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Scientists Find That "Class Clowns" Are Actually the Smartest People in Class
Clown School According to scientists, that class clown from seventh grade may have been the brightest kid in the room. It turns out that humor ability and overall intelligence are tightly linked in middle-school-aged children, according to research published in the International Journal of Humor Research . "We were particularly interested in the quality of humor made by children but evaluated by
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America Is Running Out of Everything
I s it just me, or does it feel like America is running out of everything? I visited CVS last week to pick up some at-home COVID-19 tests. They'd been sold out for a week, an employee told me. So I asked about paper towels. "We're out of those too," he said. "Try Walgreens." I drove to a Walgreens that had paper towels. But when I asked a pharmacist to fill some very common prescriptions, he told
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Fast Food Chain Can't Find People to Hire, So It's Sending Office Workers to Fry Food and Work Registers
Fryer Starter Fast-food chain Raising Cane's Chicken Fingers is facing a rather bizarre situation: the ongoing labor shortage is so severe, Bloomberg reports , that it's resorted to sending its corporate staff to work in its restaurants. Half of the chain's office employees will be frying chicken fingers, working cash registers, and, of course, helping with recruiting. However, it's unclear if Ra
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Why is England doing worse against Covid than its European neighbours? | Christina Pagel and Martin McKee
Instead of relying on vaccines alone, countries such as France and Germany are using extra measures to keep cases and deaths low Only two months after being forced at the last minute to "cancel Christmas" in 2020, Boris Johnson committed to a " cautious and prudent " roadmap out of lockdown that recognised the evolving epidemiology of the virus. But memories are short. On 19 July, all social dist
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The Nasty Logistics of Returning Your Too-Small Pants
Jason Fulford and Tamara Shopsin C onsider the dressing room . The concept began its mass-market life as an amenity in Gilded Age department stores, a commercial sanctuary of pedestals and upholstered furniture on which to swoon over the splendid future of your wardrobe. Now, unless you're rich enough to sip gratis champagne in the apartment-size private shopping suites of European luxury brands,
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Researchers reach quantum networking milestone in real-world environment
A team from the U.S. Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Stanford University and Purdue University developed and demonstrated a novel, fully functional quantum local area network, or QLAN, to enable real-time adjustments to information shared with geographically isolated systems at ORNL using entangled photons passing through optical fiber.
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Novel quantum effect discovered in naturally occurring graphene
Usually, the electrical resistance of a material depends very much on its physical dimensions and fundamental properties. Under special circumstances, however, this resistance can adopt a fixed value that is independent of the basic material properties and "quantised" (meaning that it changes in discrete steps rather than continuously). This quantisation of electrical resistance normally occurs wi
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Latest results from cosmic microwave background measurements
The universe was created about 13.8 billion years ago in a blaze of light: the big bang. Roughly 380,000 years later, after matter (mostly hydrogen) had cooled enough for neutral atoms to form, light was able to traverse space freely. That light, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, comes to us from every direction in the sky uniformly … or so it first seemed. In the last decades ast
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A Mars Rover Explored a Wasteland and Found an Oasis
Millions of miles away, on the surface of Mars, inside an enormous crater, a little NASA rover is taking some pictures. The view is quite stunning there—miles of undisturbed cinnamon terrain scattered with pebbles and boulders, with silky dunes where the craggy bedrock doesn't peek through. But when the rover, named Perseverance, sent the photos back home from the crater, known as Jezero, scienti
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Wife Sues Hospital to Treat Husband With Ivermectin, Then Husband Dies
A man who was hospitalized and placed on a ventilator for COVID-19, and whose wife later filed suit to force the hospital to treat him with ivermectin, has died. The man, Jeffrey Smith, was first admitted to the intensive care unit at West Chester Hospital in July. In August, his wife sued the hospital to force it to treat then-intubated husband with ivermectin, a horse dewormer that's become the
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NASA Quietly Signals That Boeing's Spacecraft Is Going Nowhere
Getting Impatient NASA gave a routine astronaut assignment announcement on Wednesday. But reading between the lines, it seems that the space agency is throwing some serious shade at one of its top contractors. Astronauts Nicole Mann and Josh Cassada were reassigned and will now serve as commander and pilot, respectively, of the Crew-5 SpaceX launch next year, according to NASA . That's routine en
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The Cybertruck Is Now the Cheapest Tesla
Cheapest Tesla Tesla recently increased the price of its Model 3 and Model Y, with prices starting at a respective $54,990 and $41,990 before incentives. Strangely enough, that makes the entry level Cybertruck , a much bigger vehicle starting at $39,990, the cheapest Tesla customers can order today, as Teslarati points out . Even the Model 3 Standard Range Plus variant, which is the second cheape
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Historic England to offer virtual flights over ancient landscapes
Aerial Archaeological Mapping Explorer will allow users to see landscapes from England's past A digital aerial archaeology tool will allow people to discover previously unknown details about local landscapes, including prehistoric hill forts, Roman settlements and cold war military installations, through virtual flights over England. The virtual map is like a "huge archaeological jigsaw puzzle,"
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Lil Nas X Says He Wants to Clone Himself and Have Sex With the Copy
Montero Lamar Hill, much better known as "Old Town Road" musician Lil Nas X, sure likes to look at himself in the mirror. In fact, according to a recent tweet , the highly successful musician would love to go all the way with himself. "I'm so sick of it," Lil Nas X wrote in the tweet. "I'm sick of pretending I don't wanna clone myself and then make love to my hot sexy body." It's almost certainly
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Timing Is Everything for Merck's COVID Pill
Two years into the pandemic , we've gotten a lot better at tackling the coronavirus at the extremes of infection. We have preventives—including masks, distancing, ventilation, and our MVP vaccines —that can be deployed in advance of a viral encounter. We have regimens of last resort: drugs, such as dexamethasone , that do their best, lifesaving work in hospitals with trained health-care workers,
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Scientists: Hell Planet Where It Rains Molten Iron Is Actually Worse Than We Thought
Hell World Ever since astronomers discovered the exoplanet WASP-76b about 640 light years from Earth, they've known it was a hellish world with temperatures so extreme that it rains molten iron every day. But new research shows that conditions on the distant planet are even more extreme than researchers imagined. Scientists led by a team from Cornell University probed the atmosphere of WASP-76b a
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Could the global Covid death toll be millions higher than thought?
A data scientist and economics student joined forces in search of the real pandemic death toll – and the results are startling Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage For the past 18 months, hunkered down in his Tel Aviv apartment, Ariel Karlinsky has scoured the web for data that could help him calculate the true death toll of Covid-19. Continue reading…
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Britons cut meat-eating by 17%, but must double that to hit target
People have been advised to reduce consumption by 30% for health and environmental reasons Britons have cut their meat consumption by 17% over the past decade but will need to double these efforts if they are to meet targets for healthy diets and sustainable food production set out in the national food strategy earlier this year. Meat production is a major contributor to global heating and land d
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Fauci Says People Are Threatening His Wife and Daughters With Violence
Abuse and Harassment A new National Geographic documentary sheds light on the abuse top US infectious diseases specialist Anthony Fauci has had to endure since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. "These fucking dark web people are really, really getting bad," he told AIDS activist Peter Staley last year in the documentary, as quoted by Insider . "I mean, they're really, really harassing Chris
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New images from Mars will guide search for evidence of ancient life, says study
Pictures taken by Perseverance rover show how water helped shape planet's landscape billions of years ago Images from Mars reveal how water helped shape the red planet's landscape billions of years ago, and provide clues that will guide the search for evidence of ancient life, according to a new study. In February, Nasa's Perseverance rover landed in Jezero crater , where scientists suspected a l
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The World's First Malaria Vaccine Is Finally Ready for Rollout
At long last, the World Health Organization has declared that the world's first malaria vaccine is ready for widespread use. Doctors and researchers have been trying and failing to develop a vaccine for malaria — one of the deadliest diseases in human history — for over a century, the BBC reports . Finally having one that's safe and effective enough for use represents an astonishing achievement i
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After 20 years of drone strikes, it's time to admit they've failed
After the Taliban took over Kabul in mid-August, a black-bearded man with a Kalashnikov appeared on the streets. He visited former politicians and gave a sermon during Friday prayers at the capital's historic Pul-e-Khishti mosque. But the man, passionate and seemingly victorious, was no mere Taliban fighter among tens of thousands of others: he was Khalil ur-Rahman Haqqani, a Taliban leader promi
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Covid jabs for 12- to 15-year-olds: how the scheme in England works
We look at where to get the jab, parental consent and the impact of natural infection Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage As concerns grow about the slow deployment of Covid jabs to older children in England we take a look at who is eligible and where the vaccinations can be given. Which children are now eligible for vaccination? Continue reading…
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Ted Lasso and the Limits of American Optimism
Listen and subscribe: Apple Podcasts | Spotify | Stitcher | Pocket Casts In the first episode of The Review , our Culture staff writers David Sims, Megan Garber, and Sophie Gilbert discuss the unlikely hit that is Ted Lasso . Its Emmy-winning first season—and its smart writing and heartwarming positivity—connected with pandemic audiences. As the sitcom's much-discussed second season complicates t
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Operators Let Oil Pipeline Gush Into Ocean for Hours Without Shutting It Off
Delayed Reaction Last weekend, a leak in an oil pipeline off the coast of Orange County, California spilled about 144,000 gallons of crude oil into the ocean and onto beaches and wetlands. The leak already prompted California officials to declare a state of emergency in the area and launch a criminal investigation. Now, NBC News reports that a lot of the damage could have been avoided altogether.
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Elon Musk Says He's "Dying" to Develop a Supersonic Electric Jet
Electric Jet SpaceX CEO Elon Musk admitted that he is "so dying to do a supersonic, electric VTOL jet" in a recent tweet . But there's one big problem: "adding more work will make my brain explode," Musk added, including emojis of a brain and a firecracker to illustrate his point. After all, he is the CEO of a space, electric car, and brain interface company — plenty to keep himself busy around t
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Rejoice! China Is Powering Ballistic Missile Silos With Environmentally-Friendly Wind Turbines
Eco-Warriors China is in the process of building at least 119 silos for intercontinental ballistic missiles in the northwest area of the country — an alarming display of militarization that could lead to increased tensions around the world. But fret not! In an astonishingly bold act of greenwashing, China seems to be building the facilities with the environment in mind, SpaceNews reports . So if
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How Is a Catholic Supposed to Think About the COVID Vaccine?
T he Dutch molecular biologist Alex van der Eb had been studying viruses and vaccines for nearly two decades when, in 1973, he was met with what he took to be an exhilarating opportunity. Three years into their studies, van der Eb and his research partner Frank L. Graham had succeeded in isolating the genes in adenovirus 5 responsible for turning mammalian cells into tumor cells, and they were cu
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Bitcoin Miners Open Secret Power Plant, Get Busted
A Bitcoin mining operation in the Canadian province of Alberta tried to tap a nearby unused natural gas well for power — and got busted after neighbors started complaining about the noise it was producing, CBC News reported in August. But in an email to Gizmodo , the CEO of the company called Link Global is now trying to downplay the incident. "We run on abandoned gas sites and have been working
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Pfizer asks US to allow Covid vaccines for children aged five to 11
Jabs could begin within weeks if US government approves request, with children getting a third of dose given to adults A Covid vaccine for kids aged five to 11 just got another step closer to authorization, with Pfizer-BioNTech announcing on Twitter that the full application has been submitted to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Experts say authorization of the vaccine for children will
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NGC 1605 is an old binary open cluster, study finds
By analyzing the data from 2MASS and Gaia-EDR3 surveys, as well as images from NASA's WISE spacecraft, a Brazilian astronomer has inspected a galactic open cluster (OC) known as NGC 1605. The study, presented in a paper published September 29 on arXiv.org, reveals that NGC 1605 is not a single open cluster as was previously thought but a pair of OCs.
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What Democrats Need to Understand About the Changing Electorate
Follow the sun . That's the advice to Democrats from a leading party fundraising organization in an exhaustive analysis of the electoral landscape released today. The study, from the group Way to Win, provided exclusively to The Atlantic , argues that to solidify their position in Congress and the Electoral College, Democrats must increase their investment and focus on Sun Belt states that have b
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This Scary-Looking Robot Can Walk and Fly
Get It Off Me Researchers at Caltech have opened the doors to hell and allowed a creepy robot that can walk on two spindly feet and even fly to enter our world. The terrifying biped, called LEONARD (LEgs ONboARD drone), or LEO for short, is basicically the bottom half of a humanoid robot strapped to a flying drone. The researchers' goal wasn't to come up with the next mass-marketable invention, b
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The Great Novel of the Internet Was Published in 1925
Adam Maida / The Atlantic In September, The Wall Street Journal published a report, based on leaked documents, describing Facebook's awareness of the harmful effects one of its platforms was having on young people. "Thirty-two percent of teen girls said that when they felt bad about their bodies, Instagram made them feel worse," the company's internal research revealed. "Comparisons on Instagram
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Stress in Earth's crust determined without earthquake data
Scientists at Los Alamos National Laboratory have developed a method to determine the orientation of mechanical stress in the earth's crust without relying on data from earthquakes or drilling. This method is less expensive that current approaches, could have broad applicability in geophysics and provide insight into continental regions lacking historical geologic information.
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The U.S. Is Politically Bankrupt
At least for the moment , the U.S. Senate has averted a crisis over the federal debt ceiling , after some Republicans in the chamber grudgingly agreed yesterday to help Democrats put off a reckoning until December. That the United States has endured confrontation after confrontation in Congress over the issue—and will almost certainly do so again mere weeks from now—is, as many other commentators
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New biomarker for severe COVID-19
During the pandemic, it has become evident that people with cardiovascular disease and obesity are at much higher risk of developing very severe, even fatal COVID-19 disease. Researchers at Karolinska Institutet have identified some metabolic processes that SARS-CoV-2 uses to attack lung tissue. The results, which are published in Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, could one day be used to treat COV
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Views From (and of) Summit at One Vanderbilt
One of New York City's newest skyscrapers, One Vanderbilt, stands 1,401 feet (427 meters) above the streets of midtown Manhattan. The top four floors consist of an immersive experience and observation deck named "Summit," with mirrored walls and floors, an outdoor terrace, a glass elevator on the exterior of the building, glass-floored booths overlooking Madison Avenue, and more. Summit is set to
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Climate change tipping points may be too simple a concept
We regularly hear warnings that climate change may lead to 'tipping points': irreversible situations where savanna can quickly change into desert, or the warm gulf stream current can simply stop flowing. These cautions often refer to spatial patterns as early-warning signals of tipping points. An international team of ecologists and mathematicians has studied these patterns and come to a surprisin
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The moon didn't die as early as we thought
The moon may have been more volcanically active than we realized. Lunar samples that China's Chang'e 5 spacecraft brought to Earth are revealing new clues about volcanoes and lava plains on the moon's surface. In a study published today in Science, researchers describe the youngest lava samples ever collected on the moon. The samples were taken from Oceanus Procellarum, a region known for having
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Netflix Shows Real Phone Number on Screen, Leading to "Prank-Call Apocalypse"
Prank Y'alls The hit Netflix show "Squid Game" committed a major faux pas. When a character in the show hands out their business card, the show's creators either forgot or decided not to use a fake phone number on it. The result, The Wall Street Journal reports , has been a "prank-call apocalypse," as real-life Koreans with either the same phone number or one that varies by a digit or two have be
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What will happen to anger if it's left to fester? It will blow up | Brigid Delaney
The rage we all feel today will create the politics of tomorrow. I'm not sure we're ready for that Every chapter of this pandemic has had its attendant emotions – and since we're all in this together, it's possible to sense a collective emotional experience along with the physical experience of lockdowns and restrictions. Initially there was confusion, then deep fear and anxiety, then when lockdo
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How Musicologists and Scientists Used AI to Complete Beethoven's Unfinished 10th Symphony
When Ludwig van Beethoven died in 1827, he was three years removed from the completion of his Ninth Symphony, a work heralded by many as his magnum opus. He had started work on his 10th Symphony but, due to deteriorating health , wasn't able to make much headway: All he left behind were some musical sketches. Ever since then, Beethoven fans and musicologists have puzzled and lamented over what co
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Extinct style of plate tectonics explains early Earth's flat mountains
Geochemical and geological records provide key insights into Earth's tectonic history, but in the case of mountains during the Proterozoic eon, records conflict with each other: Geochemical evidence says that the crust was thin and hot, which generally indicates that mountains would not have been able to form, but rocks left behind from that time period suggest that mountains were present.
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A new theory to test hypotheses and methods for exoplanet detection
Countless astrophysicists and astronomers are actively searching for unobserved celestial bodies in the universe, as detecting these bodies could improve our understanding of space and help to address unanswered astrophysical questions. Among these elusive objects are exoplanets, planets that orbit a star other than the sun, thus outside of the solar system.
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New study reveals the evolutionary reason why women feel colder than men
A scientific explanation for those battles over the air conditioning remote control: Researchers at Tel Aviv University's School of Zoology offer a new, evolutionary explanation for the familiar scenario in which women bring a sweater into work, while their male counterparts feel comfortable wearing short sleeves in an air-conditioned office. The researchers concluded that this phenomenon is not u
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The Harsh, Central Truth of the Viral 'Bad Art Friend' Story
Updated at 4:45 p.m. ET on October 7, 2021. The title of the journalist Robert Kolker's cunning essay in The New York Times Magazine, " Who Is the Bad Art Friend? " is a bit of misdirection: There are no friends here. The article's URL, which ends "dorland-v-larson," is more revealing. The story swiftly became an obsession among the very online, as readers debated its moral and meaning. Kolker's
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Rationality by Steven Pinker review – reason and beyond
Our powers of reason have undoubtedly made the world a better place. So why are we so in thrall to fake news? 'Rationality ought to be the lodestar of everything we think or do." This is the opening sentence of Steven Pinker's call for a return to reason at a time when critical thinking and the grounding of belief in evidence is in short supply. Everyone, he argues, should want to be rational, ye
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Russia Bans Journalists From Covering Its Space Program
Media Crackdown Last week, Russia passed a new law that's already severely restricting the waning freedom of the press within the country. The law expanded previous press restrictions to ban any independent coverage of Roscosmos , Russia's space agency, and the space industry at large. Now, any media organizations or writers who continue to write about the space industry will be declared "foreign
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Flatworms Are Metal
When planarian flatworms want to reproduce, some have sex. Others, more straightforwardly, tear themselves in two. The latter option is fast and violent. The planarian begins as a small, flattened, sluglike creature with a spade-shaped head and two googly eyes. After a few minutes of stretching and ripping, it separates into two halves—a head and a tail. Within days, the head piece grows a tail.
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How to Break a Phone Addiction
" How to Build a Life " is a weekly column by Arthur Brooks, tackling questions of meaning and happiness. Click here to listen to his new podcast series on all things happiness, How to Build a Happy Life . B y now, nearly everyone knows we can be addicted to our digital devices. In the words of Anna Lembke, a psychiatrist and an addiction specialist at Stanford, "Just about all of us have a digit
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Ted Lasso Is No Superhero
This article contains spoilers through the Season 2 finale of Ted Lasso . In an episode halfway through the new season of Ted Lasso , Apple's sweet and strange series about an optimistic American coach thrown into the cesspool of British soccer, the three AFC Richmond fans who compose the show's dim-witted Greek chorus get ready to watch the FA Cup quarterfinal in a pub. "I swear, if we actually
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Dwarf planet Vesta serves as a window to the early solar system
The dwarf planet Vesta is helping scientists better understand the earliest era in the formation of our solar system. Two recent papers involving scientists from the University of California, Davis, use data from meteorites derived from Vesta to resolve the "missing mantle problem" and push back our knowledge of the solar system to just a couple of million years after it began to form. The papers
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Honey bees have developed a way to transform pollen particles into a viscoelastic pellet
New research led by Georgia Tech's College of Engineering finds that honey bees have developed a way to transform pollen particles into a viscoelastic pellet, allowing them to transport pollen efficiently, quickly, and reliably to their hive. The study also suggests the insects remove pollen from their bodies at speeds 2–10 times slower than their typical grooming speeds.
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The People Who Make Your Favorite Movies and Shows Are Fed Up
Eighteen-hour workdays with no lunch breaks. Car accidents caused by sleep deprivation. A crew member who returned to set the day after a miscarriage. For months, members of a union representing more than 150,000 behind-the-scenes workers in the entertainment industry have shared hundreds of these stories on social media —anonymous testimonies about the grueling conditions on TV and film sets. Th
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Elite Firefighters Have a Secret Skill
During fire season at the National Interagency Fire Center, a complex of buildings housing the top level of support for U.S. wildfire response, the coordination center looks about how you might expect. It features, most prominently, a massive digital clock and a projector screen filled with maps of fire risk and weather forecasts. But unless you're well versed in wildfire suppression , a sight in
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Photos of the Week: Muddy Ride, Silent Disco, Podium Pup
An immersive Goya exhibit in Madrid, Comic Con 2021 in New York City, a robot block party in Boston, rally racing in Finland, oil-spill cleanup in California, kite flying in Rio de Janeiro, a massive pumpkin in Belgium, a COVID-19 memorial in São Paulo, and much more
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Elastic polymer that is both stiff and tough, resolves long-standing quandary
Polymer science has made possible rubber tires, Teflon and Kevlar, plastic water bottles, nylon jackets among many other ubiquitous features of daily life. Elastic polymers, known as elastomers, can be stretched and released repeatedly and are used in applications such as gloves and heart valves, where they need to last a long time without tearing. But a conundrum has long stumped polymer scientis
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A novel neural network to understand symmetry, speed materials research
Understanding structure-property relations is a key goal of materials research, according to Joshua Agar, a faculty member in Lehigh University's Department of Materials Science and Engineering. And yet currently no metric exists to understand the structure of materials because of the complexity and multidimensional nature of structure.
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'Liquid' light shows social behaviour
Could photons, light particles, really condense? And how will this "liquid light" behave? Condensed light is an example of a Bose-Einstein condensate: The theory has been there for 100 years, but University of Twente researchers have now demonstrated the effect even at room temperature. For this, they created a micro-size mirror with channels in which photons actually flow like a liquid. In these
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New, environmentally friendly method to extract and separate rare earth elements
A new method improves the extraction and separation of rare earth elements—a group of 17 elements critical for technologies such as smart phones and electric car batteries—from unconventional sources. New research led by scientists at Penn State and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) demonstrates how a protein isolated from bacteria can provide a more environmentally friendly way to
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Understanding how a crab's complex life cycle will respond to climate change
For many marine animals, like the Dungeness crab, seasonality and timing are components of complex life cycles, where disruptions can have serious implications for the population. Understanding how climate change will impact each life stage is no small undertaking when considering all variables and moving parts in a changing environment. Despite these challenges, this information is vital for sust
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What Slack Does for Women
Years ago, for a story and in an attempt to be more successful, I read a bunch of "how to be a woman at work" books. Because women face backlash for behaving assertively in the workplace, these books mostly advise pretending to be nicer while subtly trying to get what you want. (This being the innocent springtime of the pre-Trump era, "what you want" was typically imagined to be a promotion.) "Wh
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New approach to skeletal age-estimation can help identify child remains
Forensic teams challenged with identifying skeletal remains may benefit from a new method of determining age in child remains when traditional methods, such as dental records, aren't available. New research from SFU archeologists finds that measuring cranial bones can provide one of the most comprehensive methods of estimating juvenile age.
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The discovery of red blood cells acting as micro-electrodes opens new doors in medical research
In a paper published in Scientific Reports, academics at the University of Surrey have discovered that biological cells generate an electric field voltage that appears outside and not just within, meaning each cell acts as a tiny electrode. Since this voltage impacts how cells interact with their environment, including the way cells stick to one another, this has significant potential implications
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Covid trial participants in England to be offered Pfizer jabs to end 'limbo'
Participants in trials of unapproved vaccines such as Novavax have had ability to travel abroad restricted Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage Thousands of Britons who took part in Covid-19 vaccine trials are to be offered approved vaccines so they can travel abroad, the government has announced. Trial participants have described being "trapped" and "in limbo" because th
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Refuting a 70-year approach to predicting material microstructure
A 70-year-old model used to predict the microstructure of materials doesn't work for today's materials, say Carnegie Mellon University researchers in Science. A microscopy technique developed by Carnegie Mellon and Argonne National Laboratory yields evidence that contradicts the conventional model and points the way towards the use of new types of characterizations to predict properties—and theref
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Levi­tating particles in a vacuum
Levitation of both large objects and of single atoms has become a widely used technique in science and engineering. In the last years, many researchers have started to explore a new horizon: the levitation of nano- and micro-particles—still smaller than the diameter of a single hair, but composed of billions of atoms—in vacuum.
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An Ode to Being Yelled At
Tim Lahan T o start with , you probably deserve it. Not for this —not for whatever it is you're being yelled at about—but for the other stuff. You know what I'm talking about. The innumerable tiny offenses. All the evasions, hedgings, dodgings, half-assings, bloodless ill-doings, accumulated in darkness. In the present moment, the present state of yelled-at-ness, you may be the victim of a misund
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The moon was volcanically active for longer than we thought, analysis of lunar rocks suggests
Material retrieved by China's Chang'e-5 spacecraft sheds new light on the moon at a time when it was thought to be cooling down Get our free news app ; get our morning email briefing Analysis of the youngest lunar material ever retrieved suggests that the moon was volcanically active for longer than previously expected. China's Chang'e-5 spacecraft retrieved 1.7kg of lunar material when it landed
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What makes us human? The answer may be found in overlooked DNA
Our DNA is very similar to that of the chimpanzee, which in evolutionary terms is our closest living relative. Stem cell researchers at Lund University in Sweden have now found a previously overlooked part of our DNA, so-called non-coded DNA, that appears to contribute to a difference which, despite all our similarities, may explain why our brains work differently. The study is published in the jo
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Video: How cheap renewables and rising activism are shifting climate politics
The plummeting costs of renewables, the growing strength of the clean energy sector, and the rising influence of activists have begun to shift the politics of climate action in the US, panelists argued during MIT Technology Review's annual EmTech conference last week. Those forces allowed President Joe Biden to put climate change at the center of his campaign and helped build momentum behind the
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Deep-learning algorithm aims to accelerate protein engineering
Proteins are the molecular machines of all living cells and have been exploited for use in many applications, including therapeutics and industrial catalysts. To overcome the limitations of naturally occurring proteins, protein engineering is used to improve protein characteristics such as stability and functionality. In a new study, researchers demonstrate a machine learning algorithm that accele
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Astronomers have a new way to measure the mass of supermassive black holes
Even the most supermassive of the supermassive black holes aren't very large, making it extremely difficult to measure their sizes. However, astronomers have recently developed a new technique that can estimate the mass of a black hole based on the movement of hot gas around them—even when the black hole itself it smaller than a single pixel.
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Unambiguous experimental demonstration of magnon transfer torque effect
Spin torque provides convenient electric means to efficiently control magnetizations. It can usually be produced by spin-polarized current or pure spin current via spin Hall effect. The former and the latter are named as spin transfer torque (STT) and spin orbit torque (SOT), respectively. Utilizing these tools, people have developed the second generation STT-MRAM (Magnetic Random-Access Memory) w
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The Books Briefing: Comics Can Push—And Draw—Boundaries
Six quarters were all you needed, in the 1990s, to laugh until your belly hurt at a series of slapstick shenanigans, or to escape, for a few seconds, from your quiet Illinois town and travel the world with a glamorous ace reporter. I can't count how many mornings I spent with my stomach on the floor, feet in the air, balancing my weight on my arms as I pored over the vibrant colors of the Chicago
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The oldest Acheulean evidence in North Africa
A new work published in the journal Quaternary Science Reviews, led by the Centro Nacional de Investigación sobre la Evolución Humana (CENIEH) in collaboration with the Centre National de Recherches Préhistoriques, Anthropologiques et Historiques (CNRPAH) (Algeria), describes the most recent advances in the current investigation performed in the valley of Oued Boucherit, located about 20 km east o
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Sharri Markson's book on Covid's Wuhan lab leak theory raises more questions than it answers
Details are deficient, scientific analysis contentious and expert voices missing in Markson's thesis about 'what really happened' in China, which establishes a crime scene around the Wuhan Institute of Virology With 4.55 million deaths from the Covid-19 pandemic so far, the hunt for its origins has turned into something akin to an inquest on a mass scale. Are we dealing essentially with a terribl
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A Movie That Makes You Sympathize With a Monster
Julia Ducournau does not make movies that audiences are likely to see themselves in. Her knockout debut feature, Raw , follows a veterinary student who develops a craving for uncooked flesh , mostly of the human variety. Like so many horror films, the work is suffused with metaphors about hard-to-discuss topics—in this case, sexual maturity and peer pressure. But compared with Ducournau's follow-
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New research adds knowledge on the creation and evolution of the universe
The Computational Cosmology group of the Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics (DAA) of Valencia University (UV) has published an article in The Astrophysical Journal Letters, one of the international journals with the greatest impact in Astrophysics, which shows, with complex theoretical-computational models, that cosmic voids are constantly replenished with external matter.
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A European push to the moon
The European Space Agency is playing a vital role in humankind's return to the moon. In a few months NASA will launch Artemis I from the Kennedy Space Center. The uncrewed mission will carry NASA's Orion spacecraft incorporating ESA's European Service Module (ESM-1), built and tested by Airbus Bremen, in Germany, with the help of 10 European nations. ESM-1's main engine and 32 thrusters will prope
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The Atlantic Daily: American Democracy Is Still in Danger
Every weekday evening, our editors guide you through the biggest stories of the day, help you discover new ideas, and surprise you with moments of delight. Subscribe to get this delivered to your inbox. Drew Angerer / Getty Exactly nine months ago today, the U.S. Capitol building experienced an unprecedented siege, spurred by an outgoing president's antidemocratic attempts to cling to power. This
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The path to achieving net-zero liquid fuel
Researchers from Monash University and Hokkaido University have developed a method that converts carbon dioxide into a diesel-range fuel and has the potential to produce a net-zero liquid fuel alternative to power cars more sustainably.
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Climate change literacy lessons from Africa: Knowledge is key
Addressing the climate crisis will require cooperation on a massive scale, but to accomplish this, people need to know what specific challenges lie ahead and how to best move forward. Across the globe, people are facing the effects of the climate crisis, yet many are still unsure how and even if they can address it.
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An electrolyte design strategy for making divalent metal batteries
A team of researchers working at the University of Maryland has developed an electrolyte design strategy for making divalent metal batteries. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes solving problems associated with divalent rechargeable metal batteries and the strategy they developed to overcome them. Pengjian Zuo and Geping Yin with the Harbin Institute of Technology
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Total synthesis of the sesquiterpene agarozizanol B
Starting from available chemicals, a German team of researchers successfully completed the total synthesis of agarozizanol B, an interesting natural substance found in agarwood. As described in the journal Angewandte Chemie, the key sequence in the relatively short synthetic pathway is a photochemical reaction cascade that involves a series of complex rearrangements of polycyclic intermediates.
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The Atlantic Daily: The Big Wait
It's not just toilet paper anymore. Pandemic pressure on the global supply chain is causing disruptions and shortages of a diverse assortment of items, such as books, furniture, wood, and COVID tests. "Americans are settling into a new phase of the pandemic economy," my colleague Derek Thompson writes. "This is the Everything Shortage." The global supply chain is a disaster. And not just one part
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Clean air matters for a healthy brain
Researchers say their studies on air pollution and cognitive decline — one involving humans and one with mice — provide evidence that cleaner air may reduce risk for Alzheimer's and other dementias.
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Researchers announce photon-phonon breakthrough
New research by a City College of New York team has uncovered a novel way to combine two different states of matter. For one of the first times, topological photons—light—has been combined with lattice vibrations, also known as phonons, to manipulate their propagation in a robust and controllable way.
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The climate-driven mass extinction no one had seen
Two thirds of all mammals vanished from Africa and the Arabian Peninsula around 30 million years ago, when the climate on Earth changed from swampy to icy. But we are only finding out about this mass extinction now. Researchers examined hundreds of fossils from multiple sites in Africa, built evolutionary trees, and pinpointed each species' first and last known appearances. The climate shift 'was
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Scientists assemble a biological clock in a test tube to study how it works
Daily cycles in virtually every aspect of our physiology are driven by biological clocks (also called circadian clocks) in our cells. The cyclical interactions of clock proteins keep the biological rhythms of life in tune with the daily cycle of night and day, and this happens not only in humans and other complex animals but even in simple, single-celled organisms such as cyanobacteria. A team of
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Justin Bieber Thinks Deepfake of Tom Cruise Is Real, Challenges It to Fight
Shadow Boxing Justin Bieber seems to have gotten tricked online, as he's been heckling a deepfake of Tom Cruise as though he were interacting with the real actor. Unless he's pulling a prank of his own, Bieber seems to have fallen for the trickery of "DeepTomCruise," a TikTok account that posts videos of a convincing deepfake version of Tom Cruise, the Daily Dot noticed . Bieber shared a video of
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COVID-19 leads to African agricultural innovation
In a paper published in Advances in Food Security and Sustainability, researchers found that farmers in East Africa (Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), Ethiopia, Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda) were able to better adapt to the impact of COVID-19 than those in the Southern African countries of Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.
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Nine Pandemic Words That Almost No One Gets Right
One of the best and toughest parts of being a science writer is acting as a kind of jargon liaison. Weird, obscure, aggressively multisyllabic words appear in scientific discourse; I, wielding nothing but a Google Doc, a cellphone, and the Powers of the Internet™, wrest these terms from their academic hidey-holes and try to pin them down with some endearing yet accurate analogy. If I do my job we
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Author Correction: Positron emission tomography imaging with 89Zr-labeled anti-CD8 cys-diabody reveals CD8+ cell infiltration during oncolytic virus therapy in a glioma murine model
Scientific Reports, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41598-021-00042-x Author Correction: Positron emission tomography imaging with 89 Zr-labeled anti-CD8 cys-diabody reveals CD8 + cell infiltration during oncolytic virus therapy in a glioma murine model
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Reduction in gene expression noise by targeted increase in accessibility at gene loci [Cell Biology]
Many eukaryotic genes are expressed in randomly initiated bursts that are punctuated by periods of quiescence. Here, we show that the intermittent access of the promoters to transcription factors through relatively impervious chromatin contributes to this "noisy" transcription. We tethered a nuclease-deficient Cas9 fused to a histone acetyl transferase at…
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T6SS translocates a micropeptide to suppress STING-mediated innate immunity by sequestering manganese [Microbiology]
Cellular ionic concentrations are a central factor orchestrating host innate immunity, but no pathogenic mechanism that perturbs host innate immunity by directly targeting metal ions has yet been described. Here, we report a unique virulence strategy of Yersinia pseudotuberculosis (Yptb) involving modulation of the availability of Mn2+, an immunostimulatory metal…
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Improving health and economic security by reducing work schedule uncertainty [Social Sciences]
Work schedules in the service sector are routinely unstable and unpredictable, and this unpredictability may have harmful effects on health and economic insecurity. However, because schedule unpredictability often coincides with low wages and other dimensions of poor job quality, the causal effects of unpredictable work schedules are uncertain. Seattle's Secure…
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A discrete-time infectious disease model for global pandemics [Applied Mathematics]
The ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus (COVID-19), an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has raised concerns about the effectiveness of current preventive pharmaceutical and nonpharmaceutical interventions (1). In addition, the upward global trends in the numbers of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, as evidenced…
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COVID-19 cynomolgus macaque model reflecting human COVID-19 pathological conditions [Microbiology]
The pandemic of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a global threat to human health and life. A useful pathological animal model accurately reflecting human pathology is needed to overcome the COVID-19 crisis. In the present study, COVID-19 cynomolgus monkey models including monkeys with underlying diseases causing severe…
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Selective promiscuity in the binding of E. coli Hsp70 to an unfolded protein [Biochemistry]
Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) chaperones bind many different sequences and discriminate between incompletely folded and folded clients. Most research into the origins of this "selective promiscuity" has relied on short peptides as substrates to dissect the binding, but much less is known about how Hsp70s bind full-length client proteins….
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Multiparameter persistent homology landscapes identify immune cell spatial patterns in tumors [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Highly resolved spatial data of complex systems encode rich and nonlinear information. Quantification of heterogeneous and noisy data—often with outliers, artifacts, and mislabeled points—such as those from tissues, remains a challenge. The mathematical field that extracts information from the shape of data, topological data analysis (TDA), has expanded its capability…
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Vasoactive intestinal peptide promotes host defense against enteric pathogens by modulating the recruitment of group 3 innate lymphoid cells [Immunology and Inflammation]
Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) control the formation of intestinal lymphoid tissues and play key roles in intestinal defense. They express neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) receptor 2 (VPAC2), through which VIP modulates their function, but whether VIP exerts other effects on ILC3 remains unclear. We show that VIP…
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Making ab initio QED functional(s): Nonperturbative and photon-free effective frameworks for strong light-matter coupling [Physics]
Strong light–matter coupling provides a promising path for the control of quantum matter where the latter is routinely described from first principles. However, combining the quantized nature of light with this ab initio tool set is challenging and merely developing as the coupled light–matter Hilbert space is conceptually different and…
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Genomics serology to inform therapies and vaccines for arthritogenic alphaviruses [Microbiology]
In PNAS, Malonis et al. (1) isolate and characterize several human monoclonal antibodies (MoAbs) that neutralize infection with arthritogenic alphaviruses. Alphaviruses represent a large group of positive-strand RNA viruses, some of which cause infections in humans. They are widely distributed, are transmitted by mosquitoes, and have been clinically classified as…
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Correction for Wang et al., Genome-wide screen identifies curli amyloid fibril as a bacterial component promoting host neurodegeneration [Corrections]
NEUROSCIENCE Correction for "Genome-wide screen identifies curli amyloid fibril as a bacterial component promoting host neurodegeneration," by Chenyin Wang, Chun Yin Lau, Fuqiang Ma, and Chaogu Zheng, which published August 19, 2021; 10.1073/pnas.2106504118 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 118, e2106504118). The authors note that two references were omitted from the…
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Man Lost at Sea for 30 Days Says It Was a "Nice Break" From Pandemic
Two men spent 29 days lost at sea, only to be rescued 250 miles off the coast of Papua New Guinea. But the pandemic-ravaged civilization they were forced to return to was a bit of a bummer, despite their near-death experience. "I had no idea what was going on while I was out there," Livae Nanjikana, a man from the Solomon Islands who left the island on September 3 in a small motorboat, told The G
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A Disappointed Putin Is Slashing Funding for Russia's Space Program
Less Is More Russia's space agency, Roscosmos, is about to have to accomplish a whole lot more with a whole lot less in its pocket. Disappointed by a lack of results and faltering performance, Russian President Vladimir Putin will cut Roscosmos' budget by about 16 percent per year over the next three years, Ars Technica reports , citing multiple Russian publications . The disappointment stems fro
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SpaceX Tourist Says She Was Sick First Two Days of Mission
Space Sickness As pilot for the first all-tourist crew to orbit the Earth, Sian Proctor had the time of her life on board SpaceX's Crew Dragon spacecraft. But while the views out of the massive transparent cupola were breathtaking, the three day journey around the Earth wasn't always smooth sailing. "The first day, I wasn't feeling very good," Proctor told National Geographic . "Space sickness is
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Life-support saved fewer COVID patients as 2020 wore on
The life-support system called ECMO can rescue COVID-19 patients from the brink of death, but not at the rates seen early in the pandemic, a new study finds. Where once about 60% of such patients survived at least 90 days in spring 2020, by the end of the year just under half of COVID patients on ECMO survived that long. The decreased survival over time might be due to a combination of factors, i
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Roman noblewoman's tomb reveals secrets of ancient concrete resilience
Over time, concrete cracks and crumbles. Well, most concrete cracks and crumbles. Structures built in ancient Rome are still standing, exhibiting remarkable durability despite conditions that would devastate modern concrete. One of these structures is the large cylindrical tomb of first-century noblewoman Caecilia Metella. New research shows that the quality of the concrete of her tomb may exceed
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Coral once thought to be one species is actually two
A new discovery may settle the decades-long debate over whether a form of coral is one species or two. On a night dive off the coast of St. John in the US Virgin Islands in 2016, two coral reef researchers saw something unexpected: A coral colony with slender, waving branches was releasing larvae into the water. "While I had always wondered if the two forms were really two species, that was the m
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ExtremeTech Explains: What is a Neural Net?
Photo: Mike MacKenzie, Flickr As Moore's Law approaches its endgame, the technosphere has looked to different and more diverse approaches to computing. In order to continue to increase the computational power of our systems, we can't just depend on driving clock speeds higher and higher, nor can we continue making transistors increasingly smaller. To truly move forward, a new paradigm must be con
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Leading marine ecologist, now White House official, violated prominent journal's policies in handling now-retracted paper
A marine ecologist at Oregon State University now helping lead the Biden White House's climate and environmental initiatives violated the conflict of interest policy at the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences when she edited a paper in the journal last year. Jane Lubchenco, who served as administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric … Continue reading
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Stream Video With Professional Effects With Up To 60% Off XSplit
In the last two years, video calls and streaming have gone from useful tools and amusements to the centerpiece of our lives and how we stay connected. Yet it's also meant that we've had to upgrade the quality of our video as well. XSplit has two deals that help you polish any video, and support any stream. A Stronger Stream First, XSplit Broadcaster Premium offers a better stream. At the most bas
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New measurement method enables more precise investigation of ultrafast processes in matter
A team of researchers from Freiburg led by Prof. Dr. Frank Stienkemeier and Dr. Lukas Bruder has succeeded in developing a new measurement method for investigating ultrafast processes in matter. These are processes at the atomic and molecular level that occur within a billionth of a second (10-12 sec). The new method, which combines different spectroscopy techniques, enables, among other things, n
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Researchers voice dismay at all-male science Nobels
Nature, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02782-2 All seven winners of this year's science prizes were men. Some say this shows a disappointing lack of progress towards diversifying the awards.
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New moon rocks are 1.97 billion years old
A lunar probe recently brought back the first fresh samples of rock and debris from the moon in more than 40 years. Now, researchers have determined the age of the moon rocks at close to 1.97 billion years old. "It is the perfect sample to close a 2-billion-year gap," says Brad Jolliff, professor of earth and planetary sciences and director of the McDonnell Center for the Space Sciences at Washin
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US Nuclear Sub Damaged in Collision With "Unknown Object"
Unknown Object According to a statement by the US Navy, the nuclear submarine USS Connecticut sustained damage and several injuries after colliding with an "unknown object" in the South China Sea, CBS News reports . The submarine is now making its way to Guam to assess the damage. It's a hair-raising incident given the location. China, the US, and its allies including the UK have repeatedly made
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Politics influenced lifting of COVID-19 restrictions
States eased COVID-19 restrictions based on politics as much as death rates or case counts, a new study shows. In the first month of the COVID-19 pandemic, nearly all 50 states announced restrictions on gatherings and businesses, and most issued stay-at-home orders, aiming to curb disease transmission and avoid overburdening health systems. States with Republican governors and a larger vote share
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How mussels make a powerful underwater glue
Blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) spend their days being buffeted by crashing waves. They manage to stay tethered to the rocks or their fellow mussels thanks to a highly effective underwater glue they produce. Because achieving adhesion in the presence of water is so challenging, scientists who are interested in producing effective adhesives for use in wet environments (e.g., for surgical or dental tr
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Självkörande bilar fixar inte det sociala samspelet
Trafiken är full av "irrationella" människor som ställer till det för de förarlösa fordonen. Därför kommer det att dröja innan självkörande bilar dominerar, menar professorn Barry Brown. – Det har pratats om självkörande bilar i tio års tid. Hela tiden får man höra att de kommer vara i bruk "om två år". Jag tror snarare att det rör sig om 30–40 år. Det sa professor Barry Brown , Institutionen för
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First-Ever Approval for Malaria Vaccine
On Wednesday, the World Health Organization recommended that children in areas with moderate to high transmission of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum receive the vaccine Mosquirix, initially called RTS,S, developed by the British drugmaker GlaxoSmithKline.
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ALMA animation of circling twin young stars
Researchers analyzed the accumulated data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and depicted the motion of a young twin star system XZ Tauri over three years. This 'ALMA Animation' of twin stars sheds new light on the origins of the binary stars and the planets to be formed around them.
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Something fishy going on? Recent discovery hints at northward shift in fish distribution
Researchers have discovered an individual Eleotris oxycephala in Akita Prefecture, Japan, which is the northernmost record of this species. The juvenile was discovered in the Yoneshiro River system and likely reached the river from the south via larval dispersal in the Tsushima Current. This possible range expansion of Eleotris oxycephala may be linked to increasing water temperatures.
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Unprecedented rise of heat and rainfall extremes in observational data
Observation data analysis reveals a 90-fold increase in the frequency of monthly heat extremes, so-called 3-sigma-events that deviate strongly from what is normal in a given region, in the past ten years compared to 1951-1980. Record daily rainfall events also increased in a non-linear way — on average, 1 in 4 rainfall records in the last decade can be attributed to climate change. Seemingly smal
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New images lead to better prediction of shear thickening
For the first time, researchers have been able capture images providing unprecedented details of how particles behave in a liquid suspension when the phenomenon known as shear thickening takes place. The work allows us to directly understand the processes behind shear thickening, which had previously only been understood based on inference and computational modeling.
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New leaders might want to let trust grow
New leaders may want to let trust build over time, rather than establishing lots of it right away, according to a new study with military cadets. Numerous studies have shown that trust in leadership is linked to higher individual and team performance. However, that might not be the best strategy for long-term success, according to the researchers. That's because trust is dynamic by nature, and it
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This 'Family Operating System®' Organizes Your Important Family Info in Minutes
Adulting is pretty complicated. In addition to the day-to-day grind—going to work, taking care of your kids, cooking dinner, mowing the lawn—you also have to take care of a lot of big picture stuff. There are mortgages to refinance, insurance policies to update, retirement portfolios to manage, important documents to store. And all of it has to be kept in order and up to date so that, when you ne
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Colorblind fish show experts how vision evolved
After decades of studying color vision in mice, new research in zebrafish has allowed experts to uncover how some animals regulate their ability to see blue light. The results allow researchers to better understand the evolutionary history and current control mechanisms of color vision.
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Flying high-speed drones into the unknown with AI
Researchers have developed a new approach to autonomously fly quadrotors through unknown, complex environments at high speeds using only on-board sensing and computation. The new approach could be useful in emergencies, on construction sites or for security applications.
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Beyond childhood: Picky eating in college students
Looking beyond the picky eating of childhood, researchers looked at this behavior in college students. Self-identified picky eaters ate significantly less fiber and vegetables and reported greater levels of social phobia than non-picky eaters, according to a new study. Social phobia is the fear of being evaluated during everyday activities by others.
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Car Chase in an Old Toyota Camry | Getaway Driver
Stream Getaway Driver on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/getaway-driver-us About Getaway Driver: Michelle Rodriguez brings the ultimate driving fantasy to life as 24 elite drivers get behind the wheel in a real-life high-speed chase. Can the getaway drivers evade their pursuers, find an exit and escape, or will their cars pay the ultimate sacrifice? #GetawayDriver #MichelleRodrigu
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This Bipedal Drone Robot Can Walk, Fly, Skateboard, and Slackline
Most animals are limited to either walking, flying, or swimming, with a handful of lucky species whose physiology allows them to cross over. A new robot took inspiration from them, and can fly like a bird just as well as it can walk like a (weirdly awkward, metallic, tiny) person. It also happens to be able to skateboard and slackline, two skills most humans will never pick up. Described in a pap
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Fick 200 kronor – då vaccinerade sig fler
Pengar kan öka människors vilja att vaccinera sig. Forskarna bakom studien menar att det kan vara en kostnadseffektiv lösning. – Det är rimligt att förmoda att det blir en lägre kostnad för samhället, säger forskaren Pol Campos-Mercade. Vad kan få människor att i högre grad ta emot den vaccinering som erbjuds? Runt om i världen finns exempel på olika försök att belöna den som tvekar. Från 5 dolla
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New rotating liquid reactor design solves issues with current reactors
Intensified reactors are used in a variety of chemical processes. One such reactor is the rotating packed bed (RPB) reactor which uses high centrifugal forces to accelerate chemical reactions between constituents. However, the RPB reactor has a number of issues that affect its efficiency. With this in mind, for this Ph.D. research, Jasper Hacking designed a new reactor referred to as rotating liqu
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Controlling electrons and vibrations in a crystal with polarized light
The quantum behavior of atomic vibrations excited in a crystal using light pulses has much to do with the polarization of the pulses, say materials scientists from Tokyo Tech. The findings from their latest study offer a new control parameter for the manipulation of coherently excited vibrations in solid materials at the quantum level.
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Hubble detects a dangerous galactic dance
This NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope image features two interacting galaxies that are so intertwined, they have a collective name—Arp 91. Their delicate galactic dance takes place more than 100 million light-years from Earth. The two galaxies comprising Arp 91 have their own names: the lower galaxy, which looks like a bright spot, is NGC 5953, and the oval-shaped galaxy to the upper right is NGC 5
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Mechanism of actions of cholecystokinin receptors revealed
Cholecystokinin (CCK) and gastrin are the earliest discovered gastrointestinal hormones. They are the most abundant peptides in gastrointestinal tract and central nervous system, acting as physiologically important hormones and neurotransmitters through two CCK receptor subtypes, CCKAR and CCKBR.
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Researchers identify ecological mechanism behind dredging to mitigate lake cyanobacterial blooms
Excessive levels of nitrogen and phosphorus in lake waters can easily cause eutrophication of water body, which in turn leads to cyanobacteria blooms and threatens aquatic biodiversity. As a measure of human interference, dredging can effectively alleviate cyanobacteria blooms, and thus plays an important role in improving lake water quality. Dredging can remove part of the nitrogen and phosphorus
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Researchers Bust Antibacterial Spider Silk Myth
(Photo: Michael Podger/Unsplash) Spider silk has long been said to have antibacterial properties. The ancient Greeks and Romans supposedly used the silk when treating flesh wounds, and some recent studies report antimicrobial activity (AMA) on spider silk, leading many cultures and social circles today to believe the sticky substance is a worthwhile replacement for advanced antibacterial medicine
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Restructuring biology: New study shows protein hydrophobic parts do not hate water
Proteins drive nearly all biological functions and insight into their workings is essential for pharmaceutical developments. But now, a pair of scientists from Japan have found that our fundamental understanding of a characteristic of proteins that is key to their proper functioning — the mechanism by which their structures fold — has been flawed. These new findings call for a re-assessment of a
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How one US organization hopes to make retractions more visible
As Retraction Watch readers likely know, there's ample evidence that retracted papers — 2,500 per year and growing — continue to attract citations that do not mention the fact the paper has been retracted. Some of that may be because it's not clear on publishers' sites and databases that these papers have been retracted or … Continue reading
8h
The remarkable variability of actinide tetrafluoride electronic structures
Scientists have synthesized tetrafluoride powders of four radioactive elements—thorium, uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. These four elements are actinides, a series of heavy and radioactive elements. Tetrafluoride powders are simply powders with four fluoride atoms per atom of actinide. In this new study, scientists probed the magnetic fields of these powders. This revealed remarkable variations
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New report finds stark transit inequity in Baltimore
Shortcomings in the Baltimore region's public transit system disproportionately affect low-income and minority neighborhoods, according to a new report from Johns Hopkins University's Department of Environmental Health and Engineering, which spans the schools of Public Health and Engineering, and the Baltimore Transit Equity Coalition.
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Urgammal insjö på Mars upptäckt
En tidigare livskraftig sjö med mjukt meanderformade floddeltan har hittats på Mars, med hjälp av 150 000 bilder från rymdrovern Perseverance. Den nya upptäckten ger nycklar till vår grannplanets geologiska historia och intensifierar sökandet efter utomjordiskt organiskt liv. Ett moln av röd rök. Och ett par sekunder av ovisshet. Så skulle man kunna beskriva de visuellt kittlande realtidsbilderna
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Is Facebook becoming a liability for brands?
New details about Facebook may prompt brands to reconsider the risks and ethics of working with the platform, say experts. This week, Facebook whistleblower Frances Haugen testified about the tens of thousands of pages of internal documents she leaked exposing how Facebook prioritized profits over public safety and called on lawmakers to regulate the social media network. By bringing to light the
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På AUH er arbejdet med fremtidens ledelse først lige begyndt
Efter at have sagt farvel til to ledende overlæger inden for kort tid på afdelingen for Hjertesygdomme indså ledelsen på AUH, at der skulle noget andet til for at dække afdelingens enorme ledelsesspænd. Derfor leder man nu efter to nye cheflæger. Netop skræddersyede løsninger er svaret på de ledelsesmæssige udfordringer i sundhedsvæsenet, mener overlægeformand.
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Hacking the Brain to Treat Depression
A new study published in Nature looks at a closed loop implanted deep brain stimulator to treat severe and treatment resistant depression, with very encouraging results. This is a report of a single patient, with is a useful proof of concept. Severe depression can profoundly limit one's life, and increase risk for suicide ( affecting 300 million people worldwide and causing most of the 800,000 an
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Climate change tipping points: back to the drawing board
We regularly hear warnings that climate change may lead to 'tipping points': irreversible situations where savanna can quickly change into desert, or the warm gulf stream current can simply stop flowing. But the earth is much more resilient than previously thought. Researchers now show that the concept of tipping points is too simple.
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TSMC Will Not Leak Sensitive Client Information in Response to US Transparency Requests
TSMC has put out a statement, backed up by the Taiwanese government, emphasizing that it would leak no sensitive data in complying with a US request for greater transparency in the supply chain. The company's statement today emphasized its willingness to protect its customers, but did not say to what degree it would comply with the US request. "We definitely will not leak our company's sensitive
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Ten ways we can better respond to the pandemic in a trauma-informed way
Fear is one of the central emotional responses during the pandemic. Every day brings a new level of stress: concerns about getting sick, the stigma of testing positive, financial difficulties due to not being able to work, separation from loved ones in lockdown (or being locked in an unsafe household). The list goes on.
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Newly returned moon rock samples chronicle the dying days of lunar volcanism
Billions of years ago, lakes of lava on the surface of the moon eventually dried to form the vast dark patches—the lunar maria—visible today on the lunar nearside. Now, thanks to rock samples recently returned to Earth by China's Chang'e 5 mission, scientists have a new estimate for when one of the last of those lava flows ran dry.
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Daily briefing: HEPA filters could clean SARS-CoV-2 from the air
Nature, Published online: 07 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02780-4 First real-world evidence that inexpensive air filters effectively remove SARS-CoV-2 virus particles from the air. Plus, a malaria vaccine will finally be rolled out across Africa and how the world's biggest brain maps could transform neuroscience.
10h
Cavity-induced quantum spin liquids
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26076-3 Quantum spin liquid states are realized in systems with frustrated magnetic interactions. Here, the authors show that tunable frustrated spin-spin interactions can be induced by coupling a quantum antiferromagnet to the quantized light of a driven optical cavity, giving rise to robust quantum spin liquid stat
11h
Circa-SCOPE: high-throughput live single-cell imaging method for analysis of circadian clock resetting
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26210-1 Phase Transition Curves (PTCs) describe phase shifts of circadian oscillations due to a stimulus and they are important for studying circadian clock resetting. Here, the authors present a method for high-throughput reconstruction of PTCs using fluorescent live imaging and single-cell analysis.
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High-spatial and colourimetric imaging of histone modifications in single senescent cells using plasmonic nanoprobes
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26224-9 The authors demonstrate a colourimetric imaging method using plasmonic nanoparticles for visualisation of heterochromatin histone markers. Based on the distance-dependent coupling effect, resulting in spectral shifts, they observe reorganisation of histone markers caused by oncogene-induced senescence.
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A frequency-amplitude coordinator and its optimal energy consumption for biological oscillators
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26182-2 Calibrating both anomalous frequency and amplitude of biorhythm prevents physiological dysfunctions or diseases. Here, the authors propose a universal approach to design a frequency-amplitude coordinator rigorously via dynamical systems tools.
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Selectivity descriptors for the direct hydrogenation of CO2 to hydrocarbons during zeolite-mediated bifunctional catalysis
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26090-5 The reaction mechanism of carbon dioxide to high-value hydrocarbons over metal-zeolite bifunctional catalysts remains ambiguous. Here, the authors demonstrate that active zeolite catalysts' topology and hybrid nature are descriptors; regulating the reaction mechanism and ultimate product selectivity.
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An oncolytic virus expressing a full-length antibody enhances antitumor innate immune response to glioblastoma
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26003-6 Oncolytic herpes simplex virus-1 lyses cancer cells while increases their immunogenicity. Blocking the CD47 "don't eat me" signal on cancer cells promotes their phagocytosis by macrophages. Authors here show that oncolytic viruses expressing anti-CD47 antibodies improve glioblastoma survival in mouse models.
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In situ and transcriptomic identification of microglia in synapse-rich regions of the developing zebrafish brain
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26206-x Microglia remodel synapses and engulf apoptotic cells. The molecular program underlying these distinct functions are unclear. Here, the authors identify distinct microglial subsets associated with synaptic vs. neurogenic regions of the developing zebrafish brain.
11h
OTULIN maintains skin homeostasis by controlling keratinocyte death and stem cell identity
Nature Communications, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25944-2 OTULIN is a deubiquitinase for linear ubiquitin chains. Here the authors show, using genetic mouse models and single-cell RNA-sequencing, that deficiency of OTULIN in keratinocytes causes skin inflammation and verrucous carcinoma via the induction of keratinocyte death, thereby implicating a function of OTULI
11h
Book Review: The 'Mystery' Illnesses Informed by Culture
In "The Sleeping Beauties," neurologist Suzanne O'Sullivan explores the world of unexplained comas and other mysterious "culture-bound" disorders. Culturally influenced reactions to trauma, O'Sullivan stresses, have nothing to do with fakery, but are very real, physical manifestations of distress.
11h
Eight career tips from Nobel Laureates
Nature, Published online: 08 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02772-4 Stefano Sandrone's Nobel Life features interviews with 24 prizewinners on everything from handling rejection to seizing the moment.
12h
Remnants of Black church uncovered in Colonial Williamsburg
The brick foundation of one of the nation's oldest Black churches has been unearthed at Colonial Williamsburg, a living history museum in Virginia that continues to reckon with its past storytelling about the country's origins and the role of Black Americans.
13h
Team discovers invasive-native crayfish hybrids in Missouri
In a study of crayfish in the Current River in southeastern Missouri, researchers discovered—almost by chance—that the virile crayfish, Faxonius virilis, was interbreeding with a native crayfish, potentially altering the native's genetics, life history and ecology. Reported in the journal Aquatic Invasions, the study highlights the difficulty of detecting some of the consequences of biological inv
13h
Schneider Shorts 8.10.2021 – The Wrath of God
Schneider Shorts of 8 October 2021: greedy Big Pharma, killer kitties, fake Viking maps, fake clinical trials, fake CVs and fake grades, other tortured phrases, academic eugenics, updates on lab leak theory, and the scientific lessons for Christianity from Sodom and Gomorrah.
15h
NASA Rover Confirms Gigantic Martian Crater Used To Be a Lake
Ancient Lakes New data from NASA's Perseverance rover confirms that Jezero Crater, the area on Mars that it's been exploring since it touched down back in February, is indeed the site of a gigantic ancient lake. The rover found geological structures that researchers from NASA and a long list of American and European universities say could have only been formed by a river flowing into a lake for a
23h
Vermont bald eagle restoration follows years of trying
Thirteen years after Vermont lost the ignominious distinction of being the only state in the continental United States without any breeding pairs of bald eagles, the state is moving to remove the iconic national symbol from its list of threatened and endangered species.
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Team develops sensitive new way of detecting transistor defects
Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and collaborators have devised and tested a new, highly sensitive method of detecting and counting defects in transistors—a matter of urgent concern to the semiconductor industry as it develops new materials for next-generation devices. These defects limit transistor and circuit performance and can affect product reliability.
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Capacity of soil bacteria to reach the phyllosphere and convergence of floral communities despite soil microbiota variation [Ecology]
Leaves and flowers are colonized by diverse bacteria that impact plant fitness and evolution. Although the structure of these microbial communities is becoming well-characterized, various aspects of their environmental origin and selection by plants remain uncertain, such as the relative proportion of soilborne bacteria in phyllosphere communities. Here, to address…
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Hinfp is a guardian of the somatic genome by repressing transposable elements [Genetics]
Germ cells possess the Piwi-interacting RNA pathway to repress transposable elements and maintain genome stability across generations. Transposable element mobilization in somatic cells does not affect future generations, but nonetheless can lead to pathological outcomes in host tissues. We show here that loss of function of the conserved zinc-finger transcription…
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Phytoplankton exudates and lysates support distinct microbial consortia with specialized metabolic and ecophysiological traits [Microbiology]
Blooms of marine phytoplankton fix complex pools of dissolved organic matter (DOM) that are thought to be partitioned among hundreds of heterotrophic microbes at the base of the food web. While the relationship between microbial consumers and phytoplankton DOM is a key component of marine carbon cycling, microbial loop metabolism…
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Identification of fluoxetine as a direct NLRP3 inhibitor to treat atrophic macular degeneration [Medical Sciences]
The atrophic form of age-related macular degeneration (dry AMD) affects nearly 200 million people worldwide. There is no Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved therapy for this disease, which is the leading cause of irreversible blindness among people over 50 y of age. Vision loss in dry AMD results from degeneration…
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Structural and mechanistic insights into the complexes formed by Wolbachia cytoplasmic incompatibility factors [Microbiology]
Wolbachia bacteria, inherited through the female germ line, infect a large fraction of arthropod species. Many Wolbachia strains manipulate host reproduction, most commonly through cytoplasmic incompatibility (CI). CI, a conditional male sterility, results when Wolbachia-infected male insects mate with uninfected females; viability is restored if the female is similarly infected…
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Integrated spatial multiomics reveals fibroblast fate during tissue repair [Cell Biology]
In the skin, tissue injury results in fibrosis in the form of scars composed of dense extracellular matrix deposited by fibroblasts. The therapeutic goal of regenerative wound healing has remained elusive, in part because principles of fibroblast programming and adaptive response to injury remain incompletely understood. Here, we present a…
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Broad tiger stripes in a small habitat patch [Population Biology]
Genetic, molecular, and genomic analyses have revolutionized all the fields within the life sciences, revealing the intricate mechanisms underlying the functioning of living organisms, as well as the historical processes that continuously shape them. Among the myriad phenotypes whose physical (heritable) basis and evolutionary significance have been scrutinized with genetic…
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Cryo-EM structure determination of small proteins by nanobody-binding scaffolds (Legobodies) [Biochemistry]
We describe a general method that allows structure determination of small proteins by single-particle cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM). The method is based on the availability of a target-binding nanobody, which is then rigidly attached to two scaffolds: 1) a Fab fragment of an antibody directed against the nanobody and 2) a…
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Chang'e-5 samples reveal key age of moon rocks
A lunar probe launched by the Chinese space agency recently brought back the first fresh samples of rock and debris from the moon in more than 40 years. Now an international team of scientists has determined the age of these moon rocks at close to 1.97 billion years old.
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Astrophysicist Warns That Humanity Will Boil Like a Frog in a Pot
Hot Tub There's an overwhelming abundance of data showing how climate change will bring about disaster for humanity — but we have yet to see an urgent, global initiative to fight it. By ignoring the clear signs that climate change will devastate the planet , we as a species are acting like the proverbial frog sitting in a pot of boiling water, astrophysicist Martin Rees wrote in a new op-ed in Th
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Less restrictive 'bioburden' rules would make some Mars missions simpler
A new report that could make it simpler to send spacecraft to some areas of Mars while still protecting the planet from Earth-based contamination was presented today at a press conference at the 53rd annual meeting of the American Astronomical Society's Division for Planetary Sciences by Planetary Science Institute Senior Scientist Amanda Hendrix.
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Adults who stutter don't do it if they think no one's listening
The perception of being heard by a listener plays a key role in whether a person stutters, according to a new study. The "talk-alone-effect"—the phenomenon in which people who stutter don't stutter when they are alone—has been noted in anecdotal reports but until now, has not been supported by evidence. The new study in the Journal of Fluency Disorders explores the talk-alone-effect among people
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Non-English-language science could help save biodiversity
It is commonly assumed that any important scientific knowledge would be available in English, and so scientific knowledge used in international studies is predominantly sourced from English-language documents. But is this assumption correct? According to research publishing October 7th in the open access journal PLOS Biology, led by Dr. Tatsuya Amano at the University of Queensland, Australia, the
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Samples returned by Chang'e-5 reveal key age of moon rocks
A lunar probe launched by the Chinese space agency recently brought back the first fresh samples of rock and debris from the moon in more than 40 years. Now an international team of scientists—including an expert from Washington University in St. Louis—has determined the age of these moon rocks at close to 1.97 billion years old.
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Severe 2011 drought in Texas was much worse than thought
Texas experienced one of its worst droughts ever in 2011. A new study shows the drought was even worse than previously thought. The dry, parched conditions caused over $7 billion in crop and livestock losses, sparked wildfires, pushed power grids to the limit, and reduced reservoirs to dangerously low levels. The new research in the Journal of Hydrology incorporated additional soil moisture-relat
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People prefer meal kits with all-recyclable packaging
People will pay more for meal kits when they can recycle all the packaging, research finds. Meal kits getting even more popular; national sales are predicted to increase from $4.6 billion in 2017 to $11.6 billion in 2022. The kits include pre-cut raw foods and recipe cards to prepare a home-cooked meal, but they come with packaging waste. A new study in the journal Food Quality and Preference sho
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Holograms
Hi guys I would like to know how holograms work, and how profitable would it be to start a business in said field submitted by /u/aj200201 [link] [comments]
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Alabama swamped, 4 killed in floods from slow-moving front
Terrified drivers climbed out of swamped cars and muddy floodwater flowed through neighborhoods after a stalled weather front drenched Alabama for hours, leaving entire communities under water Thursday and killing at least four people, with still more drenching storms to come.
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Referential alarm calls increase vigilance in brood parasite hosts
Yellow warblers are hosts to brood parasitic brown-headed cowbirds, which rely on other species to raise their offspring. Warblers use referential "seet" calls to warn female warblers specifically of the brood parasitic brown-headed cowbirds that may try to lay eggs in their nests. When exposed to experimental playbacks of seet calls one day, female warblers were more vigilant the next morning, re
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Researchers observe laser-driven tin ejecta microjet interactions
The experimental observations of high-velocity particle-laden flow interactions has been sparse, given the difficulty of generating high-velocity flows of many particles. These observations play an important role in understanding a wide range of natural phenomena, ranging from planetary formation to cloud interactions.
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Women in many poor households excluded from education
One in six of the world's poor (215 million) live in households where no female has completed six years of school, but at least one male has, according to new figures on global poverty released today by the United Nations Development Programme and the Oxford Poverty and Human Development Initiative. Adding households where no one is educated brings this number up to 836 million, or two-thirds of p
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Why COVID vaccines didn't win a science Nobel this year
Nature, Published online: 07 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02754-6 Nobel prize insiders and observers say timing and politics meant vaccine technology was an unlikely winner — but science's most prestigious prize shouldn't be far off.
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Growing demand for deeper wells is tapping ancient water reserves
Communities that rely on the Colorado River are facing a water crisis. Lake Mead, the river's largest reservoir, has fallen to levels not seen since it was created by the construction of the Hoover Dam roughly a century ago. Arizona and Nevada are facing their first-ever mandated water cuts, while water is being released from other reservoirs to keep the Colorado River's hydropower plants running.
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Can living organisms influence changes in their genes?
The change of genetic information over time is a key factor for evolutionary adaptations with which living beings can adapt to changes in their environment. On the one hand, genetic variability arises in the course of reproduction, where genetic information is divided and recombined in the developing offspring. In addition, mutations are another important source of genetic variability. This geneti
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The most influential climate science paper of all time
After the second world war, many of Japan's smartest scientists found jobs in North American laboratories. Syukuro (Suki) Manabe, a 27-year-old physicist, was part of this brain drain. He was working on weather forecasting but left Japan in 1958 to join a new research project by the US Weather Service to develop a numerical model that could be used to study the climate.
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Survey of the world's reefs reveals the extent of the coral reef crisis
Today, after spending ten years assessing the state of coral reefs around the world, the Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation (KSLOF) has released a comprehensive report of its findings from the Global Reef Expedition. The Global Reef Expedition Final Report provides valuable baseline data on the status of the world's reefs at a critical point in time and offers key insights into how to save
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Florida's ivory-billed woodpecker is officially extinct—but a few still hope
In the Green Swamp of Polk County, Florida, Paul Sykes heard a sound that raised the hairs on the back of his neck. The sharp honk may have sounded, to a layperson, like a stepped-on squeaky toy. But to Sykes, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service biologist then based in Delray Beach, it sounded like the recordings he'd heard of the spectral ivory-billed woodpecker.
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Fast and easy detection of amyloid through a fluorescence fingerprinting approach
Amyloidosis is a multifaceted disease group caused by deposits of the misfolded "amyloid" protein in various tissues. Amyloid protein is very unique compared to other native proteins in that it has a cross-β-sheet structure, which gives it distinctive properties, such as resistance to digestive proteinases and transmissibility through ingestion.
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NASA Reassigns Astronauts from Starliner to Dragon as Boeing Delays Continue
NASA has made a rare change to its spaceflight roster. After initially being slated to go into space aboard the Boeing Starliner, two astronauts have been moved to an upcoming SpaceX Dragon launch . This will get the rookie astronauts into space sooner than if they waited on Starliner, which is still being retooled following an issue with fuel valves several months ago. This move does not bode we
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Think a census of humans is hard? Try counting their brain cells!
In 2013, the U.S. government began investing $100 million to decipher human brain anatomy in a large collaborative project called the BRAIN Initiative. Researchers built tools and set standards for describing all the cells in the brain. On October 7, 2021 the initiative reached a major milestone, publishing a comprehensive census of cell types in the mouse, monkey, and human primary motor cortex.
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Neuroscientists map major circuit in the mouse brain
A mouse study reveals new insights into the wiring of a major circuit in the brain that is attacked by Parkinson's and Huntington's disease. The findings could hone scientists' understanding of how these disorders arise in the human brain and pinpoint new therapeutic targets.
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Neuroscientists roll out first comprehensive atlas of brain cells
While researchers have discovered numerous cell types in the brain, this atlas of all cell types in one area — the primary motor cortex — is the first comprehensive list and a starting point for tracing cellular networks to understand how they control our body and mind and how they are disrupted in mental and physical disorders.
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Advancing efforts to treat, prevent and cure brain disorders
It takes billions of cells to make a human brain, and scientists have long struggled to map this complex network of neurons. Now, dozens of research teams around the country have made inroads into creating an atlas of the mouse brain as a first step toward a human brain atlas. The results describe how different cell types are organized and connected throughout the mouse brain.
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SpaceX Is Doubling Its Number of Astronaut-Carrying Spacecraft
Building Spree SpaceX is doubling the size of its fleet of astronaut-carrying spacecraft — as well as doubling the number of cargo-carrying ones — according to officials who spoke during a briefing ahead of the space company's next crewed mission later this month. It's a significant expansion that will widen SpaceX's already sizeable head start over the competition. Mission Brief The mission, dub
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Racist housing policy from 80 years ago still affects maternal health
Housing policies established more than eight decades ago that effectively trapped people of color in low income and segregated neighborhoods continue to affect the health of residents to this day, specifically resulting in poor obstetric outcomes such as pre-term birth, researchers report. "These findings suggest the potential influences of a system of profound structural inequity that ripple for
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Making surgical instruments from medical waste
In Dutch hospitals, over a million kilos of blue 'wrapping paper' is used each year to keep medical instruments sterile. After they have been used, they create an enormous mountain of waste. TU Delft researchers Tim Horeman and Bart van Straten, in collaboration with the Maasstad Hospital in Rotterdam among others, devised a method to melt down this blue polypropylene wrapping paper and turn it in
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Transitioning urban economy from linear to circular
Transitioning to a circular economy and utilizing resources efficiently in cities is necessarily a collaborative effort. We interviewed two experts, Jaana Pelkonen and Heikki Sorasahi, to learn what they thought are the things to consider in addressing these urban challenges.
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Birds learn to avoid plants that host dangerous insects: study
Young birds that eat insects with conspicuous warning colouration to advertise their toxicity to would-be predators quickly learn to avoid other prey that carry the same markings. Developing on this understanding, a University of Bristol team have shown for the very first time that birds don't just learn the colors of dangerous prey, they can also learn the appearance of the plants such insects li
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Dysfunction in the mitochondrial respiration leads to cartilage degenerative diseases
A team led by Professor Dr. Bent Brachvogel, Head of Experimental Neonatology at the Faculty of Medicine and University Hospital Cologne, has discovered previously unknown regulatory mechanisms of tissue organization. Together with other researchers in Brachvogel's team, first author of the new study and licensed pharmacist Kristina Bubb investigated changes in the so-called extracellular matrix (
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Stories can shape moral values in kids
Stories can play a role in shifting the importance of particular moral values in children, according to a new study. The findings suggest an important lesson in the moral education of children could be as close as the book in their hands. "Media can distinctly influence separate moral values and get kids to place more or less importance on those values depending on what is uniquely emphasized in
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Extinct ground sloth likely ate meat with its veggies
A new study suggests that Mylodon — a ground sloth that lived in South America until about 10,000 to 12,000 years ago — was not a strict vegetarian like all of its living relatives. Based on a chemical analysis of amino acids preserved in sloth hair, the researchers uncovered evidence that this gigantic extinct sloth was an omnivore, at times eating meat or other animal protein in addition to pl
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A more accurate way to calculate emissions | Charlotte Degot
Greenhouse gases are colorless, scentless and invisible, making them exceptionally hard to measure. Fortunately, some tools and techniques can help — one of the most powerful being artificial intelligence, says green technologist Charlotte Degot. By processing massive amounts of data on carbon emissions, she explains how AI makes it possible for corporations to set meaningful climate targets, mor
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Den del av hjärnan som styr våra rörelser har kartlagts
Alla celltyper i motorbarken, den del av hjärnan som styr våra rörelser, har nu kartlagts i en "cellatlas", i ett stort internationellt forskningsprojekt. Syftet är att öka kunskapen om hjärnans sjukdomar, som ALS, och bidra till bättre behandlingar. Rörelse är en mycket komplicerad process som omfattar miljontals nervceller i olika delar av hjärnan, där motorbarken har en central roll. Signalern
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Zeolites' isotopes defy nature
Researchers have analyzed ancient zeolite specimens collected from the edges of East Iceland to discover that zeolites separate calcium isotopes in a wholly unexpected way.
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Abundance of microscopic paint flakes in the North Atlantic
Flakes of paint could be one of the most abundant type of microplastic particles in the ocean, new research has suggested. Through a range of surveys conducted across the North Atlantic Ocean, scientists estimated that each cubic meter of seawater contained an average of 0.01 paint flakes.
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Mathematicians Prove Melting Ice Stays Smooth
Drop an ice cube into a glass of water. You can probably picture the way it starts to melt. You also know that no matter what shape it takes, you'll never see it melt into something like a snowflake, composed everywhere of sharp edges and fine cusps. Mathematicians model this melting process with equations. The equations work well, but it's taken 130 years to prove that they conform to obvious…
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Hydrogel tablet makes contaminated river water drinkable in 1 hour
Researchers have created a new hydrogel tablet that can rapidly purify contaminated water. One tablet can disinfect a liter of river water and make it suitable for drinking in an hour or less. As much as a third of the world's population don't have access to clean drinking water , according to some estimates, and half of the population could live in water-stressed areas by 2025. Finding a solutio
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Naked Team of 3 Looks for a Place to Sleep | Naked and Afraid
Stream Naked and Afraid on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/naked-and-afraid About Naked and Afraid: What happens when you put two complete strangers – sans clothes – in some of the most extreme environments on Earth? Each male-female duo is left with no food, no water, no clothes, and only one survival item. #NakedAndAfraid #Discovery #NakedAndAfraidFanEdition Subscribe to Discove
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This All-in-One Survival Kit Can Help Protect a Family of Four for 72 Hours
Last year, if there was one thing most of us thought about a lot more than normal, it was survival . The pandemic turned out to be a wake-up call that everything can go south in a matter of days, if not hours. As a result, panic buying and hoarding began to frequently appear in the news. And now that things have calmed down (relatively speaking), more people than ever have learned that when it co
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New book explores political secrecy among ordinary Americans in today's divisive culture
In a rural community in East Texas, a group of women decided to meet in secret to discuss politics, holding its first clandestine gathering in a secluded barn at the end of a dark road. Thereafter, they rotated meeting locations each month, ensuring that the drapes were tightly closed in members' houses before the meetings began. New members signed nondisclosure agreements, promising not to reveal
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New insights on the diversity of the Iberian wild goat
A new study led by a research team from the Center for Research in Agricultural Genomics (CRAG; CSIC-IRTA-UAB-UB), with the participation of numerous Spanish scientific institutions, has evaluated the genetic diversity of the Iberian wild goat (Capra pyrenaica), a species with scarce genetic variability and highly differentiated populations. This research, published in the journal Evolutionary App
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Dominant style stifled innovation in 19th century seascapes
Long into the 19th century, seascapes were considered an expression of patriotism. Artists who painted in a 17th century style were valued more. This tradition stifled innovation in the genre, Cécile Bosman has concluded. She will defend her Ph.D. thesis on 13 October.
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Two new pit vipers discovered from Qinghai-Tibet Plateau
Two new species of venomous snakes were just added to Asia's fauna—the Nujiang pit viper (Gloydius lipipengi) from Zayu, Tibet, and the Glacier pit viper (G. swild) found west of the Nujiang River and Heishui, Sichuan, east of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau.
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An unusual molecule protects nerve cells from degeneration
An international research team led by Professor Stephanie Grond from the Institute of Organic Chemistry at the University of Tübingen has found that the natural substance collinolactone reduces artificially-induced stress on nerve cells, protecting them from the kind of damage that occurs in neurodegenerative diseases. Collinolactone is isolated from soil bacteria, and its chemical structure is id
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How rainbow colour maps can distort data and be misleading
The choice of color to represent information in scientific images is a fundamental part of communicating findings. However, a number of color palettes that are widely used to display critical scientific results are not only dangerously misleading, but also unreadable to a proportion of the population.
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How families are spending the expanded child tax credit
American households making less than $50,000 are more likely than higher-earning families to spend the expanded child tax credit on essential expenses and tutors for their children, a survey finds. Families are using the money from the credit in a variety of ways, depending on household income and job circumstance, the survey results show. "Even before the pandemic, low- and middle-income US fami
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Visselblåsare enda kontrollen av underrättelsetjänster
Enbart visselblåsare och grävande journalister kan kontrollera säkerhets- och underrättelsetjänster i västerländska demokratier. Varken parlament eller rättssystem har klarat av att upptäcka kränkningar av de egna medborgarnas rättigheter. Det visar en avhandling av Alexandra Franzén, nybliven doktor i sociologi vid Lunds universitet. – Det var först när Håkan Isacson berättade för Peter Bratt oc
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AMD Confirms Windows 11 Performance Hit, Patches on the Way
If you're contemplating upgrading to Windows 11 on an AMD system, you may want to hold off just a bit. The semiconductor design firm has confirmed that Windows 11 performance is a bit lower on Ryzen CPUs than under Windows 10 right now. AMD has published a new support article, PA-400, detailing the problem. The company is suffering two regressions under Windows 11. First, "measured and functional
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Map of the Primary Motor Cortex Published
By now, especially if you are a regular reader here, you have probably heard of the connectome project, an attempt to entirely map the cells and connections of the human brain. This goal is actually comprised of multiple initiatives, one of which is the Brain Research Through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies (BRAIN) funded by the NIH. They have now published in Nature their first major resu
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Recent discovery hints at northward shift in fish distribution
The sleeper fish Eleotris oxycephala is found in freshwater streams and estuaries from tropical to temperate zones. The recent discovery of an individual of this species much further north than previously recorded suggests that the range of this species may be expanding in Japan.
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LunaNet: Empowering Artemis with communications and navigation interoperability
With Artemis, NASA will establish a long-term presence at the Moon, opening more of the lunar surface to exploration than ever before. This growth of lunar activity will require new, more robust communications, navigation, and networking capabilities. NASA's Space Communications and Navigation (SCaN) program has developed the LunaNet architecture to meet these needs.
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Decisions about water use must reflect changing trends in the local hydroclimate
Lots of climate research focuses on averages over large areas—often the globe as a whole—but many decisions related to the environment and water availability are made by local authorities. Zooming in on these regional levels can be difficult. The water cycle is complex to begin with, and climate models often get conflicting results at the regional scale. Further, natural variability is "noisier" w
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First ALMA animation of circling twin young stars
Researchers analyzed the accumulated data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) and depicted the motion of a young twin star system XZ Tauri over three years. This first-ever "ALMA Animation" of twin stars sheds new light on the origins of the binary stars and the planets to be formed around them.
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Lasers to probe origin of life on a frigid moon and take the space-time pulse of star-shattering collisions
On Saturn's giant moon Titan, liquid methane and other hydrocarbons rain down, carving rivers, lakes and seas in a landscape of frozen water. The complex chemistry on this icy world could be analogous to the period when life first emerged on Earth, or it might yield an entirely new type of life. And even farther—light-years away in deep space, a black hole shreds the ultra-dense core of a dead sta
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Register for the Human Brain Project Summit 2021!
The Human Brain Project Summit 2021 provides an open forum for hundreds of researchers, plus policy makers, media and public, to discuss exciting scientific results, the latest developments in the project, and the cutting-edge services and tools available on the EBRAINS Research Infrastructure This year's event will take place in an on-site and online format, with the European Brain Summit being
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Daily briefing: How to make colour-blind-friendly figures
Nature, Published online: 06 October 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02747-5 Tips and tools for making better colour choices in images and figures. Plus, 'elegant' catalysts win the chemistry Nobel, and the legacy of departing NIH director Francis Collins.
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Ni-catalyzed hydroalkylation of olefins with N-sulfonyl amines
Nature Communications, Published online: 07 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26194-y Catalytic addition of a carbon chain and a hydrogen across a double bond has often required an added hydride source. Here the authors show a method to add alkanes with an amino functionality to olefins, wherein a nickel catalyst uses the amine itself as the hydride source, obviating an external hydride reagen
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Structure and inhibition of Cryptococcus neoformans sterylglucosidase to develop antifungal agents
Nature Communications, Published online: 07 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26163-5 Sterylglucosidase 1 (Sgl1) is a virulence factor in Cryptococcus neoformans that modulates fungal pathogenesis and host response. Here, the authors characterize Sgl1 structurally, identify Sgl1 inhibitors, and demonstrate Sgl1 inhibition has efficacy in mouse models of infection.
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RN7SK small nuclear RNA controls bidirectional transcription of highly expressed gene pairs in skin
Nature Communications, Published online: 07 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26083-4 The noncoding RNA RN7SK regulates RNA polymerase II pausing and splicing. Here the authors deplete RN7SK in mouse and human during epidermal stem cell differentiation and reveal a novel role in orchestrating bidirectional transcription of highly expressed gene pairs.
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Polycomb condensates can promote epigenetic marks but are not required for sustained chromatin compaction
Nature Communications, Published online: 07 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26147-5 Phase separation has been suggested as a mechanism for heterochromatin formation through condensation of heterochromatin-associated factors. Here the authors show Polycomb complex PRC1 forms condensates on chromatin. Using optogenetic tools they nucleate local Polycomb condensates to show that this phase sepa
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Mapping epigenetic divergence in the massive radiation of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes
Nature Communications, Published online: 07 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26166-2 The Lake Malawi cichlid fishes are an example of extreme vertebrate radiation; however, there is very little sequence divergence among the species. Here the authors present a comparative genome-wide methylome study to suggest DNA methylation played a major role in the extensive phenotypic diversity amongst th
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ATP-citrate lyase promotes axonal transport across species
Nature Communications, Published online: 07 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25786-y Microtubule tracks are important for the transport of molecules within axons. Here, the authors show that ATAT1, the enzyme responsible for acetylating a-tubulin, receives acetyl groups from ATP citrate lyase whose stability is regulated by Elongator, a protein mutated in the neuronal disease Familial dysauto
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Evolution of the electronic structure in open-shell donor-acceptor organic semiconductors
Nature Communications, Published online: 07 October 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-26173-3 The classical narrow bandgap donor-acceptor organic semiconductors show great application potential in organic electronics, bio-imaging and other fields. Here, the authors systematically and rigorously demonstrate their open-shell diradical character via experimental and theoretical investigation.
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The Subtle Virtues of Routine Doctor's Visits
Increasingly, medical professionals are advising patients not to bother with annual physicals and checkups. But a recent review suggests that — while full-fledged physicals are mostly unnecessary — occasional, basic checkups confer real health benefits, including fostering healthy primary care relationships.
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Strong earthquake in southwest Pakistan kills at least 23
A powerful earthquake collapsed at least one coal mine and dozens of mud houses in southwest Pakistan early Thursday, killing at least 23 people as the death toll continued to creep higher. At least another 200 people were injured, an official said.
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Covid-19: will there soon be a pill that stops us getting sick? – podcast
Last week the pharmaceutical company Merck released promising early data on a pill for Covid-19, which trials suggest halves hospitalisations and deaths. So what do we know about this experimental treatment? Madeleine Finlay talks to the Guardian's science correspondent Hannah Devlin about whether this antiviral could be a gamechanger. And as some UK experts warn ' there isn't much A&E capacity l
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Covid-19: will there soon be a pill that stops us getting sick?
Last week the pharmaceutical company Merck released promising early data on a pill for Covid-19, which trials suggest halves hospitalisations and deaths. So what do we know about this experimental treatment? Madeleine Finlay talks to the Guardian's science correspondent Hannah Devlin about whether this antiviral could be a gamechanger. And as some UK experts warn ' there isn't much A&E capacity le
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Aukus pact to deepen Australia, US collaboration on space technology
Nasa's Artemis mission to send a crewed vehicle to the moon set to further partnership between the two countries Get our free news app ; get our morning email briefing The Aukus agreement will boost collaboration between the United States and Australia in space, Australian space agency chief Enrico Palermo says. Palermo was speaking on a panel with Nasa administrator Bill Nelson which also discus
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The Math of the Amazing Sandpile – Issue 107: The Edge
Remember domino theory? One country going Communist was supposed to topple the next, and then the next, and the next. The metaphor drove much of United States foreign policy in the middle of the 20th century. But it had the wrong name. From a physical point of view, it should have been called the "sandpile theory." Real-world political phase transitions tend to happen not in neat sequences, but i
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The Disneyfication of Atomic Power – Issue 107: The Edge
John Jay Hopkins's visit to Japan in 1955, as an informal emissary of "Atoms for Peace," must have seemed surreal to everyone involved. Hopkins was the head of an old American shipbuilding firm based out of Groton, Connecticut. Electric Boat Company had struggled in the 1920s and 1930s with its reputation as a "merchant of death," having sold warships to all sides in major wars. During World War
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Order Flocking Out of Chaos – Issue 107: The Edge
At first, they trickle in: one bird here, a few birds there. Then, at dusk's cue, a dark smudge materializes on the horizon. Thousands of starlings ( Sturnus vulgaris ) slowly come into focus, etching flight paths across the winter sky as they stream toward their evening roost in north-central England. Suddenly, the flock dips and twists like a horse tossing its head. It swirls into a funnel, the
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The Safety Belt of Our Solar System – Issue 107: The Edge
David McComas has a favorite "astrosphere," the environment created by a star's stellar wind as it buffets the surrounding interstellar medium. It belongs to a star named Mira. In an image from 2006, Mira is heading to the right, at 291,000 miles an hour, 10 times faster than the speed our sun ambles around the Milky Way. You can make out a "bow shock" forming ahead of the star, like one would ah
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Years of exposure to air pollution and road traffic noise may raise heart failure risk
A study including more than 22,000 female nurses in Denmark evaluated exposure over 15-20 years to air pollution and road traffic noise to evaluate the impact on heart failure. Exposure to small particulate matter and road traffic noise over three years was associated with an increased risk for heart failure. The risks were greater among women who were former smokers or women who had high blood pr
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Smart parrots need more stimulation
The smarter the bird, the more unique welfare needs it has in captivity, according to a new study that helps to explain why many intelligent animals struggle in captivity. The findings are also important to owners of intelligent birds to ensure they provide them with naturalistic diets rather than processed foods.
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Dwarf planet Vesta a window to the early solar system
The dwarf planet Vesta is helping scientists better understand the earliest era in the formation of our solar system. Two recent articles use data from meteorites derived from Vesta to resolve the 'missing mantle problem' and push back our knowledge of the solar system to just a couple of million years after it began to form.
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Newly available GPS data helps scientists better understand ionosphere
A new data source to help scientists better understand the ionosphere and its potential impact on communications and positioning, navigation, and timing—an essential utility for many critical operations—is now available to the public. The data, which was collected by sensors on GPS satellites in 2018, was released today through a collaborative effort by Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Natio
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Astronomers May Have Found First-Ever Exoplanet Orbiting Three Stars
(ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), ESO/Exeter/Kraus et al.) Since last year, astronomers have been peeking at a fascinating triple star system about 1,300 light-years away. The system, known as GW Orionis, is enshrouded in murky dust, indicating it's still very young. Scientists have struggled to explain the twisting and contortion of the dust rings. According to Bad Astronomy , a new analysis may have hit o
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Record-breaking Texas drought more severe than previously thought
In 2011, Texas experienced one of its worst droughts ever. The dry, parched conditions caused over $7 billion in crop and livestock losses, sparked wildfires, pushed power grids to the limit, and reduced reservoirs to dangerously low levels. And according to a recent study led by geoscientists, the drought was worse than previously thought.
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Video Shows Scoundrel Drawing Graffiti on USSR Space Shuttle
Derelict Space Shuttle The Soviet Union's ambitious plans to get its Space Shuttle rival off the ground largely failed after the collapse of the communist state in the early 1990s. The USSR's second Buran-class shuttle, dubbed "Burya," is now rotting inside a derelict warehouse near the Baikonur cosmodrome in Kazakhstan. It's been sitting there since at least 2002 , an important relic of the Sovi
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Massage doesn't just make muscles feel better, it makes them heal faster and stronger
Massages feel good, but do they actually speed muscle recovery? Turns out, they do. Scientists applied precise, repeated forces to injured mouse leg muscles and found that they recovered stronger and faster than untreated muscles, likely because the compression squeezed inflammation-causing cells out of the muscle tissue. This work offers a non-invasive, drug-free treatment that can help regenerat
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Bacteria enters through natural openings at edges of corn leaves to cause Goss's wilt
Goss's bacterial wilt and leaf blight is one of the most damaging diseases affecting corn. The most effective way to control this disease is to plant corn varieties that are resistant to the disease. In other words, growers avoid the disease by growing certain varieties of corn. In part, this is the easiest method because scientists don't yet know much about Goss's wilt.
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Extinction and origination patterns change after mass extinctions
A sweeping analysis of marine fossils from most of the past half-billion years shows the usual rules of body size evolution change during mass extinctions and their recoveries. The discovery is an early step toward predicting how evolution will play out on the other side of the current extinction crisis.
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Distant residues modulate conformational opening in SARS-CoV-2 spike protein [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Infection by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) involves the attachment of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of its spike proteins to the ACE2 receptors on the peripheral membrane of host cells. Binding is initiated by a down-to-up conformational change in the spike protein, the change that presents the RBD…
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Retraction for Cabral et al., A global network of marine protected areas for food [Retractions]
ECOLOGY, SUSTAINABILITY SCIENCE Retraction for "A global network of marine protected areas for food," by Reniel B. Cabral, Darcy Bradley, Juan Mayorga, Whitney Goodell, Alan M. Friedlander, Enric Sala, Christopher Costello, and Steven D. Gaines, which was first published October 26, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2000174117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 117, 28134–28139)….
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Structural basis of rotavirus RNA chaperone displacement and RNA annealing [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Rotavirus genomes are distributed between 11 distinct RNA molecules, all of which must be selectively copackaged during virus assembly. This likely occurs through sequence-specific RNA interactions facilitated by the RNA chaperone NSP2. Here, we report that NSP2 autoregulates its chaperone activity through its C-terminal region (CTR) that promotes RNA–RNA interactions…
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Continuous variable responses and signal gating form kinetic bases for pulsatile insulin signaling and emergence of resistance [Systems Biology]
Understanding kinetic control of biological processes is as important as identifying components that constitute pathways. Insulin signaling is central for almost all metazoans, and its perturbations are associated with various developmental disorders, metabolic diseases, and aging. While temporal phosphorylation changes and kinetic constants have provided some insights, constant or variable…
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Attractive forces slow contact formation between deformable bodies underwater [Applied Physical Sciences]
Thermodynamics tells us to expect underwater contact between two hydrophobic surfaces to result in stronger adhesion compared to two hydrophilic surfaces. However, the presence of water changes not only energetics but also the dynamic process of reaching a final state, which couples solid deformation and liquid evacuation. These dynamics can…
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Single-cell profiling reveals the importance of CXCL13/CXCR5 axis biology in lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin lymphoma [Immunology and Inflammation]
Lymphocyte-rich classic Hodgkin lymphoma (LR-CHL) is a rare subtype of Hodgkin lymphoma. Recent technical advances have allowed for the characterization of specific cross-talk mechanisms between malignant Hodgkin Reed-Sternberg (HRS) cells and different normal immune cells in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of CHL. However, the TME of LR-CHL has not yet…
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Spillover, hybridization, and persistence in schistosome transmission dynamics at the human-animal interface [Population Biology]
Zoonotic spillover and hybridization of parasites are major emerging public and veterinary health concerns at the interface of infectious disease biology, evolution, and control. Schistosomiasis is a neglected tropical disease of global importance caused by parasites of the Schistosoma genus, and the Schistosoma spp. system within Africa represents a key…
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Voltage cycling process for the electroconversion of biomass-derived polyols [Chemistry]
Electrification of chemical reactions is crucial to fundamentally transform our society that is still heavily dependent on fossil resources and unsustainable practices. In addition, electrochemistry-based approaches offer a unique way of catalyzing reactions by the fast and continuous alteration of applied potentials, unlike traditional thermal processes. Here, we show how…
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Literature review: Ten years of research on oil and gas industry's methane and health-damaging air pollutant emissions
Oil and gas emissions vary widely throughout the supply chain, making mitigation of both super-emitters and emissions sources near populations top priorities for public health and climate, according to findings from a literature review by the nonprofit energy science and policy institute Physicians, Scientists, and Engineers (PSE) for Healthy Energy. "Methane and Health-Damaging Air Pollutants Fro
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Undiagnosed endometriosis hampers fertility treatment
Women with undiagnosed endometriosis will have difficulty getting pregnant without IVF, according to a new study. Women whose endometriosis went undiagnosed until after they began fertility treatment ended up doing more cycles, used treatments that aren't recommended, and were less likely to have a baby, says Katrina Moss, a researcher at the University of Queensland School of Public Health. "By
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Tiny bubbles can be future treatment for inflammation
Scientists hope that tiny sacs of material excreted by cells — so-called extracellular vesicles — can be used to deliver drugs inside the body. Researchers now show that these nano-bubbles can transport protein drugs that reduce inflammation caused by different diseases. The technique shows promising results in animal models.
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Sense of purpose associated with better memory
A new study showed a link between an individual's sense of purpose and their ability to recall vivid details. The researchers found that while both a sense of purpose and cognitive function made memories easier to recall, only a sense of purpose bestowed the benefits of vividness and coherence.
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Intelligence emerging from random polymer networks
A team of researchers assembled a sulfonated polyaniline (SPAN) organic electrochemical network device (OEND) for use in reservoir computing. SPAN was deposited on gold electrodes which formed a disordered network providing humidity-dependent electrical properties. The SPAN OEND was tested for reservoir computing using benchmark tasks and spoken-digit classification, which showed 70% accuracy. The
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Weighing cancer cells to personalize drug choices
Researchers have developed a new way to determine whether individual patients will respond to a specific cancer drug or not. This kind of test could help doctors to choose alternative therapies for patients who don't respond to the therapies normally used to treat their cancer.
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Toxic fatty acids to blame for brain cell death after injury
Cells that normally nourish healthy brain cells called neurons release toxic fatty acids after neurons are damaged, a new study in rodents shows. This phenomenon is likely the driving factor behind most, if not all, diseases that affect brain function, as well as the natural breakdown of brain cells seen in aging, researchers say.
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