Sarbecoviruses have crossed into humans twice in the last decade, leading to the deadly SARS-CoV-1 outbreak in 2002-04 and the current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus. A new Oxford University study, published today, shows that the most recent common ancestor of these viruses existed more than 21,000 years ago, nearly 30 times older than previous estimates.
Plug and Play Next time you buy a USB cord — or take a free one from a kiosk at an event — you'll want to make sure it doesn't spy on every single thing you type. A cable that can do just that is now available, thanks to a pseudonymous cybersecurity researcher who goes by MG. MG told Motherboard that the so-called OMG cable looks just like any other, except for a tiny computer that can automatica
Curtin scientists are part of an international research team that studied an ancient supervolcano in Indonesia and found such volcanoes remain active and hazardous for thousands of years after a super-eruption, prompting the need for a rethink of how these potentially catastrophic events are predicted.
A time crystal is a unique and exotic phase of matter first predicted by the American physicist Frank Wilczek in 2012. Time crystals are temporal analogs of more conventional space crystals, as both are based on structures characterized by repeating patterns.
Banging the AI Drum For years, Tesla CEO Elon Musk has warned us that artificial intelligence is coming for us all. "I've been banging this AI drum for a decade," Musk told Insider last year. He's even gone as far as saying that AI is more dangerous than nuclear war. In 2017, he said that that efforts to make AI safe only have "a five to 10 percent chance of success." Which makes his recent annou
Vaccines don't last forever. This is by design: Like many of the microbes they mimic, the contents of the shots stick around only as long as it takes the body to eliminate them, a tenure on the order of days, perhaps a few weeks . What does have staying power, though, is the immunological impression that vaccines leave behind. Defensive cells study decoy pathogens even as they purge them; the rec
When the last of the remaining United States forces departed from Afghanistan this week, they took with them more than 100,000 people, some of whom were Afghanistan's most educated and skilled citizens. For these politicians, artists, scholars, and activists, the withdrawal represented not only the end of their country as they knew it, but the end of any hope they might have had in helping shape
Deep sea mining could provide minerals essential for making electric vehicles. But regulations are incomplete, and questions persist about the impact on the ocean's ability to store carbon dioxide. (Image credit: NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research)
The new Texas law that bans abortion after a fetal heartbeat is detected—and which the Supreme Court has so far declined to block—is an enormous blow to abortion rights in America. But Democrats, who tend to support abortion access, aren't all doom-and-gloom about the measure. The thinking among some in the party goes like this: An abortion ban is terrible for women—but it's great for ginning up
When I met Flynn Hoob on Monday, he was standing in front of his home. Or rather, what was left of his home. It was the day after Hurricane Ida , and Hoob's one-story house in Bourg, Louisiana, had fallen off its concrete pilings and sunk halfway into the nearby bayou. He had ridden out the storm inside until his house had tipped over, at which point he fled to the flooded-out bar next door and w
Dragon Cupola SpaceX has made an exciting new modification to its Crew Dragon spacecraft that will carry the first all-civilian astronaut crew around the Earth later this month. The capsule was outfitted with a "Cupola ," which Musk described as a "glass dome " in a tweet earlier this year, that will offer the crew of four an unparalleled look at the Earth — and the space beyond it — from hundred
Illustration by Vartika Sharma; source: Alberto Rizzo / Getty T racy Clark-Flory's memoir , Want Me , is subtitled A Sex Writer's Journey Into the Heart of Desire , and it begins with an arresting anecdote: Two male porn actors on a set in Los Angeles are complaining to her about "girls these days." One actor is called Tommy Gunn, because where would pornography be without puns? The other uses hi
The five justices who upheld Texas's anti-abortion law in the middle of the night this week insisted that their hands were tied: Texas had invoked sovereign immunity , and abortion providers had not proved that the state was wrong. Above all, the majority warned people not to overreact. Women in Texas might not be able to get an abortion anymore, and abortion providers might have already shut dow
Texas governor Greg Abbott told CNBC on Thursday — or at least heavily implied — that Tesla and SpaceX CEO Elon Musk had private expressed support for the state's draconion new abortion law. The law amounts to a de facto ban on abortion in the state , and has been condemned by many as an egregious overreach , a contradiction of legal precedent, and an active assault on personal freedoms. But the
Big Boom Rocket startup Firefly Aerospace's Alpha rocket exploded spectacularly during its launch on Thursday — an unfortunate end to the first-ever launch of the rocket. The rocket lifted off from Space Launch Complex 2 at the Vandenberg Space Force Base in California at around 10 pm Eastern. But two and a half minutes into its maiden voyage, the rocket started to tumble — and subsequently blew
Rare is the New Orleans tourist who doesn't visit the French Quarter, the 13-block neighborhood sitting at the edge of the Mississippi River. Residents, too, are accustomed to its sounds and smells and images, which together have come to represent our hometown, one of the most special places in the world. I think of the city I come from every day—especially now. At the top of a pair of stairways
Over the past year and a half, a series of local, state, and national eviction bans has prevented millions of Americans from losing their home in the middle of a pandemic. But last week, a national moratorium put in place by the CDC was rejected by the Supreme Court. "Really concerning," "quite bad," and "a huge problem" are three ways that housing experts I spoke with characterized the wave of e
"Honour is often influenced by that element of pride which plays so large a part in its inspiration," Winston Churchill wrote in The Gathering Storm . "An exaggerated code of honour leading to the performance of utterly vain and unreasonable deeds could not be defended, however fine it might look. Here, however, the moment came when Honour pointed the path of Duty, and when also the right judgmen
Arctic change increased chances of tightly spinning winds above North Pole, authors say, boosting chances of extreme weather The climate crisis has not only been leaving deadly heatwaves and more destructive hurricanes in its wake, but also probably creating extreme winter weather events, according to a new report released on Thursday by the American Association for the Advancement of Science's j
Successor to Hubble has been hit by delays and a ballooning budget since work began on it in 1996 Nasa has completed the final tests of the James Webb space telescope and is now preparing it for transportation to the launch site in Kourou, French Guiana. Webb is Nasa's successor to the ageing Hubble space telescope. Work on it began way back in 1996. Back then, it was called the Next Generation s
A team of researchers from the University of Vienna working with a colleague at the Indonesian Institute of Sciences has observed wild Goffin's cockatoos making and using tools to crack open and eat sea mangos—the first-ever example of a wild non-primate making and using a set of tools. They've published their observations in the journal Current Biology.
This new class of planet hoped by scientists to harbour alien life is a hot waterworld. Let's stop Earth turning into one Astronomers have begun scrutinising a new class of planet that might support alien life: the hycean . This is a portmanteau coinage combining "hydrogen" and "ocean", since the planets are hot waterworlds with hydrogen-rich atmospheres. In ancient Greek, Oceanus was the great r
Nu har forskare sett ett direkt samband mellan uppvärmningen av Arktis och den extremkyla som drabbade Texas i februari i år. Den kalla polarvinden bytte riktning och istället för att snurra runt Arktis vek den söderut över Nordamerika. Spela videon för att se hur vindarna åkte söderut.
A controversial and strange new Texas law empowers private citizens to sue (and collect $10,000 for successfully suing) anyone who performs, aids, or abets an abortion after the sixth week of pregnancy, before many women know they are pregnant. The fight over that law got more convoluted last night. At first, the Supreme Court didn't respond to an emergency petition to strike down the legislation
Years of meticulous experimentation have paid off for researchers aiming to unify the physics that defines materials that transition from solids to liquids. The researchers said a new theoretical model could help develop new synthetic materials and inform and predict civil engineering and environmental challenges such as mudslides, dam breaks and avalanches.
Readers respond to an editorial about understanding quantum theory and defining the laws of physics Your editorial on quantum physics ( 30 August ) starts with a quote from Richard Feynman – "nobody understands quantum mechanics" – and then says "that is no longer true". One of us (Norman Dombey) was taught quantum theory by Feynman at Caltech; the other (John Charap) was taught by Paul Dirac at
Victory Lap A team of nuclear physicists are celebrating what they say is a huge step toward a practical nuclear fusion reactor. Nuclear fusion, if scientists ever manage to figure it out, could provide a bounty of clean energy — and potentially a clear path in the transition away from fossil fuels. But the technology to recreate the sort of reaction happening inside of stars in a controlled sett
The cichlids of Lake Tanganyika in Africa are highly diverse—including with regard to sex chromosomes. These have changed extremely frequently in the course of the evolution of these fish and, depending on the species, can be of the type XY or ZW. This has been reported by a research team from the University of Basel and the Research Museum Koenig in Bonn in the scientific journal Science Advances
Floods killed at least two dozen people as Hurricane Ida swept through New York, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania on the night of September 1. This devastation is on top of the 13 who died and the million who lost power when the storm hit Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama last weekend. As the storm moved up the East Coast, New York City was hit particularly hard. Over three inches of rain fell in C
The common analogy for CRISPR gene editing is that it works like molecular scissors, cutting out select sections of DNA. Stanley Qi, assistant professor of bioengineering at Stanford University, likes that analogy, but he thinks it's time to reimagine CRISPR as a Swiss Army knife.
The fossil of a 290-million-year-old shark with petal-shaped teeth was found in China for the first time, according to Gai Zhikun, an associate researcher at the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The Petalodus teeth were found in the Qianshi limestone in Yangquan City, north China's Shanxi Province.
Take Two NASA says that its Perseverance rover has finally succeeded at drilling, gathering, and storing samples of Martian rock after a second attempt on Wednesday. The rover drilled through a new rock, nicknamed "Rochette," stuffed the sample into one of its storage vials, and snapped a photo as proof, The New York Times reports . For all intents and purposes, that's a great success story — esp
A new analysis suggests that, in order to boost freedoms and protect against overwhelming new waves of COVID-19, the pace at which restrictions to reduce spread are lifted must be directly tied to the pace of vaccination.
Enhance! University of Cambridge scientists have gotten an unprecedented glimpse at chemical reactions in real-time, thanks to a new molecule-sized "camera." The device, little more than a clump of gold nanoparticles, semiconductor nanocrystals called quantum dots , and a molecular "glue," uses a process similar to photosynthesis to reveal exactly what's happening while various molecules interact
Graphene, hexagonally arranged carbon atoms in a single layer with superior pliability and high conductivity, could advance flexible electronics according to a Penn State-led international research team. Huanyu "Larry" Cheng, Dorothy Quiggle Career Development Professor in Penn State's Department of Engineering Science and Mechanics (ESM), heads the collaboration, which recently published two stud
Scenes from the 2020 Paralympics in Tokyo, flash flooding in Spain and the U.S., snowfall in South Africa, devastation left by Hurricane Ida, a crash at the British Grand Prix, the Caldor wildfire in California, a light show in Antwerp, a new eruption at Mount Etna, and much more
Each installment of " The Friendship Files " features a conversation between The Atlantic 's Julie Beck and two or more friends, exploring the history and significance of their relationship. This week she talks with two couples—Jenny and Marisa (parents to Atlas and Blaise), and Lora and Michelle (parents to Finnley and Tegan)—who had their children using the same sperm donor . Though they origin
What started as a casual dinner conversation between two very different researchers in 2016—one a data scientist and engineer, the other an expert in economic models—has since turned into a journal article quantifying the effects of the "beauty premium," the notion that those who are more physically attractive tend to have a greater income.
A former veterinary student at Tufts University has settled a $1 million lawsuit alleging that she was punished for claiming that her mentor at the school falsified data in a 2014 article. In 2019, Kristy Meadows sued Tufts and two faculty members, Elizabeth Byrnes and Dean Joyce Knoll, whom she said retaliated against her for … Continue reading
Methanogenic archaea use sophisticated enzyme systems to live in energy-limited anoxic environments. A key mechanism for saving energy is electron bifurcation, a reaction that 'splits' the energy of a pair of electrons, making one more strongly reducing at the expense of the other. Researchers from the Max Planck Institutes for Terrestrial Microbiology (Marburg) and Biophysics (Frankfurt am Main)
A team of medics hiked in the mountains for hours to take supplies to the small village of Nakida See all our coronavirus coverage To reach Nakida village in the highlands of Fiji, Dr Losalini Tabakei and her colleagues hiked for hours, up and down mountains, through forests, down muddy slopes, across rivers and along treacherous ridges with steep slopes of bamboo forest on either side. Their sup
Coronavirus patients with high-risk comorbidities are being given a newly approved antibody drug, which limits the virus's ability to replicate in the body Follow our Covid live blog for the latest updates Restrictions: NSW ; Vic ; Qld ; borders Vaccine rollout tracker ; get our free news app ; get our morning email briefing Australia's treatment of Covid-19 patients has improved with doctors cla
The space cemetery, named for the fictional captain in 20,000 Leagues Under the Sea, is where the International Space Station is likely to end up At the furthest point from any landmass on earth, and 4km under the sea, lies the space cemetery. When their outer space journeys come to an end, old satellites, rocket parts and space stations are sent to this desolate spot in the Pacific Ocean to rest
Researchers have found a way to make a muscle protein and spin it into incredibly strong fibers. Their synthetic chemistry approach allowed them to polymerize proteins inside of engineered microbes, which then produced the high molecular weight muscle protein, titin. In the future, such material could be used for clothing, or even for protective gear. "Its production can be cheap and scalable. It
Neuroblastomas are childhood tumors with frequent fatal relapses after induction treatment, which is related to tumor evolution with additional genomic events. Our whole-genome sequencing data analysis revealed a high frequency of somatic cytosine > adenine (C > A) substitutions in primary neuroblastoma tumors, which was associated with poor survival. We…
Patterned degeneration of Purkinje cells (PCs) can be observed in a wide range of neuropathologies, but mechanisms behind nonrandom cerebellar neurodegeneration remain unclear. Sphingolipid metabolism dyshomeostasis typically leads to PC neurodegeneration; hence, we questioned whether local sphingolipid balance underlies regional sensitivity to pathological insults. Here, we investigated the regio
Ectopic lymphoid tissue containing B cells forms in the meninges at late stages of human multiple sclerosis (MS) and when neuroinflammation is induced by interleukin (IL)-17 producing T helper (Th17) cells in rodents. B cell differentiation and the subsequent release of class-switched immunoglobulins have been speculated to occur in the…
Excessive production of viral glycoproteins during infections poses a tremendous stress potential on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein folding machinery of the host cell. The host cell balances this by providing more ER resident chaperones and reducing translation. For viruses, this unfolded protein response (UPR) offers the potential to fold…
Neuroinflammation is a pathophysiological hallmark of multiple sclerosis and has a close mechanistic link to neurodegeneration. Although this link is potentially targetable, robust translatable models to reliably quantify and track neuroinflammation in both mice and humans are lacking. The choroid plexus (ChP) plays a pivotal role in regulating the trafficking…
Quantum error correction is an essential tool for reliably performing tasks for processing quantum information on a large scale. However, integration into quantum circuits to achieve these tasks is problematic when one realizes that nontransverse operations, which are essential for universal quantum computation, lead to the spread of errors. Quantum…
Complexity—defined in terms of the number of components and the nature of the interdependencies between them—is clearly a relevant feature of all tasks that groups perform. Yet the role that task complexity plays in determining group performance remains poorly understood, in part because no clear language exists to express complexity…
The O-acetylation of exopolysaccharides, including the essential bacterial cell wall polymer peptidoglycan, confers resistance to their lysis by exogenous hydrolases. Like the enzymes catalyzing the O-acetylation of exopolysaccharides in the Golgi of animals and fungi, peptidoglycan O-acetyltransferase A (OatA) is predicted to be an integral membrane protein comprised of a…
RalA is a small GTPase and a member of the Ras family. This molecular switch is activated downstream of Ras and is widely implicated in tumor formation and growth. Previous work has shown that the ubiquitous Ca2+-sensor calmodulin (CaM) binds to small GTPases such as RalA and K-Ras4B, but a…
We propose a deep learning–based knockoffs inference framework, DeepLINK, that guarantees the false discovery rate (FDR) control in high-dimensional settings. DeepLINK is applicable to a broad class of covariate distributions described by the possibly nonlinear latent factor models. It consists of two major parts: an autoencoder network for the knockoff…
Brain microstructure plays a key role in driving the transport of drug molecules directly administered to the brain tissue, as in Convection-Enhanced Delivery procedures. The proposed research analyzes the hydraulic permeability of two white matter (WM) areas (corpus callosum and fornix) whose three-dimensional microstructure was reconstructed starting from the acquisition…
Type I interferons (IFNs) are critical effectors of emerging cancer immunotherapies designed to activate pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). A challenge in the clinical translation of these agents is the lack of noninvasive pharmacodynamic biomarkers that indicate increased intratumoral IFN signaling following PRR activation. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging enables the…
The development of high-performance photoacoustic (PA) probes that can monitor disease biomarkers in deep tissue has the potential to replace invasive medical procedures such as a biopsy. However, such probes must be optimized for in vivo performance and exhibit an exceptional safety profile. In this study, we have developed PACu-1,…
By introducing metallic ring structural dipole resonances in the microwave regime, we have designed and realized a metamaterial absorber with hierarchical structures that can display an averaged −19.4 dB reflection loss (∼99% absorption) from 3 to 40 GHz. The measured performance is independent of the polarizations of the incident wave…
COVID-19 induces a robust, extended inflammatory "cytokine storm" that contributes to an increased morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Macrophages are a key innate immune cell population responsible for the cytokine storm that has been shown, in T2D, to promote excess inflammation in response to…
Research has discovered that the strength of the connection between our brain and internal organs is linked to how we feel about our appearance. The study has investigated the association between body image and the brain's processing of internal signals that occur unconsciously. It found that adults whose brains are less efficient at detecting these internal messages are more likely to experience
Shifting to a new food freezing method could make for safer and better quality frozen foods while saving energy and reducing carbon emissions, according to a new study. A complete change over to this new method of food freezing worldwide could cut energy use by as much as 6.5 billion kilowatt-hours each year while reducing the carbon emissions that go along with generating that power by 4.6 billio
Analysis: The JCVI would not back vaccination of all 12 to 15-year-olds, but the impact on schools will now have to be considered Coronavirus – latest updates See all our coronavirus coverage It was, the scientists said, a very finely balanced decision. On the one hand, Covid vaccines undoubtedly help to reduce infection and illness. On the other, Covid vaccines – like every other vaccine in medi
It has been a mystery why some people live a perfectly normal life until experiencing a potentially deadly cardiac episode. Now, researchers present a possible explanation in a microscopic modification of a protein, which causes a mutation to turn harmful. The knowledge could help future diagnosis and drug regimens.
A study of a geographically, clinically, and socioeconomically diverse, nationally-representative sample of US households — including both adult patients and caregivers of children with food allergy — found that 72 percent did not know what oral immunotherapy (OIT) was prior to the survey. Researchers also discovered that current OIT awareness is disproportionately elevated among wealthier, more
The largest study of concussion ever conducted in college athletes redefines the timeline for recovery from the suggested normal recovery time of up to 14 days to up to 28 days. "Normal return-to-play time was previously set at 14 days–meaning 50% of people recovered in that time. Our paper suggests that 28 days more fully encapsulates the recovery process. At that point, 85% of people have retur
On Aug. 14, 2021, a small near-Earth asteroid (NEA) designated 2021 PJ1 passed our planet at a distance of over 1 million miles (about 1.7 million kilometers). Between 65 and 100 feet (20 and 30 meters) wide, the recently discovered asteroid wasn't a threat to Earth. But this asteroid's approach was historic, marking the 1,000th NEA to be observed by planetary radar in just over 50 years.
Vesta is the second largest asteroid in our solar system and believed to be a proto-planet. NASA's Dawn spacecraft visited Vesta in 2011. The mission revealed two massive impact craters and some odd troughs encircling them. The asteroid Vesta is the second largest asteroid in the solar system's asteroid belt, with a diameter of about 330 miles. (Ceres is the biggest.) It is the brightest asteroid
Like humans, zebra finches can recognize songs by their rhythmic patterns, even when played at very different tempos, according to new research. If you have ever been moved by the beat of a drum or enchanted by a song, or if you have meandered through YouTube to watch animals from elephants to dancing cockatoos swaying and bopping to music, you might suspect that there is an instinctive and prima
Rock and roll's relationship with time—as in Father Time, not, you know, tempo —is fascinating. Men and women barely into their 20s, dewy young people without a mark on them, somehow contrive to write songs of shattering, been-there maturity. Whiskery wisdom ballads, epics of regret, failure binge blues, and howling prophetic voyages. Wide-eyed they sing them, these songs of experience. And then
In eastern Belgium, an abandoned highway is almost completely buried under kilometres of piled-up rubbish: crushed refrigerators, splintered furniture, torn curtains, twisted metal, stuffed toys, defunct electronics and shards of glass.
The role of climate change in New York's deadly flash floods and the city's creaking infrastructure were under the spotlight Friday after torrential rains left at least 47 people dead across the US northeast.
A joint project team in Japan have started field testing for Asset-Based Lending (ABL) applicability at Kuroshima Sakura Farm in Kuroshima island, Okinawa prefecture, which is known for the world-famous "Wagyu" cattle industry. The ABL approach employs cattle behavior monitoring system "PETER" developed by the project team aimed for labor-saving grazing management using edge-AI and LPWA (Low Power
Today, wireless charging is little more than a gimmick for high-end smartphones or pricey electric toothbrushes. But a new approach that can charge devices anywhere in a room could one day allow untethered factories where machinery is powered without cables. As the number of gadgets we use has steadily grown, so too has the number of cables and chargers cluttering up our living spaces. This has s
Nature, Published online: 03 September 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02402-z Models suggest that distortions in polar-vortex winds can send chilly air hurtling southwards. But some climate scientists remain unconvinced.
Apple has announced that it's officially delaying the rollout of its controversial plans to scan iPhones for child sexual abuse material (CSAM), The Verge reports . "Last month we announced plans for features intended to help protect children from predators who use communication tools to recruit and exploit them, and limit the spread of Child Sexual Abuse Material," Apple wrote in a statement. It
Researchers have conducted the first demonstration of a faster and more accurate way to calibrate certain kinds of microphones. The technique, which uses lasers to measure the velocity at which a microphone's diaphragm vibrates, performs well enough to overtake one of the main calibration methods used.
It's no secret that the Internet is not a safe space. Whether you're innocently browsing the web, working from home, or simply streaming your favorite TV shows, someone is watching, and scammers are waiting to pounce. Methods such as phishing and credit card fraud are becoming all too common. This problem is made even worse by free WI-Fi found at coffee shops, airports, and other public places. T
A new app-based HIV self-test program not only successfully linked participants to counseling services and care, but also detected new infections and increased referrals to self-test. In the shadow of the COVID-19 pandemic, HIV continues to be a major global public health issue, affecting an estimated 40 million people. "Our study shows that a flexible, anonymized, secure, app-based digital progr
Using environmental DNA scans of Appalachian streams, researchers found that the effects of mountaintop coal mining in West Virginia are even more widespread than previously reported: Streams from heavily mined watersheds harbor 40% fewer species than streams with cleaner water.
A next-generation brain implant currently in clinical use for treating refractory epilepsy — to help prevent symptoms including seizures — does not induce changes to patients' personalities or self-perceptions, a new study of patient experiences shows.
Vaccinations against human papillomavirus (HPV), a major cause of throat and back of mouth cancers, are expected to yield significant reductions in the rates of these cancers in the U.S., but will not do so until after 2045, according to a new modeling study.
While studying the behavior of electrons in iron-based superconducting materials, researchers observed a strange signal relating to the way electrons are arranged. The signal implies a new arrangement of electrons the researchers call a nematicity wave, and they hope to collaborate with theoretical physicists to better understand it. The nematicity wave could help researchers understand the way el
New abortion restrictions began in Texas on Wednesday, banning the procedure as early as week six of pregnancy. The law, which was originally signed by Gov. Greg Abbott in May, sharply curtails access to abortion in the country's second-most populous state.
The University of Helsinki's Environmental Change Research Unit (ECRU) took part in an international study investigating the millennia-long history of the most important oasis in the Arctic and the potential effects of climate change on its future.
Researchers have presented a strategy for simultaneously introducing light-switchable oxygen vacancy and doping Mo into Bi5O7Br nanosheets for efficient photocatalytic N2 fixation. The modified photocatalyst has achieved elevated N2 fixation photoactivities by virtue of the optimized conduction band position, enhanced light availability, improved N2 adsorption and charge carrier separation.
A simple mechanism could underlie the growth and self-replication of protocells—putative ancestors of modern living cells—suggests a study publishing September 3 in Biophysical Journal. Protocells are vesicles bounded by a membrane bilayer and are potentially similar to the first unicellular common ancestor (FUCA). On the basis of relatively simple mathematical principles, the proposed model sugge
As living creatures, we are exquisitely evolved to interact with the world through perception, says David Hughes Gaia Vince, reviewing Anil Seth's Being You: A New Science of Consciousness ( The exhilarating new science of consciousness, 25 August) , extols the thesis that because our perception of the world is a complex physical process, perception is itself a "hallucination" and "a big lie crea
Land restoration is about more than planting trees, says environmentalist Susan Graham. Check out how her team combines drone technology with ecology-trained AI to restore degraded land and revive complex, biodiverse ecosystems — whether it's on a small island or across an entire continent.
In 1900, a local historian discovered a curiously engraved stone slab in a Bronze Age grave. It took researchers almost a century to realize that it might be a map — but by then, the stone had gone missing. Rediscovered in 2014 and analyzed until earlier this year, the slab is Europe's oldest map linked to a territory. Thousands of prehistoric monuments dot the landscape of Brittany, including th
In Science Book Talk, a new four-part podcast miniseries, host Deboki Chakravarti acts as literary guide to two science books that share a beautiful and sometimes deeply… — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
In the media reporter Brian Stelter's book Hoax , he shares an anecdote that neatly sums up so much about Fox News and its influence on how its viewers communicate. A staffer who described a restaurant chain's decision to offer a vegan burger as an improvement to the menu said they were castigated and corrected: The new option was actually proof of the "war on meat," a network superior said. Thus
German environmental groups on Friday announced a legal offensive against car giants Volkswagen, Daimler and BMW to force them to reduce emissions faster, emboldened by recent court victories in favour of climate protection.
A grain of sand buried for an extended period of time in earthworks or on the bottom of the ocean, accumulate a luminescence signal. Scientists use this signal to determine how long a particular grain of sand has been buried. With a new, highly sensitive camera, they can photograph these signals with pinpoint accuracy. In fact, they are even trying to determine where the grain of sand comes from a
Breanna Seibel was riding a four-wheeler alongside her alfalfa field in northern Wisconsin when she started seeing monarch butterflies. The bright orange visitors were swooping, fluttering and dancing in pairs, quartets and trios. They were landing in the trees that line the field, with up to 100 clustered on a single branch.
The U.N. weather agency says the world—and especially urban areas—experienced a brief, sharp drop in emissions of air pollutants last year amid lockdown measures and related travel restrictions put in place over the coronavirus pandemic.
Deprived of their preferred food source—the bananas, peanuts and other goodies brought in by tourists now kept away by the coronavirus—hungry monkeys on the resort island of Bali have taken to raiding villagers' homes in their search for something tasty.
A new study catalogs how environmental policies on deforestation, along with forest fires and drought, have affected plant and animal diversity in the Amazon rainforest. For the study in Nature , researchers used records of more than 14,500 plant and vertebrate species to create biodiversity maps of the Amazon region. Overlaying the maps with historical and current observations of forest fires an
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has recently funded both DOE's Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Illinois Champaign-Urbana (UIUC) in a new project related to quantum information science. The Argonne team will bring to the project its expertise in coupling superconducting and magnetic systems. The UIUC team will contribute its world-class capabilities for developing new magnetic
Materials for aerospace applications face many challenges. The structure of an aircraft must be light yet strong. Structural components such as the wings or fuselage must resist damage while at the same time in some areas be able to handle high temperatures from engine exhaust. An aircraft's electronic components must also be shielded from electrical surges due to lightning strikes or other interf
Politicians and activists should be cautious in their use of climate and biodiversity emergency declarations as their impact can be harmful as well as helpful in tackling the world's biggest problems, new research co-authored by the University of Sussex Business School warns.
Nature provides unique insights into design strategies evolved by living organisms to construct robust materials. In this case, the research group was able to create a new impact-resistant material inspired by the dactyl club of the mantis shrimp. The new material could be used in applications that require withstanding repetitive high strain-rate impacts while maintaining structural integrity. The
Scientists from the Faculty of Engineering, Information, and Systems at the University of Tsukuba analyzed video from top-level judo matches to systematically determine the aspects of posture, just before executing a throw, that lead to success. This work may help in quantitative measurements of other biomechanical processes, as well as improving coaching methods.
Astronomers can't touch the stars they study, but astrophysicist Nia Imara is using 3-dimensional models that fit in the palm of her hand to unravel the structural complexities of stellar nurseries, the vast clouds of gas and dust where star formation occurs.
In an effort to curtail how much time young people spend playing video games, China has banned students from playing them during the school week and limits them to just one hour per day on Fridays, weekends and holidays.
Astronomers can't touch the stars they study, but an astrophysicist is using 3-dimensional models that fit in the palm of her hand to unravel the structural complexities of stellar nurseries, the vast clouds of gas and dust where star formation occurs. Astronomers created the models using data from simulations of star-forming clouds and a sophisticated 3D printing process in which the fine-scale d
Bioolja behövs i såväl biodrivmedel som i kemikalieindustrin. Kraftvärmeverk i Sverige skulle kunna börja producera bioolja, vid sidan om sin produktion av el och fjärrvärme, visar forskning. I ett kraftvärmeverk eldar man med bland annat träflis för att hetta upp vatten. Vattenångan driver en turbin som i sin tur genererar el och fjärrvärme till bostäder. Men behovet av fjärrvärme har minskat, b
A team of researchers from Korea University, Sogang University and the National University of Singapore has found that the protein florigen binds to a membrane phosopholipid when temperatures are low and unbinds when temperatures rise, allowing flowering in a plant. In their paper published in the journal Science, the group describes their study of the flowering process in plants. Yvon Jaillais an
A team of conservation scientists looking at the impact of tourism on tiger sharks have, for the first time observed them in social groups near an area called Tiger Beach off the north-west side of Little Bahama bank in the Bahamas, a popular spot for tourists.
A research team from the Centre for Organismal Studies (COS) of Heidelberg University has demonstrated that complex retinal tissue can be cultured in a Petri dish from embryonic stem cells of bony fish. Until now, stem cells from mammals, including humans, have been used in organoid research. For the first time, researchers led by Prof. Dr. Joachim Wittbrodt have demonstrated that stem cells from
A research collaboration based in Kumamoto University, Japan has become the first to successfully purify and identify an attractant for crop-infecting root-knot nematodes from flax seeds. Their experiments revealed that rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I), a flaxseed cell wall component, can attract root-knot nematodes. The linkages between rhamnose and L-galactose are essential for the attraction.
Just when we thought it was safe to go to the local garden center, researchers from Japan have discovered that fungicide-resistant strains of a nasty pathogen have been getting up to no good among the tulip bulbs.
After many technical and programmatic challenges, the first satellite of the next generation of the Meteosat family has taken a major step towards its first flight, currently scheduled for launch in autumn 2022.
Over the last year, COVID-19 lockdowns brought blue skies to the most polluted regions of the globe, while wildfires exacerbated by a drier and hotter climate sent smoke to the normally clean skies of cities thousands of miles away. The conflicting events offer two visions of the future. The difference between those futures lies in policies to reduce fossil fuels.
The largest alpine lake system in the world sits atop the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, commonly known as the Tibetan Plateau, which is the highest and largest plateau in the world. Researchers know the lakes influence the transfer of heat between the land and atmosphere, affecting regional temperatures and precipitation. But little is known about the physical properties and thermal dynamics of Tibetan l
Students of all ages are heading back to schools across the country this fall amid continued uncertainty over the coronavirus pandemic and concerns about learning loss and student burnout. But insights from psychology research could help to maximize learning, even in limited study time.
Wide field of view and high resolution are both desirable for imaging applications, providing multi-dimensional and multi-scale target information. As the recent development of phase imaging, large-scale detection has been widely employed in a variety of imaging modalities, which largely extends the spatial-bandwidth product (SBP) of optical systems from million scale to billion scale. Such a larg
Stream Getaway Driver on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/getaway-driver-us About Getaway Driver: Michelle Rodriguez brings the ultimate driving fantasy to life as 24 elite drivers get behind the wheel in a real-life high-speed chase. Can the getaway drivers evade their pursuers, find an exit and escape, or will their cars pay the ultimate sacrifice? #GetawayDriver #MichelleRodrigu
A uniquely shaped spot on a baby star reveals new information about how young stars grow, researchers report. It also offers clues about the forces at play when our sun was in its infancy. The familiar star at the center of our solar system has had billions of years to mature and ultimately provide life-giving energy to us here on Earth. But a very long time ago, our sun was just a growing baby s
The sludge of paperwork can make it difficult or impossible for people to avoid crushing hardship. Whenever the government imposes paperwork burdens, it ought to ask a cost-benefit question. Sludge reduction should be a high priority. Excerpted from Sludge: What Stops Us From Getting Things Done and What to Do About It by Cass R. Sunstein. Reprinted with Permission from The MIT PRESS. Copyright 2
Found in almost every plant species, disease-resistance proteins (R proteins) are an important part of the plant immune system. Many R proteins trigger an extreme hypersensitive defense response when they recognize specific pathogens, which results in rapid host cell death in the area surrounding the pathogen infection. This recognition event can also trigger changes in gene expression and other p
An international collaboration has discovered and transferred to elite wheat varieties a wild-grass chromosome segment that causes roots to secrete natural inhibitors of nitrification, offering a way to dial back on heavy fertilizer use for wheat and to reduce the crop's nitrogen leakage into waterways and air, while maintaining or raising its productivity and grain quality, says a new report in t
As governments around the world turned to lockdowns and travel restrictions to prevent the spread of the COVID-19 virus, smugglers used social media to find new ways to connect with potential customers.
Along the central coast of what is now known as British Columbia, Gitga'at, Haíɫzaqv (Heiltsuk), Wuikinuxv, Nuxalk, and Kitasoo/Xai'xais First Nations are monitoring and managing wildlife populations, continuing a legacy of stewardship of this landscape since time immemorial. Stewardship often represents an extension of long-term relationships with ecosystems and animals, including iconic species
The changing of color can influence our perception of objects, be used to warn us against dangers or hazards, or help to conserve energy. Ph.D. candidate Weixin Zhang has developed organic "photonic" coatings that change colors with changing temperatures. Robust smart coatings were fabricated that can be easily processed and show a rapid color-changing response to temperature changes. These coatin
Record downpours from Hurricane Ida overwhelmed cities across the Northeast on Sept. 1, 2021, hitting some with more than 3 inches of rain an hour. Water poured into subway stations in New York and Boston. Streets flooded up to the rooftops of cars in Philadelphia. The storm had already wreaked havoc on the Gulf Coast after hitting Louisiana three days earlier as a Category 4 hurricane.
Social vulnerabilities of coastal communities and their reliance on blue carbon ecosystem services may be improved by addressing three major factors, according to a study led by Hokkaido University researchers.
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased attention on links between public health and the planet's health—areas traditionally addressed in separate science and policy circles. Now, an international research collaboration conducted the first comprehensive review of urban climate change responses and potential human health improvements.
The ultimate goal of scientific skepticism is to skillfully use a process that has the maximal probability of accepting claims that are actually true and rejecting those that are false, while suspending judgment when an answer is not available. This is an open-ended process and is never complete, although some conclusions are so solid that questioning them further requires an extremely high bar o
Recent dog breeding practices have loaded up cavalier King Charles spaniels with disease-causing mutations, including variants linked to the common heart condition, myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD), according to new findings.
Parents and educators have long fretted over the amount of time children and teenagers spend online. But when it comes to screen time, the problem is not so much the number of hours spent online, but the quality of online interactions, particularly under stringent COVID-19 distancing or lockdown conditions, a new study shows.
An analysis of more than 20,000 individual medical records suggests that a form of heart valve disease thought to be relatively benign during pregnancy may put women at risk for serious bleeding, high blood pressure, organ damage and other complications during childbirth.
Brain regulation of feeding behavior traits has remained incompletely understood. In a new study, researchers discovered a connection between the function of the opioid system and food craving triggered by appetitive external stimuli.
Self-driving cars are the future in more ways than we realize. While robot taxis are cool , self-driving and self-operating tech will have enormous impacts on industries ranging from construction to medical to care to public transit. If you want to learn how AVs work, or have a budding engineer who wants to know, Wheelson will show you how it works, from the road up. The Wheelson: Build & Code Yo
Bottled water can be convenient, and sometimes necessary, but it is unfortunately not always as safe as it should be. A recent case of toxic alkaline water hospitalizing several people, and killing one woman, shines a spotlight on problems with regulation of the industry. The post first appeared on Science-Based Medicine .
Selvom skuespilleren Val Kilmer mistede evnen til at tale, da han i 2014 blev behandlet for cancer i halsen, medvirker han fortsat i film, hvor han taler med en stemme genereret af en kunstig intelligens. Hvordan begrænser vi CO2-udslippet, når der på kloden bygges 50.000 boliger om dagen?
I en ny studie har forskare sett ett tydligt samband mellan hur länge man sover och ett antal biomarkörer kopplade till kardiometabola sjukdomar, som hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar och typ 2-diabetes. Med en ökad kunskap om själva mekanismerna för utveckling av sjukdom ökar möjligheterna för en mer specifik och riktad behandling.
Nature, Published online: 02 September 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02415-8 Evidence that masks work to slow the spread of COVID-19. Plus, an ancient human crossroads in Arabia and squished-up buckyballs are hard as diamonds.
A retraction notice for a 2021 paper in an environmental sciences journal has us wondering if the peer review process for the publication should be declared a Superfund Site. The article, "Experimental study and numerical prediction of HTO and 36Cl− diffusion in radioactive waste at Téguline Clay," appeared in Environmental Technology, a Taylor & Francis … Continue reading
Maia Szalavitz's "Undoing Drugs" explores the evolution of the movement to prioritize people in the war on drugs — a philosophy known as harm reduction. In this in-depth history, Szalavitz covers many angles of drug policy, including prescription drug use, supervised consumption, and racial inequities.
Nature Communications, Published online: 03 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25453-2 Intervertebral disc degeneration is a leading cause of chronic back pain and disability. Here the authors show that long term treatment with senolytic compounds Dasatinib and Quercetin reduces disc senescence burden and ameliorates age-dependent degeneration in mice.
So just for fun let's say in the future we have a United World Government run by a technocracy and they decide to create a post-scarcity economy. How would they do it? And how would things like currency, and private property work and how would they determine their value and the value of goods and services? submitted by /u/jacky986 [link] [comments]
PLUS. Nye lempeligere regler for genteknologien Crispr er på vej i EU, men er det en god idé? Og hvordan? Vi har stillet nogle af de spørgsmål, der deler vandene, til seniorrådgiver i Danmarks Naturfredningsforening Rikke Lundsgaard og formand for Det Etiske Råd Anne-Marie Gerdes.
Det bliver den lægeuddannede Kristian Antonsen, der fremover skal stå i spidsen for Bispebjerg og Frederiksberg Hospitals direktion. Han fastansættes som hospitalsdirektør efter syv måneder som konstitueret i stillingen.
Our research group wants to get a feel for the kind of studies that do and don't get accepted in the top journals and we are thinking of writing a discussion article on some characteristics of these studies. The problem is that it's hard to get a real overview of all the studies from our field that have been published there in recent times (say for example the past 30 years). We are specifically
Efter at være blevet kritiseret for at have overset psykiatrien i finanslovsforslaget melder regeringen sig parat til at finde de nødvendige midler til området. Til forhandlingerne vil både SF og Enhedslisten presse regeringen til at finde akutte midler til socialpsykiatrien.
Dansk Psykiatrisk Selskab og Lægeforeningen er blandt kritikerne af, at der ikke er øremærket flere penge til socialpsykiatrien eller den kommende genopretningsplan for psykiatrien i regeringens forslag til næste års finanslov. Regeringen melder sig dog nu klar til at finde de nødvendige midler.
Frågan om munskydd har varit het i Sverige ända sedan pandemin bröt ut. Många forskare och även Folkhälsomyndigheten har hävdat att de kan ge en falsk trygghet. Men nu kommer en unikt stor studie och jämförande studie som visar att munskydden kan minskar smittspridningen med omkring 10 procent.
PLUS. Amerikanske forskere har fundet en konkret funktion i hjernen, som proteinet beta-amyloid ser ud til at forstyrre. Dansk overlæge finder fundet interessant for den videre opklaring af mekanismerne bag Alzheimers Sygdom.
Faizuddin is still traumatised from the lightning strike that killed his three friends as they took selfies atop a 400-year-old fort in India, where climate change is making lethal strikes more common.
Like the more than 3,000 species of butterflies in Colombia, agronomist Juan Guillermo Jaramillo underwent his own metamorphosis several years ago, as his passion for photographing nature took an unexpected twist.
Commercial flights resumed in New Orleans and power returned to parts of the business district Thursday, four days after Hurricane Ida slammed into the Gulf Coast, but electricity, drinking water and fuel remained scarce across much of a sweltering Louisiana.
Schneider Shorts of 3.09.2021: A French covidiot resigns all the way to 19th century, American ivermectin death cults, what cancer's Achilles Heel really is, comedy wildlife photography, the proper way to watchdog over research integrity: lessons from China and Netherlands, why preprints are evil, and featuring Israeli scientists: the kinky version.
Børneonkologerne på Rigshospitalet har et hav af forskningsprojekter i gang og en perlerække af resultater bag sig. Et af de virkeligt banebrydende er udviklingen af nye måleteknikker af en hidtil uset præcision. Det har affødt en kaskade af nye projekter, som igen har ført til behandlingsændringer, så endnu flere børn og unge kan overleve leukæmi.
»Ordentlig forskning er forudsætningen for ordentlig behandling, og ordentlig behandling er forudsætningen for, at børnene bliver raske.« Sådan siger initiativtageren til Børnecancerfonden, 87-årige Henrik Hertz, som har gjort mere end de fleste for at gøre ordene til virkelighed.
Stoffet asparaginase står som en hjørnesten i behandlingen af akut lymfatisk leukæmi (ALL), men det belaster kroppen. Forskere fra Aarhus har stået i spidsen for et nordisk studie, som viser, at patienterne kan nøjes med færre doser end tidligere.
Internationale projekter, solide resultater og 'precision medicine' er den cocktail, der gør, at danske forskeres indsats for at forbedre overlevelseschancerne for cancerramte børn og unge er førende på internationalt plan.
For et halvt år siden arbejdede 38-årige Anne-Sofie Weindel som praktiserende læge i en kompagniskabspraksis i Urbanplanen på Amager. 1. august overtog hun jobbet som Anholts eneste praktiserende læge, vagtlæge og akutlæge.
Sammen med en jury af erfarne sundhedsledere vil Dagens Medicin sætte fokus på god ledelse i sundhedsvæsenet. Det markeres med uddeling af Dagens Medicins ledelsespris på konferencen '2 dage for sundheden'.
Nyt dansk studie belyser, hvilke tanker og overvejelser de praktiserende læger gør sig, når de håndterer patienter med en mulig nedre luftvejsinfektion. Der er ret store forskelle mellem lægerne i deres tilgang til patienterne, siger forsker.
Sundhedsvæsenet er på vej ud af det massive pres, som COVID har lagt. Forude venter en sundhedsreform, som skal give konkrete løsninger på, hvordan vi håndterer patienter, som falder mellem sygehus, almen praksis og kommunale sundhedstilbud. Det står ikke helt klart, hvordan dét skal ske, men det vil sætte endnu mere fokus på, hvordan sundhedsvæsenet ledes.
Researchers have developed an online tool to help medical staff quickly determine which COVID-19 patients will need help breathing with a ventilator. The tool, developed through analysis of CT scans from nearly 900 COVID-19 patients diagnosed in 2020, was able to predict ventilator need with 84 percent accuracy.
A team of researchers has identified a novel mechanism by which loss-of-function mutations in the gene PTPN2, found in many patients with inflammatory bowel disease, or IBD, affect how intestinal epithelial cells maintain a barrier.
Nature, Published online: 02 September 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02385-x The ZyCoV-D vaccine heralds a wave of DNA vaccines for various diseases that are undergoing clinical trials around the world.
Researchers have shown that certain immune cells, which are found in people previously exposed to common cold coronaviruses, enhance the body's immune response to SARS-CoV-2, both during natural infection and following vaccination. The researchers also report that this 'cross-reactive immunity' decreases with age. This phenomenon may help to explain why older people are more susceptible to severe
Many electronic devices today are dependent on semiconductor logic circuits based on switches hard-wired to perform predefined logic functions. Physicists have developed a novel molecular memristor, or an electronic memory device, that has exceptional memory reconfigurability.
A new study investigated how we visualize things that we have already seen, discovering that many adults are resistant to imagining their own vision as if it were a flat image — seeing it in its fully processed, knowledge-laden form instead.
Researchers say the high salt content of whey — the watery part of milk left behind after cheesemaking — helps make it one of the most polluting byproducts in the food processing industry. In a new study, chemists demonstrate the first electrochemical redox desalination process used in the food industry, removing and recycling up to 99% of excess salt from whey while simultaneously refining more
(Photo: NASA) NASA's Perseverance rover has been playing second banana to the incredible Ingenuity helicopter since the pair landed earlier this year, and the rover's first major operation didn't go as planned. Several weeks ago, Perseverance failed to collect its sample after drilling into a rock, a mystery that took NASA a few days to solve. Now, the rover has executed a second sample collectio
Researchers have uncovered the physical and chemical effects of the impact of a protostellar jet in the interior of the Orion Nebula. The observations show evidence of compression and heating produced by the shock front, and the destruction of dust grains, which cause a dramatic increase in the gas phase abundance of the atoms of iron, nickel, and other heavy elements in the Orion Nebula.
The majority of laying hens in Denmark suffer from keel bone fractures, a new study reveals. The fractures appear to be the result of disproportionately large eggs, which push the hen's body to the breaking point.
U.S. jails function as 'infectious disease incubators' for surrounding communities, as high rates of viral transmission cause COVID-19 cases to multiply and 'boomerang' back to communities. A new national study shows that reducing jail populations, mask mandates, school closures and nursing home restrictions are the most important government policies for reducing COVID-19 spread.
A new, automated, artificial intelligence-based algorithm can learn to read patient data from electronic health records. In a side-by-side comparison, scientists showed that their method accurately identified patients with certain diseases as well as the traditional, 'gold-standard' method, which requires much more manual labor to develop and perform.
Researchers have discovered geologic evidence that unusually large earthquakes and tsunamis from the Tokyo region — located near tectonic plate boundaries that are recognized as a seismic hazard source — may be traceable to a previously unconsidered plate boundary.
Monoculture—or specializing in a single crop, covering larger fields that can be harvested with bigger machines on a simplified landscape—is widely assumed to boost a farm's production capacity. A major study encompassing the mainland United States, however, suggests that the opposite is true. Nature Food published the research.
Fellows Yates et al. (1) find amylase-binding bacteria in Late Pleistocene Neandertals and Homo sapiens dental calculus and project a starch-rich diet early and throughout human evolution and an essential role for starch in brain expansion. We recently argued for the need to use more paleobiological-type evidence to reconstruct past…
We are pleased to see Ben-Dor et al.'s interest (1) in our study on the evolution and changing ecology of the hominid oral microbiome (2), which finds that starch-adapted oral bacteria are characteristic of the oral microbiota of Homo. However, in their critique, Ben-Dor et al. mischaracterize our findings by…
ENGINEERING, APPLIED BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES Correction for "Regenerative and durable small-diameter graft as an arterial conduit," by Morgan B. Elliott, Brian Ginn, Takuma Fukunishi, Djahida Bedja, Abhilash Suresh, Theresa Chen, Takahiro Inoue, Harry C. Dietz, Lakshmi Santhanam, Hai-Quan Mao, Narutoshi Hibino, and Sharon Gerecht, which was first published June 10, 2019;…
Seeds of dicotyledonous plants store proteins in dedicated membrane-bounded organelles called protein storage vacuoles (PSVs). Formed during seed development through morphological and functional reconfiguration of lytic vacuoles in embryos [M. Feeney et al., Plant Physiol. 177, 241–254 (2018)], PSVs undergo division during the later stages of seed maturation. Here, we…
A prevailing view is that Weber's law constitutes a fundamental principle of perception. This widely accepted psychophysical law states that the minimal change in a given stimulus that can be perceived increases proportionally with amplitude and has been observed across systems and species in hundreds of studies. Importantly, however, Weber's…
The climate resilience of river deltas is threatened by rising sea levels, accelerated land subsidence, and reduced sediment supply from contributing river basins. Yet, these uncertain and rapidly changing threats are rarely considered in conjunction. Here we provide an integrated assessment, on basin and delta scales, to identify key planning…
Prostate cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men. The widespread use of androgen receptor (AR) inhibitors has generated an increased incidence of AR-negative prostate cancer, triggering the need for effective therapies for such patients. Here, analysis of public genome-wide CRISPR screens in human prostate cancer cell lines…
We document a memory-based mechanism associated with investor overconfidence. In Studies 1 and 2, investors were asked to recall their most important trades in the recent past and then reported investing confidence and trading frequency. After the study, they looked up and reported the actual returns of these trades. In…
Cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) serves as a second messenger that modulates bacterial cellular processes, including biofilm formation. While proteins containing both c-di-GMP synthesizing (GGDEF) and c-di-GMP hydrolyzing (EAL) domains are widely predicted in bacterial genomes, it is poorly understood how domains with opposing enzymatic activity are regulated within a…
In human neurodegenerative diseases, neurons can transfer toxic protein aggregates to surrounding cells, promoting pathology via poorly understood mechanisms. In Caenorhabditis elegans, proteostressed neurons can expel neurotoxic proteins in large, membrane-bound vesicles called exophers. We investigated how specific stresses impact neuronal trash expulsion to show that neuronal exopher production
Adults can learn to identify nonnative speech sounds with training, albeit with substantial variability in learning behavior. Increases in behavioral accuracy are associated with increased separability for sound representations in cortical speech areas. However, it remains unclear whether individual auditory neural populations all show the same types of changes with…
The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales…
The peptidoglycan cell wall is a macromolecular structure that encases bacteria and is essential for their survival. Proper assembly of the cell wall requires peptidoglycan synthases as well as membrane-bound cleavage enzymes that control where new peptidoglycan is made and inserted. Previous studies have shown that two membrane-bound proteins in…
Toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr) interactor with leucine-rich repeats (Tril) functions as a Tlr coreceptor to mediate innate immunity in adults. In Xenopus embryos, Tril triggers degradation of the transforming growth factor β (Tgf-ß) family inhibitor, Smad7. This enhances bone morphogenetic protein (Bmp) signaling to enable ventral mesoderm to commit to…
The bacterial mechanosensitive channel of small conductance (MscS) has been extensively studied to understand how mechanical forces are converted into the conformational changes that underlie mechanosensitive (MS) channel gating. We showed that lipid removal by β-cyclodextrin can mimic membrane tension. Here, we show that all cyclodextrins (CDs) can activate reconstituted…
A customized susceptible, exposed, infected, and recovered compartmental model is presented for describing the control of asymptomatic spread of COVID-19 infections on a residential, urban college campus embedded in a large urban community by using public health protocols, founded on surveillance testing, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine. Analysis in the…
Biodiversity dynamics are shaped by a complex interplay between current conditions and historic legacy. The interaction of short- and long-term climate change may mask the true relationship of evolutionary responses to climate change if not specifically accounted for. These paleoclimate interactions have been demonstrated for extinction risk and biodiversity change,…
Li et al. (1) report known drugs as inhibitors of the main protease (Mpro) of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The compounds, including atazanavir, were initially identified by virtual screening, followed by fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based biochemical inhibition assays. In this letter, we demonstrate that the inhibitory…
Protein flexibility remains a major challenge in library docking because of difficulties in sampling conformational ensembles with accurate probabilities. Here, we use the model cavity site of T4 lysozyme L99A to test flexible receptor docking with energy penalties from molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Crystallography with larger and smaller ligands indicates…
Sorting large libraries of cells for improved small molecule secretion is throughput limited. Here, we combine producer/secretor cell libraries with whole-cell biosensors using a microfluidic-based screening workflow. This approach enables a mix-and-match capability using off-the-shelf biosensors through either coencapsulation or pico-injection. We demonstrate the cell type and library agnostic na
Group A rotaviruses cause severe gastroenteritis in infants and young children worldwide, with P[II] genogroup rotaviruses (RVs) responsible for >90% of global cases. RVs have diverse host ranges in different human and animal populations determined by host histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptor polymorphism, but details governing diversity, host ranges, and…
Behnam and Klein (1) carried out in vitro assays on two severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) main protease (Mpro) inhibitors, including atazanavir reported by us (2), using an Mpro protein with C-terminal His-tag under various assay conditions, and find that both the Michaelis−Menten constant (Km) and inhibitory activity…
While transition-metal dichalcogenide (TMD)–based moiré materials have been shown to host various correlated electronic phenomena, topological states have not been experimentally observed until now [T. Li et al., Quantum anomalous Hall effect from intertwined moiré bands. arXiv [Preprint] (2021). https://arxiv.org/abs/2107.01796 (Accessed 5 July 2021)]. In this work, using first-principle calculat
Prof. Robert (Bob) Scholes passed away unexpectedly on April 28, 2021, while on an 11-day, 160-km hike along the Kunene River in northern Namibia. Energetic, enthusiastic, and larger than life to the very end, his sudden passing was a huge shock and loss to his colleagues and loved ones. But…
BioNyt Videnskabens Verden (www.bionyt.dk) er Danmarks ældste populærvidenskabelige tidsskrift for naturvidenskab. Det er det eneste blad af sin art i Danmark, som er helliget international forskning inden for livsvidenskaberne.
Bladet bringer aktuelle, spændende forskningsnyheder inden for biologi, medicin og andre naturvidenskabelige områder som f.eks. klimaændringer, nanoteknologi, partikelfysik, astronomi, seksualitet, biologiske våben, ecstasy, evolutionsbiologi, kloning, fedme, søvnforskning, muligheden for liv på mars, influenzaepidemier, livets opståen osv.
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