, the tailoring is usually done in the spatial degrees of freedom, such as its amplitude and phase (the 'pattern' of light), and its polarization, while the cutting and snipping might be controlled with spatial light modulators and the like. This burgeoning
7h
New strategy for fighting brain cancer
Most people relate cholesterol to heart health, but it is also a critical component in the growth and spread of brain cancer. Researchers recently discovered how cholesterol becomes dysregulated in brain cancer cells and showed that the gene responsible for it could be a target for future drugs.
5h
The same sea level for everyone
Maps generally indicate elevation in meters above sea level. But sea level is not the same everywhere. A group of experts has developed an International Height Reference System (IHRS) that will unify geodetic measurements worldwide.
3h
A divided visual field in hawkmoths
Hummingbird hawkmoths are small insects that hover in the air like hummingbirds when drinking nectar from flowers. Dr. Anna Stöckl from the Biocentre of the Julius-Maximilians-Universität (JMU) Würzburg in Bavaria, Germany, is studying the visual performance of these insects. Dr. Stöckl and her doctoral student Ronja Bigge now present their latest findings in the journal Current Biology.
5h
North American deserts are a biodiversity hotspot for butterflies
By comparing the genetic diversity of butterflies in North America, researchers reporting in the journal iScience on March 23 found that the array of different evolutionary distinct groups of butterflies is particularly high in the deserts of Mexico and the southwestern United States. This may be an outcome of actively changing conditions in the Desert Southwest and more generally in the western p
8h
Last Ice Age: Precipitation caused maximum advance of Alpine Glaciers
Geologists unexpectedly found mineral deposits in former ice caves in the Austrian Alps dating back to the peak of the last ice age. These special calcite crystals demonstrate that intensive snowfall during the second half of the year triggered a massive glacier advance leading to the climax of the last ice age.
4h
Rich false memories of autobiographical events can be reversed [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
False memories of autobiographical events can create enormous problems in forensic settings (e.g., false accusations). While multiple studies succeeded in inducing false memories in interview settings, we present research trying to reverse this effect (and thereby reduce the potential damage) by means of two ecologically valid strategies. We first successfully…
5h
Short-lived plant species are more climate-sensitive
Short-lived plant species are more sensitive to climate change than long-lived ones, researchers found out. The international team compiled comprehensive worldwide available data on how plant populations react to climate change and could show that plant characteristics such as generation time can predict how sensitive species are to changing climates.
8h
Rare fossilized algae, discovered unexpectedly, fill in evolutionary gaps
When geobiology graduate student Katie Maloney trekked into the mountains of Canada's remote Yukon territory, she was hoping to find microscopic fossils of early life. Even with detailed field plans, the odds of finding just the right rocks were low. Far from leaving empty-handed, though, she hiked back out with some of the most significant fossils for the time period.
2h
A divided visual field
How do hawkmoths use visual patterns in different parts of their visual field? While researching this question, a research team experienced a surprise.
5h
Penguin hemoglobin evolved to meet oxygen demands of diving
Webbed feet, flipper-like wings and unique feathers all helped penguins adapt to life underwater. But by resurrecting two ancient versions of hemoglobin, a research team has shown that the evolution of diving is also in their blood, which optimized its capture and release of oxygen to ensure that penguins wouldn't waste their breath while holding it.
5h
The lambs break their silence
A study of ancient bones shows that Early Neolithic sheep-breeders were faced with high levels of mortality among young animals in their herds. A statistical model allowed the age distribution of the bones to be precisely determined.
2h
Moiré effect: How to twist material properties
2D materials like graphene have revolutionized materials science. Now a new interesting option has been added to this field of research: Two thin material layers can be stacked and twisted by a certain angle. This leads to a Moiré-effect and changes the properties of the material.
4h
Cephalopods: Older than was thought?
Earth scientists have discovered possibly the oldest cephalopods in Earth's history. The 522 million-year-old fossils from Newfoundland (Canada) could turn out to be the first known form of these highly evolved invertebrate organisms. In that case, the find would indicate that the cephalopods evolved about 30 million years earlier than has been assumed.
5h
The Weekly Planet: Why Celebrities Are Agog Over This Tiny Climate Think Tank
Every week, our lead climate reporter brings you the big ideas, expert analysis, and vital guidance that will help you flourish on a changing planet. Sign up to get T he Weekly Planet , our guide to living through climate change, in your inbox. The think tank Carbon180 is, as far as I know, the only American nonprofit dedicated to studying the removal of carbon-dioxide pollution from the atmosphe
1h
Demonstration of unconventional transverse thermoelectric generation
A research team devised a new thermoelectric generation mechanism with a hybrid structure composed of thermoelectric and magnetic materials. The team then actually fabricated this structure and observed the record-high thermopower appearing in the direction perpendicular to a temperature gradient (i.e., transverse thermoelectric generation). These results may offer insights into new mechanisms and
5h
Taking microelectronics to a new dimension
Metallic microstructures are the key components in almost every current or emerging technology. For example, with the next wireless communication standard (6G) being established, the need for advanced components and especially antennas is unmet. The drive to yet higher frequencies and deeper integration goes hand in hand with miniaturization and fabrication technologies with on-chip capability. Vi
5h
Discovery of non-toxic semiconductors with a direct band gap in the near-infrared
Scientists have discovered a potentially promising infrared LED and infrared detector component. This compound — composed of calcium, silicon and oxygen — is cheap to produce and non-toxic. Many of the existing infrared semiconductors contain toxic chemical elements, such as cadmium and tellurium. The new material may be used to develop less expensive and safer near-infrared semiconductors.
7h
Changes in Antarctic marine ecosystems
Understanding the evolution of the polar sea ice is not enough to study the effects of the climate change on marine ecosystems in Antarctic seafloors. It is also necessary to determine the intensity of phytoplankton local production during the Antarctic summer, as stated in a new study by a research team of the Faculty of Biology and the Biodiversity Research Institute (IRBio) of the University of
2h
Metasurfaces for manipulating terahertz waves
THz waves have a plethora of applications ranging from biomedical and medical examinations, imaging, environmental monitoring, to wireless communications, because of abundant spectral information, low photon energy, strong penetrability, and shorter wavelength. THz waves with technological advances not only determined by high-efficiency sources and detectors but also decided by a variety of high-q
5h
Time-expanded phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry
Distributed optical fiber sensing (DOFS) is currently a mature technology that allows 'transforming' a conventional fiber optic into a continuous array of individual sensors, which are distributed along its length. Between the panoply of techniques developed in the field of DOFS, those based on phase-sensitive optical time-domain reflectometry (ΦOTDR) have gained a great deal of attention, mainly
7h
Why are young adults having less casual sex?
Casual sex is on the decline for both young men and women, according to a Rutgers University-New Brunswick study that found less alcohol consumption among both genders is a major reason, while playing video games and living at home with parents are another—but only for men.
7h
Viktlösa batterier kan göra prylar superlätta
Forskare på Chalmers har tillverkat ett strukturellt batteri som är tio gånger bättre än alla tidigare. Det innehåller kolfiber som parallellt fungerar som elektrod, strömledare och bärande material. Batteriet öppnar dörren för så kallad "viktlös" energilagring i till exempel fordon och farkoster. – Nästa generations strukturella batteri har mycket stor potential. Om man ser till konsumentteknik
7h
Whales warned each other about 19th century hunters
Newly digitized whalers' logbooks allow researchers to analyze trends in 19th-century whaling. The records show that whales soon learned to anticipate and evade predation from humans. The behavioral changes suggest social learning at work since the change in their behavior occurred too quickly to be evolutionary. Until someone works out a way to communicate with them, we can't really know how sma
20min
ET Deals: Save $550 On Dell XPS 8940 Intel Core i5 Nvidia GTX 1660 Ti Gaming Desktop, Roborock S6 Robot Vacuum and Mop for $401
Today you can save $550 on a gaming desktop from Dell that comes equipped with an Intel Core i5 processor and an Nvidia GeForce GTX 1660 Ti graphics card. This makes the system well suited for gaming at 1080p resolutions. There's also an excellent discount on a Roborock S6 robot vacuum that's marked down to just $401.99. Dell XPS 8940 Intel Core i5-10400 Gaming Desktop w/ Nvidia GeForce GTX 1660
1h
Researchers develop technology allowing researchers to image wetland soil activity in real time
Featured on the cover of the Soil Science Society of America Journal, researchers at the University of Maryland (UMD) and the Spanish National Research Council partnered to create a new camera allowing for the imaging of wetland soil activity in real time. This camera gives the classic IRIS (indicator of reduction in soils) technology a big upgrade. IRIS is used universally by researchers and soil
2h
Curbing COVID-19 on campuses nationwide
While COVID-19 cases may be on the decline, the virus is still prevalent nationwide, and higher education institutions need to prepare for a successful 2021 academic year. New research from Clemson University in The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, one of the world's premier peer-reviewed general medical journals, indicates how surveillance-based informative testing (SBIT) mitigates the spread of
2h
Study on Personality and Video Game Usage (Everyone, 18+)
Hello Everyone, We here at the MindSPACE lab are investigating what types of experiences and personality traits influence people's interest in playing video games and, if they do play, video-game performance and preference for the type of game. We would like to invite you to participate in our online survey, which explores the following topics: short-term memory, visual-motor skills and video-gam
2h
A hs senior interested in undergrad psychology b.s., should I consider cogsci instead?
I plan to entire UCSD this fall with a clinical psychology major, and have plans of pursuing graduate school (potentially in school psychology) Should I consider majoring in cognitive science instead which enables the options of 1. Later pursuing grad school in psychology 2. Have opportunities to work after graduating in fields of psych+UX? (I have this idea because psych degrees have limited opt
2h
Has anyone used Psytoolkit? Need help!
Is there any way to set up a two part study on psytoolkit? For ex- 30 minute first session and another 30 minute session a week later. Both sessions containing different tasks/questions. submitted by /u/lyzajay15 [link] [comments]
2h
SARS-CoV-2 spread undetected months before first cases
The SARS-CoV-2 virus likely circulated undetected for at most two months before reports of the first human cases of COVID-19 in Wuhan, China in late December 2019, researchers report. The researchers also note that their simulations suggest that the mutating virus dies out naturally more than three-quarters of the time without causing an epidemic. "A lot has been learned over the last year about
3h
Researchers hunt for drugs that keep HIV latent
When the human immunodeficiency virus infects cells, it can either exploit the cells to start making more copies of itself or remain dormant–a phenomenon called latency. Keeping these reservoirs latent is a challenge. A new paper has found a way to look for chemicals that can keep the virus suppressed into its dormant state.
3h
Neutrons reveal unpredicted binding between SARS-CoV-2, hepatitis C antiviral drug
Researchers at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory used neutron scattering to investigate the interactions between telaprevir, a drug used to treat hepatitis C viral infection, and the SARS-CoV-2 main protease, the enzyme responsible for enabling the virus to reproduce. Unforeseen changes in the electric charges were discovered in the drug binding site of the protease enzyme that were not predicted
3h
Shock-and-kill versus block-and-lock: Targeting the fluctuating and heterogeneous HIV-1 gene expression [Cell Biology]
Despite effective antiretroviral therapy, HIV-1 persistence in the latent reservoir remains the major barrier to cure. Current strategies for HIV-1 eradication require either inducing HIV-1 expression to expose latently infected cells for immune clearance [known as the "shock-and-kill strategy" (1)] or silencing HIV-1 expression for a prolonged drug-free remission [known…
4h
Health and economic impact of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in hindering antimicrobial resistance in China [Economic Sciences]
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) poses a serious threat to global public health. However, vaccinations have been largely undervalued as a method to hinder AMR progression. This study examined the AMR impact of increasing pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV) coverage in China. China has one of the world's highest rates of antibiotic use…
4h
Cancer-specific loss of TERT activation sensitizes glioblastoma to DNA damage [Genetics]
Most glioblastomas (GBMs) achieve cellular immortality by acquiring a mutation in the telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) promoter. TERT promoter mutations create a binding site for a GA binding protein (GABP) transcription factor complex, whose assembly at the promoter is associated with TERT reactivation and telomere maintenance. Here, we demonstrate increased…
4h
Evidence of ideal excitonic insulator in bulk MoS2 under pressure [Applied Physical Sciences]
Spontaneous condensation of excitons is a long-sought phenomenon analogous to the condensation of Cooper pairs in a superconductor. It is expected to occur in a semiconductor at thermodynamic equilibrium if the binding energy of the excitons—electron (e) and hole (h) pairs interacting by Coulomb force—overcomes the band gap, giving rise…
4h
Ecological variation and institutionalized inequality in hunter-gatherer societies [Anthropology]
Research examining institutionalized hierarchy tends to focus on chiefdoms and states, while its emergence among small-scale societies remains poorly understood. Here, we test multiple hypotheses for institutionalized hierarchy, using environmental and social data on 89 hunter-gatherer societies along the Pacific coast of North America. We utilize statistical models capable of…
4h
miRNA-independent function of long noncoding pri-miRNA loci [Cell Biology]
Among the large, diverse set of mammalian long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), long noncoding primary microRNAs (lnc-pri-miRNAs) are those that host miRNAs. Whether lnc-pri-miRNA loci have important biological function independent of their cognate miRNAs is poorly understood. From a genome-scale lncRNA screen, lnc-pri-miRNA loci were enriched for function in cell proliferation,…
4h
Magnetically driven short-range order can explain anomalous measurements in CrCoNi [Engineering]
The presence, nature, and impact of chemical short-range order in the multi-principal element alloy CrCoNi are all topics of current interest and debate. First-principles calculations reveal that its origins are fundamentally magnetic, involving repulsion between like-spin Co–Cr and Cr–Cr pairs that is complemented by the formation of a magnetically aligned…
4h
Inflammatory signaling sensitizes Piezo1 mechanotransduction in articular chondrocytes as a pathogenic feed-forward mechanism in osteoarthritis [Medical Sciences]
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a painful and debilitating condition of synovial joints without any disease-modifying therapies [A. M. Valdes, T. D. Spector, Nat. Rev. Rheumatol. 7, 23–32 (2011)]. We previously identified mechanosensitive PIEZO channels, PIEZO1 and PIEZO2, both expressed in articular cartilage, to function in chondrocyte mechanotransduction in response to injury…
4h
Effects of faster aging show up by midlife
For those whose bodies age more quickly than others, the cumulative effects show up as early as midlife, when signs of dementia and physical frailty begin to emerge, according to a study led by Duke researchers. The findings in the journal Nature Aging suggest that identifying and treating the diseases of old age should begin by the time people celebrate their 45th birthday, before the problems e
4h
Social context affects gendered views of STEM subjects in England and Japan
Concern over attractiveness to the opposite sex affects the masculine image of physics and mathematics only in England, while having a negative view of intellectual women is correlated with a masculine image of mathematics as a field only in Japan, according to a survey conducted in the two countries by a Japanese research group. This comparative study shows that programs to increase women's repre
4h
Studying Bats With 'Virus Hunters' in the Philippines
Eloisa Lopez , a staff photographer with Reuters, recently spent time with researchers who call themselves the "virus hunters," as they caught and studied bats in the Philippines. They set up wide nets near roosts, then carefully untangle any trapped bats and measure and swab them, before returning them to the wild. The data collected in this project, run by the University of the Philippines at L
5h
Mad dephosphorylation at the nuclear pore is essential for asymmetric stem cell division [Cell Biology]
Stem cells divide asymmetrically to generate a stem cell and a differentiating daughter cell. Yet, it remains poorly understood how a stem cell and a differentiating daughter cell can receive distinct levels of niche signal and thus acquire different cell fates (self-renewal versus differentiation), despite being adjacent to each other…
5h
DNA affinity purification sequencing and transcriptional profiling reveal new aspects of nitrogen regulation in a filamentous fungus [Genetics]
Sensing available nutrients and efficiently utilizing them is a challenge common to all organisms. The model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa is capable of utilizing a variety of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources. Nitrogen utilization in N. crassa is regulated by a network of pathway-specific transcription factors that activate genes necessary…
5h
The evolution of ancestral and species-specific adaptations in snowfinches at the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau [Evolution]
Species in a shared environment tend to evolve similar adaptations under the influence of their phylogenetic context. Using snowfinches, a monophyletic group of passerine birds (Passeridae), we study the relative roles of ancestral and species-specific adaptations to an extreme high-elevation environment, the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau. Our ancestral trait reconstruction shows that…
5h
A glutaminase isoform switch drives therapeutic resistance and disease progression of prostate cancer [Medical Sciences]
Cellular metabolism in cancer is significantly altered to support the uncontrolled tumor growth. How metabolic alterations contribute to hormonal therapy resistance and disease progression in prostate cancer (PCa) remains poorly understood. Here we report a glutaminase isoform switch mechanism that mediates the initial therapeutic effect but eventual failure of hormonal…
5h
CMT2N-causing aminoacylation domain mutants enable Nrp1 interaction with AlaRS [Biochemistry]
Through dominant mutations, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases constitute the largest protein family linked to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT). An example is CMT subtype 2N (CMT2N), caused by individual mutations spread out in AlaRS, including three in the aminoacylation domain, thereby suggesting a role for a tRNA-charging defect. However, here we found that two…
5h
A highly selective and potent CXCR4 antagonist for hepatocellular carcinoma treatment [Pharmacology]
The CXC chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4) receptor and its ligand, CXCL12, are overexpressed in various cancers and mediate tumor progression and hypoxia-mediated resistance to cancer therapy. While CXCR4 antagonists have potential anticancer effects when combined with conventional anticancer drugs, their poor potency against CXCL12/CXCR4 downstream signaling pathways and systemic…
5h
ICOS ligand and IL-10 synergize to promote host-microbiota mutualism [Immunology and Inflammation]
Genome-wide association studies have identified ICOSLG, which encodes the inducible costimulator ligand (ICOSLG or ICOSL) as a susceptibility locus for inflammatory bowel disease. ICOSL has been implicated in the enhancement of pattern recognition receptor signaling in dendritic cells, induction of IL-10 production by CD4 T cells, and the generation of…
5h
Cingulo-opercular control network and disused motor circuits joined in standby mode [Neuroscience]
Whole-brain resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) during 2 wk of upper-limb casting revealed that disused motor regions became more strongly connected to the cingulo-opercular network (CON), an executive control network that includes regions of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and insula. Disuse-driven increases in functional connectivity (FC) were specific to…
5h
Assembly of a dsRNA synthesizing complex: RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 contacts the largest subunit of NUCLEAR RNA POLYMERASE IV [Plant Biology]
In plants, transcription of selfish genetic elements such as transposons and DNA viruses is suppressed by RNA-directed DNA methylation. This process is guided by 24-nt short-interfering RNAs (siRNAs) whose double-stranded precursors are synthesized by DNA-dependent NUCLEAR RNA POLYMERASE IV (Pol IV) and RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2). Pol IV and…
5h
CODY enables quantitatively spatiotemporal predictions on in vivo gut microbial variability induced by diet intervention [Systems Biology]
Microbial variations in the human gut are harbored in temporal and spatial heterogeneity, and quantitative prediction of spatiotemporal dynamic changes in the gut microbiota is imperative for development of tailored microbiome-directed therapeutics treatments, e.g. precision nutrition. Given the high-degree complexity of microbial variations, subject to the dynamic interactions among host,…
5h
Free-energy changes of bacteriorhodopsin point mutants measured by single-molecule force spectroscopy [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Single amino acid mutations provide quantitative insight into the energetics that underlie the dynamics and folding of membrane proteins. Chemical denaturation is the most widely used assay and yields the change in unfolding free energy (ΔΔG). It has been applied to >80 different residues of bacteriorhodopsin (bR), a model membrane…
5h
Early-stage dynamics of chloride ion-pumping rhodopsin revealed by a femtosecond X-ray laser [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Chloride ion–pumping rhodopsin (ClR) in some marine bacteria utilizes light energy to actively transport Cl− into cells. How the ClR initiates the transport is elusive. Here, we show the dynamics of ion transport observed with time-resolved serial femtosecond (fs) crystallography using the Linac Coherent Light Source. X-ray pulses captured structural…
5h
Functional monovalency amplifies the pathogenicity of anti-MuSK IgG4 in myasthenia gravis [Immunology and Inflammation]
Human immunoglobulin (Ig) G4 usually displays antiinflammatory activity, and observations of IgG4 autoantibodies causing severe autoimmune disorders are therefore poorly understood. In blood, IgG4 naturally engages in a stochastic process termed "Fab-arm exchange" in which unrelated IgG4s exchange half-molecules continuously. The resulting IgG4 antibodies are composed of two different binding…
5h
Natural variability contributes to model-satellite differences in tropical tropospheric warming [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
A long-standing discrepancy exists between general circulation models (GCMs) and satellite observations: The multimodel mean temperature of the midtroposphere (TMT) in the tropics warms at approximately twice the rate of observations. Using a large ensemble of simulations from a single climate model, we find that tropical TMT trends (1979–2018) vary…
5h
Rescue of codon-pair deoptimized respiratory syncytial virus by the emergence of genomes with very large internal deletions that complemented replication [Microbiology]
Recoding viral genomes by introducing numerous synonymous but suboptimal codon pairs—called codon-pair deoptimization (CPD)—provides new types of live-attenuated vaccine candidates. The large number of nucleotide changes resulting from CPD should provide genetic stability to the attenuating phenotype, but this has not been rigorously tested. Human respiratory syncytial virus in which…
5h
Paxbp1 controls a key checkpoint for cell growth and survival during early activation of quiescent muscle satellite cells [Cell Biology]
Adult mouse muscle satellite cells (MuSCs) are quiescent in uninjured muscles. Upon muscle injury, MuSCs exit quiescence, reenter the cell cycle to proliferate and self-renew, and then differentiate and fuse to drive muscle regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood how MuSCs transition from quiescence to the cycling state. Here, we…
5h
Mitochondrial metabolism is essential for invariant natural killer T cell development and function [Immunology and Inflammation]
Conventional T cell fate and function are determined by coordination between cellular signaling and mitochondrial metabolism. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are an important subset of "innate-like" T cells that exist in a preactivated effector state, and their dependence on mitochondrial metabolism has not been previously defined genetically or…
5h
New insights into ice multiplication using remote-sensing observations of slightly supercooled mixed-phase clouds in the Arctic [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Secondary ice production (SIP) can significantly enhance ice particle number concentrations in mixed-phase clouds, resulting in a substantial impact on ice mass flux and evolution of cold cloud systems. SIP is especially important at temperatures warmer than −10 ○C, for which primary ice nucleation lacks a significant number of efficient…
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Primary cilia and the reciprocal activation of AKT and SMAD2/3 regulate stretch-induced autophagy in trabecular meshwork cells [Cell Biology]
Activation of autophagy is one of the responses elicited by high intraocular pressure (IOP) and mechanical stretch in trabecular meshwork (TM) cells. However, the mechanosensor and the molecular mechanisms by which autophagy is induced by mechanical stretch in these or other cell types is largely unknown. Here, we have investigated…
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Shape anisotropy-governed locomotion of surface microrollers on vessel-like microtopographies against physiological flows [Engineering]
Surface microrollers are promising microrobotic systems for controlled navigation in the circulatory system thanks to their fast speeds and decreased flow velocities at the vessel walls. While surface propulsion on the vessel walls helps minimize the effect of strong fluidic forces, three-dimensional (3D) surface microtopography, comparable to the size scale…
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GFAP hyperpalmitoylation exacerbates astrogliosis and neurodegenerative pathology in PPT1-deficient mice [Neuroscience]
The homeostasis of protein palmitoylation and depalmitoylation is essential for proper physiological functions in various tissues, in particular the central nervous system (CNS). The dysfunction of PPT1 (PPT1-KI, infantile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis [INCL] mouse model), which catalyze the depalmitoylation process, results in serious neurodegeneration accompanied by severe astrogliosis in the..
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Conservation of the HBV RNA element epsilon in nackednaviruses reveals ancient origin of protein-primed reverse transcription [Microbiology]
Hepadnaviruses, with the human hepatitis B virus as prototype, are small, enveloped hepatotropic DNA viruses which replicate by reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate. Replication is initiated by a unique protein-priming mechanism whereby a hydroxy amino acid side chain of the terminal protein (TP) domain of the viral polymerase (P)…
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The rotational and divergent components of atmospheric circulation on tidally locked planets [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
Tidally locked exoplanets likely host global atmospheric circulations with a superrotating equatorial jet, planetary-scale stationary waves, and thermally driven overturning circulation. In this work, we show that each of these features can be separated from the total circulation by using a Helmholtz decomposition, which splits the circulation into rotational (divergence-free)…
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Staphylococcus aureus adapts to the host nutritional landscape to overcome tissue-specific branched-chain fatty acid requirement [Microbiology]
During infection, pathogenic microbes adapt to the nutritional milieu of the host through metabolic reprogramming and nutrient scavenging. For the bacterial pathogen Staphylococcus aureus, virulence in diverse infection sites is driven by the ability to scavenge myriad host nutrients, including lipoic acid, a cofactor required for the function of several…
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Gain-of-function factor H-related 5 protein impairs glomerular complement regulation resulting in kidney damage [Immunology and Inflammation]
Genetic variation within the factor H–related (FHR) genes is associated with the complement-mediated kidney disease, C3 glomerulopathy (C3G). There is no definitive treatment for C3G, and a significant proportion of patients develop end-stage renal disease. The prototypical example is CFHR5 nephropathy, through which an internal duplication within a single CFHR5…
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Nongenetic individuality, changeability, and inheritance in bacterial behavior [Microbiology]
Isogenic populations often display remarkable levels of phenotypic diversity even in constant, homogeneous environments. Such diversity results from differences between individuals ("nongenetic individuality") as well as changes during individuals' lifetimes ("changeability"). Yet, studies that capture and quantify both sources of diversity are scarce. Here we measure the swimming behavior of…
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The number of catalytic cycles in an enzyme's lifetime and why it matters to metabolic engineering [Systems Biology]
Metabolic engineering uses enzymes as parts to build biosystems for specified tasks. Although a part's working life and failure modes are key engineering performance indicators, this is not yet so in metabolic engineering because it is not known how long enzymes remain functional in vivo or whether cumulative deterioration (wear-out),…
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Evolved increases in hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and the Bohr effect coincided with the aquatic specialization of penguins [Evolution]
Dive capacities of air-breathing vertebrates are dictated by onboard O2 stores, suggesting that physiologic specialization of diving birds such as penguins may have involved adaptive changes in convective O2 transport. It has been hypothesized that increased hemoglobin (Hb)-O2 affinity improves pulmonary O2 extraction and enhances the capacity for breath-hold diving….
5h
The structure of the native cardiac thin filament at systolic Ca2+ levels [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Every heartbeat relies on cyclical interactions between myosin thick and actin thin filaments orchestrated by rising and falling Ca2+ levels. Thin filaments are comprised of two actin strands, each harboring equally separated troponin complexes, which bind Ca2+ to move tropomyosin cables away from the myosin binding sites and, thus, activate…
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A localized adaptor protein performs distinct functions at the Caulobacter cell poles [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Asymmetric cell division generates two daughter cells with distinct characteristics and fates. Positioning different regulatory and signaling proteins at the opposing ends of the predivisional cell produces molecularly distinct daughter cells. Here, we report a strategy deployed by the asymmetrically dividing bacterium Caulobacter crescentus where a regulatory protein is programmed…
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Activated nanoscale actin-binding domain motion in the catenin-cadherin complex revealed by neutron spin echo spectroscopy [Applied Physical Sciences]
As the core component of the adherens junction in cell–cell adhesion, the cadherin–catenin complex transduces mechanical tension between neighboring cells. Structural studies have shown that the cadherin–catenin complex exists as an ensemble of flexible conformations, with the actin-binding domain (ABD) of α-catenin adopting a variety of configurations. Here, we have…
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PPAR{gamma} marks splenic precursors of multiple nonlymphoid-tissue Treg compartments [Immunology and Inflammation]
Foxp3+CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) regulate most types of immune response as well as several processes important for tissue homeostasis, for example, metabolism and repair. Dedicated Treg compartments—with distinct transcriptomes, T cell receptor repertoires, and growth/survival factor dependencies—have been identified in several nonlymphoid tissues. These Tregs are specifically adapted to…
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Rapid hyperpolarization and purification of the metabolite fumarate in aqueous solution [Chemistry]
Hyperpolarized fumarate is a promising biosensor for carbon-13 magnetic resonance metabolic imaging. Such molecular imaging applications require nuclear hyperpolarization to attain sufficient signal strength. Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization is the current state-of-the-art methodology for hyperpolarizing fumarate, but this is expensive and relatively slow. Alternatively, this important bio
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SPAAC-NAD-seq, a sensitive and accurate method to profile NAD+-capped transcripts [Genetics]
Nicotinamide adenine diphosphate (NAD+) is a novel messenger RNA 5′ cap in Escherichia coli, yeast, mammals, and Arabidopsis. Transcriptome-wide identification of NAD+-capped RNAs (NAD-RNAs) was accomplished through NAD captureSeq, which combines chemoenzymatic RNA enrichment with high-throughput sequencing. NAD-RNAs are enzymatically converted to alkyne-RNAs that are then biotinylated using a cop
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Vaccination as a social contract: The case of COVID-19 and US political partisanship [Social Sciences]
Korn et al. (1) present evidence that vaccination constitutes a "social contract." In three controlled experiments, participants who chose to be vaccinated in an experimental vaccination game (I-Vax) (2, 3) reduced their generosity toward unvaccinated, but not toward vaccinated, others. This was the case regardless of group membership, which was…
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Early volatile depletion on planetesimals inferred from C-S systematics of iron meteorite parent bodies [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sciences]
During the formation of terrestrial planets, volatile loss may occur through nebular processing, planetesimal differentiation, and planetary accretion. We investigate iron meteorites as an archive of volatile loss during planetesimal processing. The carbon contents of the parent bodies of magmatic iron meteorites are reconstructed by thermodynamic modeling. Calculated solid/molten alloy…
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Restriction of food intake by PPP1R17-expressing neurons in the DMH [Neuroscience]
Leptin-deficient ob/ob mice eat voraciously, and their food intake is markedly reduced by leptin treatment. In order to identify potentially novel sites of leptin action, we used PhosphoTRAP to molecularly profile leptin-responsive neurons in the hypothalamus and brainstem. In addition to identifying several known leptin responsive populations, we found that…
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TMEM70 and TMEM242 help to assemble the rotor ring of human ATP synthase and interact with assembly factors for complex I [Biochemistry]
Human mitochondrial ATP synthase is a molecular machine with a rotary action bound in the inner organellar membranes. Turning of the rotor, driven by a proton motive force, provides energy to make ATP from ADP and phosphate. Among the 29 component proteins of 18 kinds, ATP6 and ATP8 are mitochondrial…
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Selective cysteine-to-selenocysteine changes in a [NiFe]-hydrogenase confirm a special position for catalysis and oxygen tolerance [Biochemistry]
In [NiFe]-hydrogenases, the active-site Ni is coordinated by four cysteine-S ligands (Cys; C), two of which are bridging to the Fe(CO)(CN)2 fragment. Substitution of a single Cys residue by selenocysteine (Sec; U) occurs occasionally in nature. Using a recent method for site-specific Sec incorporation into proteins, each of the four…
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An enzyme-based biosensor for monitoring and engineering protein stability in vivo [Biochemistry]
Protein stability affects the physiological functions of proteins and is also a desirable trait in many protein engineering tasks, yet improving protein stability is challenging because of limitations in methods for directly monitoring protein stability in cells. Here, we report an in vivo stability biosensor wherein a protein of interest…
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Public data from three US states provide new insights into well integrity [Environmental Sciences]
Oil and gas wells with compromised integrity are a concern because they can potentially leak hydrocarbons or other fluids into groundwater and/or the atmosphere. Most states in the United States require some form of integrity testing, but few jurisdictions mandate widespread testing and open reporting on a scale informative for…
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Invasiveness is linked to greater commercial success in the global pet trade [Ecology]
The pet trade has become a multibillion-dollar global business, with tens of millions of animals traded annually. Pets are sometimes released by their owners or escape, and can become introduced outside of their native range, threatening biodiversity, agriculture, and health. So far, a comprehensive analysis of invasive species traded as…
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UMD develops technology allowing researchers to image wetland soil activity in real time
Researchers at the University of Maryland (UMD) and the Spanish National Research Council partnered to create a new camera allowing for the imaging of wetland soil activity in real time. This camera gives the classic IRIS (indicator of reduction in soils) technology a big upgrade, allowing researchers to visualize the soil reduction process. This technology opens up new research avenues, and gives
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Delaying 2nd doses of COVID-19 vaccines has benefits, but effects depend on immunity
Delaying second doses of COVID-19 vaccines should reduce case numbers in the near term; however, the longer term case burden and the potential for evolution of viral 'escape' from immunity will depend on the robustness of immune responses generated by natural infections and one or two vaccine doses, according to a study from McGill University and Princeton University published recently in Science.
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OnePlus Unveils the OnePlus 9, 9 Pro, and OnePlus Watch
OnePlus has revealed its latest phones today , but there's not much about them the internet doesn't already know thanks to the numerous leaks and teasers. The OnePlus 9 Pro is the flagship OP phone, and the OnePlus 9 is a slightly more budget-oriented version of the phone. While the OnePlus 9 Pro is almost a thousand bucks, the OnePlus 9 is more than $200 less expensive. OnePlus is also finally t
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Fear of COVID-19 is killing patients with other serious diseases
During the COVID-19 pandemic, Joseph S. Alpert, MD, Editor-in-Chief of The American Journal of Medicine, published by Elsevier, has observed that although non-COVID inpatients suffered from the usual mix of conditions such as heart failure and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease exacerbations, the Internal Medicine inpatient population was distinctly different from what he had seen over the past
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OCD among new mothers more prevalent than previously thought
Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) among those who have recently given birth is more common than previously thought, and much of this can be attributed to thoughts of harm related to the baby, new UBC research has found. The researchers also learned that OCD can go undetected when new parents aren't asked specifically about infant-related harm.
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Elon Musk Says He'll Be Landing Starships on Mars "Well Before 2030"
Elon Musk really can't wait to get to Mars — and he thinks his space company will be landing there sooner rather than later. In a new tweet, Musk promised that "SpaceX will be landing Starships on Mars well before 2030." According to the billionaire, however, the real challenge will be to make "Mars Base Alpha self-sustaining." In context, Musk may have been trying to distract from a more substan
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Highlands of diversity: Another new chameleon from the Bale region, Ethiopia
Once again, the importance of the Bale Mountains in Ethiopia as a unique hotspot of species diversity is stressed: a new chameleon species from the northern slopes of this remarkable Afromontane plateau was discovered and described by Thore Koppetsch and his colleagues in the peer-reviewed, open-access scientific journal Zoosystematics and Evolution. In honour of his outstanding research and passi
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