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Nyheder2021september09

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ESO captures best images yet of peculiar 'dog-bone' asteroid
Astronomers have obtained the sharpest and most detailed images yet of the asteroid Kleopatra. The observations have allowed the team to constrain the 3D shape and mass of this peculiar asteroid, which resembles a dog bone, to a higher accuracy than ever before. Their research provides clues as to how this asteroid and the two moons that orbit it formed.
2h
Smoke Triggers Alarms on the International Space Station
Fire and smoke alarms sounded on the Russian segment of the ISS during the wee hours of Thursday morning, and crew reported that "the smell of burning plastic or electronic equipment" had wafted through into the US sections of the station. Russia's space agency confirmed that the incident took place at 01:55 GMT on Thursday in the Russian segment of the station, while the station's batteries were
2h
Engineering various sources of loss provides new features for perfect light absorption
Natural and manmade physical structures all lose energy, and scientists work hard to eliminate that loss or compensate for it. Optical and photonic devices lose energy through light scattering, radiation or material absorption. In some situations, however, intentionally yet carefully designing loss in open optical devices and systems can lead to unconventional physical phenomena which inspires nov
2h
Cheaper hydrogen production
Electrolytic hydrogen production powered by renewable energy is seen as an environmentally friendly means to ameliorate global climate and energy problems. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, a research team has now introduced a novel and inexpensive material for electrodes that may provide for highly efficient, energy-saving hydrogen production: porous, phosphorized CoNi2S4 yolk-shell nanospheres.
2h
Digitala nomader utmanar arbetslivets normer
Digitala nomader är en växande grupp på arbetsmarknaden. Med hjälp av digitala hjälpmedel har de skapat sig en geografisk frihet och flexibilitet som kommer att påverka framtidens arbetsplatser och ställa andra krav på cheferna. – Fokus i min forskning är förändrade och framtida arbetsförhållanden och vilken betydelse den fysiska arbetsplatsen har för hur vi förstår vårt arbete och den teknologi
2h
COVID long-haulers face higher risk of severe kidney disease
COVID-19 long-haulers, even those with mild infections of the virus, experience significant decline in kidney function, according to a deep dive into federal health data. The findings add to concerns that many people who have had COVID-19 go on to suffer a range of adverse conditions months after their initial infections. The data show that those infected with SARS-CoV-2 are at an increased likel
2h
Landfills and meat industry: New food sources for the Medes Islands yellow-legged gull
The diet of the yellow-legged gull in the Medes Islands (Girona, Spain) has changed extremely over the last decades, according to a study that analyzes the changes in the diet of this species over the last twenty years. Regarding these gulls, which eat strictly marine resources, landfills and meat industries ̶ which are abundant in the area ̶ are nowadays the source for food of about 50% of their
3h
A Strategy of Confusion
On the verge of a landmark victory by judicial fiat, the Republican Party is being strangely quiet. As my colleague David Graham has written , Republican Party leaders and conservative intellectuals haven't been trumpeting the Supreme Court's decision to allow a Texas ban on abortions to go forward, which for women in the state has all but nullified the 1973 Roe v. Wade decision that guaranteed t
3h
TikTok tics: when Tourette's syndrome went viral
Mass psychogenic illness, also known as mass hysteria, is when a group of people manifest physical symptoms from imagined threats. History is littered with outbreaks of mass hysteria. Recently, alleged cases of Tourette's syndrome appeared all over the world. Was it real or mass psychogenic illness? While the term is often avoided for fear of ridiculing something more serious, mass psychogenic il
3h
The mind-bending reality of the universe | Katie Mack
In this fascinating conversation, cosmologist and TED Fellow Katie Mack delves into everything from the Big Bang theory to what we see at the edge of the observable universe to a few ways the cosmos might end. Stay tuned to hear Mack recite an original poem on the wonder and marvel of existence. (This conversation, hosted by deputy director of the TED Fellows program, Lily James Olds, was part of
3h
As Schools Reopen, Covid-19 Cases Among Children Spike
As schools reopen across the United States for in-person instruction, cases of Covid-19 are rising among kids — a surge that may intensify long-running debates over pandemic safety protocols in schools, and over how, exactly, to assess the risk the coronavirus poses to children.
3h
Ångest kan minskas med aktiv livsstil
En fysiskt aktiv livsstil kan minska risken att drabbas av ångestsjukdomar. Det visar en studie från Lunds universitet som följt närmare 400 000 svenskar, hälften av dem Vasaloppsåkare. – Våra fynd stödjer samhällets satsningar för att få bukt med ångestsjukdomar. Studien synliggör vikten av att fortsätta öka vår kunskap om hur en fysisk aktiv livsstil samverkar med andra faktorer för att främja
3h
The Books Briefing: The Uneasy Place of Politics in Fiction
In Sally Rooney's novels, idealistic college students espouse Marxism despite never having read any of the ideology's foundational texts; they advocate for radicalism while keeping up their grades and wrestling with deeply traditional romantic desires. They are startlingly realistic—but their role as political actors is much fuzzier. Indeed Rooney has long been criticized as insufficiently politi
4h
This Precision Probiotics & Prebiotic Service Is Optimized for Your Specific Gut
Nothing is more important than your health. And we now know that one of the best ways to optimize your overall health is with a healthy gut, which is something many Americans don't have. In fact, according to a study from the National Institutes of Health's National Library of Medicine , between 10-percent and 30-percent of Americans struggle with gas, bloating, and other digestive issues associa
4h
Gene helps put stripes and blotches on cats of all sizes
Researchers have discovered a specific gene that drives much of the development of the stripes, blotches, and spots that decorate cat fur with patterns. "Color patterns are one of these unsolved biological mysteries; there's no go-to model organism to study it—mice don't have stripes or spots," says Gregory Barsh, professor emeritus of genetics at Stanford University School of Medicine. "The colo
4h
Skeletal embrace sheds light on love and burial in ancient China
The "remarkable discovery" of two nearly complete 1,500-year-old skeletons locked in an embrace offers a rare glimpse into attitudes toward love and the afterlife during China's North Wei Dynasty. On the left side of the grave, the male skeleton lays with one arm outstretched, holding the abdomen of the female skeleton by its side. The woman's face is pressed into his shoulder, left hand resting
4h
The Story of Plastic (Full Documentary)
This Emmy-nominated documentary takes a sweeping look at the man-made crisis of plastic pollution. Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.ly/SubscribeDiscovery Follow Us on TikTok: https://www.tiktok.com/@Discovery We're on Instagram! https://instagram.com/Discovery Join Us on Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/Discovery Follow Us on Twitter: https://twitter.com/Discovery From: Discovery
4h
New Research Reveals Animals Are Changing Their Body Shapes to Cope With Climate Change
Global warming is a big challenge for warm-blooded animals, which must maintain a constant internal body temperature. As anyone who's experienced heatstroke can tell you, our bodies become severely stressed when we overheat. Animals are dealing with global warming in various ways. Some move to cooler areas, such as closer to the poles or to higher ground. Some change the timing of key life events
4h
Treatment with gene therapy of a new rat model of Morquio A
A research team from the Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB) has generated the first rat model recapitulating all disabling alterations experienced by patients with Mucopolysaccharidosis type IVA, also known as Morquio A disease. The team has developed a gene therapy that fully corrects the severe whole-body alterations in the rat model after a single intravenous viral vector administration. T
4h
Study: What happens when two very different respiratory viruses infect the same cell
Right now, there's just one virus on everyone's minds: SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. But humanity is plagued by many respiratory viruses, such as influenza A (IAV) and respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV), which cause hundreds of thousands of deaths every year. Most of these viruses—apart from influenza and SARS-CoV-2—have no vaccines or effective treatments.
4h
Catalyst study advances carbon-dioxide-to-ethanol conversion
An international collaboration of scientists has taken a significant step toward the realization of a nearly "green" zero-net-carbon technology that will efficiently convert carbon dioxide, a major greenhouse gas, and hydrogen into ethanol, which is useful as a fuel and has many other chemical applications. The study reports a "roadmap" for successfully navigating this challenging reaction and pro
4h
Climate change: Ditch 90% of world's coal and 60% of oil and gas to limit warming to 1.5°C
Global mean surface temperatures reached 1.2°C above the pre-industrial average in 2020, and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change warned in its recent report that Earth could hit 1.5°C in as little as a decade. The 0.3°C separating these two temperatures make a world of difference. Scientists believe that stabilizing our warming world's temperature at 1.5°C could help avoid the most serio
4h
Novel functional biochar composites help to treat wastewater
A team led by Prof. Wu Zhengyan from the Hefei Institutes of Physical Science of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) recently fabricated novel functional biochar composites (FBCs) using two solid waste-red mud and corn straw, and they exploited them in acidic dye wastewater treatment. Relevant result was published in Journal of Cleaner Production.
5h
Roadkill may accelerate local extinction of mammal populations
More than 120 species of terrestrial mammals are particularly vulnerable to roadkill mortality and several populations could become extinct in 50 years if the observed roadkill rates persist, according to an assessment of roadkill impacts on terrestrial mammals worldwide conducted by a team of international researchers from different continents.
5h
Image: Volcanic trenches on Mars
This image of the young volcanic region of Elysium Planitia on Mars [10.3°N, 159.5°E] was taken on 14 April 2021 by the CaSSIS camera on the ESA-Roscosmos ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO).
5h
High average output power achieved in PAPS photocathode drive laser system
The photocathode drive laser is one of the key parts of the beam test system of the Platform of Advanced Photon Source (PAPS). Recently, the researchers from Institute of High Energy Physics (IHEP) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences obtained the output power exceeding 116 W after the main amplifier of the laser. The study was published in Optics Express.
5h
MIT Fusion group achieves 20 Tesla on 30W with new superconducting magnet. Expected to allow MIT's tokamak to achieve net energy.
https://cfs.energy/news-and-media/cfs-commercial-fusion-power-with-hts-magnet Cambridge, Mass. – September 8, 2021– Commonwealth Fusion Systems (CFS) and MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) today announced the successful test of the world's strongest high temperature superconducting (HTS) magnet, the key technology for a device that will unlock the path to clean commercial fusion energy
5h
The Wonderful: Stories from the Space Station review – awe generators turned up to 11
The multi-national International Space Station gets it story told through the men and women who worked on it With such strong base-level material, you could hardly go wrong, and so it proves with this history of the International Space Station, which has been orbiting the Earth 250 miles up since 1998. This is very much the authorised version, told largely through interviews with a select multi-n
5h
India's oil palm goals raise fears of deforestation
India's newly announced plan to move from being the world's biggest importer of palm oil to that of major producer of the crop may be at the cost of large-scale deforestation of ecologically sensitive areas.
5h
Will concentrated solar thermal power dominate the energy industry?
Concentrated solar thermal power is a fascinating technology. These plants can produce power after dark, unlike standard solar photovoltaic plants. Currently, they cost too much, but some innovative companies are forging ahead. How mirrors could power the planet… and prevent wars | Hard Reset by Freethink www.youtube.com Flying across the American Southwest, brilliant points of light shine in t
5h
New Spacesuits
One of the technologies that had to be developed in order to return to the Moon, and possibly go on to Mars, is spacesuits. It may seem like we already have developed adequate spacesuit technology, since we used them on the Moon during the Apollo missions, but this is not true. The Apollo suits were only designed to survive for days on the Moon, not for the much longer missions the Artemis progra
5h
Adhd kopplas till demens över generationer
En stor studie från Karolinska Institutet visar att föräldrar och mor- och farföräldrar till personer med adhd hade högre risk för demens, än de med barn och barnbarn utan adhd. Forskarna fann att föräldrar till personer med adhd hade 34 procent högre risk för demens, jämfört med föräldrar till personer utan adhd. Risken för Alzheimers sjukdom, vilket är den vanligaste typen av demens, var 55 pro
5h
Ny mRNA-behandling testas mot cancer
Den genetiska budbärarmolekylen mRNA fick sitt stora genombrott i vaccin mot covid-19. Företagen Moderna och Pfizer-Biontechs vaccin är de första m-rna-baserade terapeutiska medel som godkänts för människor. Men terapi med mRNA utvecklas även mot andra sjukdomar, som cancer. Både tyska Biontech och amerikanska Moderna har flera cancerbehandlingar under utveckling.
6h
This NASA Apollo 15 Commemorative Watch Is Historic In Its Own Right
If you've got an unquenchable passion for space exploration, you are most definitely not alone. Even in an era of tightening budgets for public space projects, Americans still enthusiastically support keeping the nation at the forefront of understanding our universe. More than seven in 10 Americans believe it's essential that the U.S. remains a world leader in exploring the galaxy, while 80 perce
6h
'Metamorphosis' material could create transforming structures
Three-dimensional materials that borrow from kirigami can create structures capable of transforming into multiple different architectures. Researchers envision applications ranging from construction to robotics. "The system we've developed was inspired by metamorphosis," says Jie Yin, corresponding author of a paper on the work and an associate professor of mechanical and aerospace engineering at
6h
What ancient Chinese roofs can tell us about climate change
To reconstruct a picture of past climates, scientists often examine trapped bubbles in ice cores or the width of rings inside old trees. A new study, published in Science Advances by researchers at Nanjing University in China suggests that there may even be clues to changes in past weather conditions in buildings.
7h
Examining the impact of applicant smoking and vaping habits in job interviews
Legally protected characteristics such as race, gender, or sexual orientation cannot be used by companies to discriminate against job applicants. However, regardless of the presence or absence of formal protections, many biases seep through based on hiring managers' personal subjectivity—indeed, surface level cues like body piercings, tattoos, and smoking can negatively impact applicants' job pros
7h
15 år gamle altaner allerede ved at kollapse
PLUS. En inspektion af fugtskader i tegloverliggere afslørede, at altanerne i et kun 15 år gammelt plejecenter var i akut fare for at ryge ned. Boligselskab vil nu undersøge, om der kan gøres krav gældende mod byggeforretningsfører.
7h
'Misleading and inaccurate information': Rocky tenure for high mountain paper as complaints prompt retraction
A journal has retracted a study that sought to dispel fears about the risks — real and inflated — associated with travel to high altitudes after receiving complaints from a group of experts who found fault with the paper. That's the official version. The backstory is somewhat more complex. "Acute Mountain Sickness, High Altitude Pulmonary … Continue reading
7h
Daily briefing: Ground-breaking carbon capture plant starts up
Nature, Published online: 09 September 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02473-y The largest direct-air carbon capture facility in the world is trying to empty the ocean with a teaspoon — but it's a start. Plus, a thorium-fuelled nuclear reactor to begin tests in China and why most fossil-fuel reserves must be left in the ground.
8h
Forskningens infrastruktur bør styrkes
Nye love og regler har været medvirkende til lange ventetider og store forsinkelser i mange forskningsprojekter. Det skaber frustration og kan betyde, at forskningsprojekter ikke bliver gennemført eller lider alvorlige økonomiske tab.
8h
In situ cryo-electron tomography reveals gradient organization of ribosome biogenesis in intact nucleoli
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25413-w The large and small subunits of the ribosome are synthesized independently within the nucleolus — a membrane-less compartment within the nucleus — before being exported into the cytoplasm. Here, the authors use in situ cryo-ET to observe ribosome maturation and reveal the native organization of the nucleolu
9h
Selective targeting of the TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB pathway reduces α-synuclein spreading in vitro and in vivo
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25767-1 The mechanisms underlying the spreading of α-synuclein in various α-synucleinopathies are unclear. Here, the authors show that targeting the TLR2/MyD88/NF-κB pathway can reduce α-synuclein spreading, reduce neuroinflammation, and protect dopaminergic neurons in vitro and in mouse models
9h
The chemistry of branched condensed phosphates
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25668-3 The "anti-branching rule", introduced in 1950, excludes branched polyphosphates from biological relevance due to their supposedly rapid hydrolysis. Here, the authors synthesize monodisperse branched polyphosphates and demonstrate their unexpected stability in water, as well as provide evidence for their com
9h
Motional narrowing, ballistic transport, and trapping of room-temperature exciton polaritons in an atomically-thin semiconductor
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25656-7 Room-temperature exciton polaritons in a monolayer WS2 are shown to display strong motional narrowing of the linewidth and enhanced first-order coherence. They can propagate for tens of micrometers while maintaining partial coherence, and display signatures of ballistic (dissipationless) transport.
9h
TNF-α-mediated m6A modification of ELMO1 triggers directional migration of mesenchymal stem cell in ankylosing spondylitis
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25710-4 Abnormal functions of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) contribute into the pathogenensis of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Here, the authors show that TNF-α at high concentration induces enhances migration of AS-MSC through METTL14 mediated m6A modification of the ELMO1 3′ UTR.
9h
The gut microbiome in konzo
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25694-1 Here, using metagenomic profiling in 180 individuals from the Democratic Republic of the Congo, the authors find associations between the gut microbiome and konzo, a neurodegenerative disease that mostly affects children and is caused by the consumption improperly processed cassava.
9h
Metabolic requirements of NK cells during the acute response against retroviral infection
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25715-z Metabolic alterations control the fate and function of immune cells in response to infections, but the function of NK cell metabolism in the context of acute viral infections is unclear. Here the authors show that acute NK cell responses to Friend retrovirus involve increased glycolysis and mitochondrial me
9h
Future phytoplankton diversity in a changing climate
Nature Communications, Published online: 10 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25699-w Phytoplankton form the base of the marine ecosystem but current ocean models used for climate change projections are too simple to assess potential changes in plankton community structure. This study analyses a complex ecosystem model with 35 phytoplankton types to evaluate the changes in phytoplankton comm
9h
The Pro-Vaccine Test
When it comes to children and COVID-19, certain doctors seem unwilling to acknowledge negative information about the virus and positive information about the vaccine. Can they pass the pro-vaccine test? The post first appeared on Science-Based Medicine .
10h
Upside-down rhinos and nose-clearing orgasms: 2021's Ig Nobel winners announced – video
Groundbreaking studies into how well beards soften punches to the face, the benefits of transporting rhinoceroses upside down, and orgasms as a nasal decongestant have taken one of the most coveted awards in science: the Ig Nobel prize. Not to be confused with Nobel awards, the Ig Nobels celebrate the quirkier realms of science, rewarding research that first makes people laugh and then makes them
11h
Schneider Shorts 10.09.2021 – Greed is Good
Schneider Shorts 10.09.2021: featuring Progressive Eugenics, lactoferrin back as COVID-19 miracle cure, proxalutamide banned, with a secret game-changer from Texas and a not-so-secret-anymore drug from France, does one really need ethics approvals to torture small animals, and why stealthily taking industry bribes is not research misconduct.
12h
Forced responses: Sep 2021
A bimonthly open thread for discussions related to climate solutions. Note that open discussions of climate science are here . Possible topics of interest are the trial carbon-capture effort in Iceland and the discussions in the lead up to COP26 . Please be constructive and substantive. The post first appeared on RealClimate .
16h
The Math of Everything
Galileo said that mathematics is the language of nature. This eBook examines math across disciplines, exploring how math is the backbone connecting the physical, social and economic worlds. From… — Read more on ScientificAmerican.com
17h
Preventing the long-term effects of traumatic brain injury
Researchers have identified a specific molecule in a part of the brain called the thalamus that plays a key role in secondary effects of traumatic brain injury, such as sleep disruption, epileptic activity, and inflammation. They also showed that an antibody treatment could prevent the development of these negative outcomes.
17h
Researchers enlist robot swarms to mine lunar resources
Building a base on the moon was once something out of science fiction, but now scientists are starting to consider it more seriously. Researchers are investigating methods for mining lunar resources to build such a base, using swarms of autonomous robots.
18h
Large herbivore can reduce fire risks
The use of large herbivores can be an effective means to prevent and mitigate wildfires, especially in places facing land abandonment. They can replace much more costly solutions like firefighting or mechanical vegetation removal.
18h
Surprise: The Milky Way is not homogeneous
In order to better understand the history and evolution of the Milky Way, astronomers are studying the composition of the gases and metals that make up an important part of our galaxy. Three main elements stand out: the initial gas coming from outside our galaxy, the gas between the stars inside our galaxy — enriched with chemical elements –, and the dust created by the condensation of the metal
19h
Jobbet blir bättre med åldern
Arbetstagare i 60 årsåldern och uppåt blir allt nöjdare med sina jobb ju äldre de blir, visar två studier från Stockholms universitet. I studierna beskriver de arbetande pensionärerna sina jobb som mer flexibla och givande och allt mindre stressande i takt med ökande ålder. Arbetstagarna i 60-årsåldern och uppåt beskriver dessutom sina arbetsvillkor som allt bättre. De har mer kontroll över sin a
19h
Reconfigurable metasurfaces provide nanoscale light control
Researchers have designed electromechanically reconfigurable ultrathin optical elements that can be controlled and programmed on a pixel-by-pixel level. These versatile metasurfaces could offer a new chip-based way to achieve nanoscale control of light, which could lead to better optical displays, information encoding and digital light processing.
20h
Choosing This Online Vet Service for Your Pets Will Save You Thousands of Dollars
If we've learned anything in the last year-and-a-half, it's that our pets are more than simply our companions. They're part of our family. During the pandemic, they showered us with affection, comforted us when things felt hopeless, and motivated us to get up and play when we didn't even want to get out of bed. This is why it's no surprise that during the pandemic, pet owners began spending more
20h
Swedish Central Bank Head: Bitcoin Price Could Completely Collapse
Stefan Ingves, the governor of Sweden's central bank, said that Bitcoin's value could collapse drastically — and compared the seminal crytocurrency to stamp collecting, undermining its validity and long-term feasibility. "Private money usually collapses sooner or later," he said during a banking conference in Stockholm, in remarks reported by Bloomberg . "And sure, you can get rich by trading in
21h
Team sequences shea tree genome to support breeding and conservation efforts
The shea tree is a vital social and economic crop that is best known for the popular product shea butter—a multimillion-dollar ingredient used in cosmetics, personal care products, pharmaceuticals and chocolate. For hundreds of thousands of African families living in the "shea belt" it is also a crucial source of nutrition and income. Despite its increasing demand, the slow-growing shea tree is be
22h
Space Force Head Says China Could Blow Up Satellites
Fighting Words US Space Force chief John Raymond, told Japanese newspaper Nikkei in an interview that he's worried about China's anti-satellite technologies posing a threat to the US military's presence in space. Raymond told the newspaper that China is building "everything from reversible jammers of our GPS system — which provides navigation and timing with precision— to jamming of communication
22h
Distinct roles of nuclear basket proteins in directing the passage of mRNA through the nuclear pore [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
The in vivo characterization of the exact copy number and the specific function of each composite protein within the nuclear pore complex (NPC) remains both desirable and challenging. Through the implementation of live-cell high-speed super-resolution single-molecule microscopy, we first quantified the native copies of nuclear basket (BSK) proteins (Nup153, Nup50,…
23h
Chronic UV radiation-induced ROR{gamma}t+ IL-22-producing lymphoid cells are associated with mutant KC clonal expansion [Immunology and Inflammation]
Chronic ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure is the greatest risk factor for cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (cSCC) development, and compromised immunity accelerates this risk. Having previously identified that epidermal Langerhans cells (LC) facilitate the expansion of UV-induced mutant keratinocytes (KC), we sought to more fully elucidate the immune pathways critical to…
23h
The sequence-ensemble relationship in fuzzy protein complexes [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) interact with globular proteins through a variety of mechanisms, resulting in the structurally heterogeneous ensembles known as fuzzy complexes. While there exists a reasonable comprehension on how IDP sequence determines the unbound IDP ensemble, little is known about what shapes the structural characteristics of IDPs bound…
23h
Intrinsic physicochemical profile of marketed antibody-based biotherapeutics [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Feeding biopharma pipelines with biotherapeutic candidates that possess desirable developability profiles can help improve the productivity of biologic drug discovery and development. Here, we have derived an in silico profile by analyzing computed physicochemical descriptors for the variable regions (Fv) found in 77 marketed antibody-based biotherapeutics. Fv regions of these…
23h
The adaptive challenge of extreme conditions shapes evolutionary diversity of plant assemblages at continental scales [Ecology]
The tropical conservatism hypothesis (TCH) posits that the latitudinal gradient in biological diversity arises because most extant clades of animals and plants originated when tropical environments were more widespread and because the colonization of colder and more seasonal temperate environments is limited by the phylogenetically conserved environmental tolerances of these…
23h
Cytokine receptor cluster size impacts its endocytosis and signaling [Cell Biology]
The interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R) is a cytokine receptor essential for immunity that transduces proliferative signals regulated by its uptake and degradation. IL-2R is a well-known marker of clathrin-independent endocytosis (CIE), a process devoid of any coat protein, raising the question of how the CIE vesicle is generated. Here, we investigated…
23h
A therapeutic convection-enhanced macroencapsulation device for enhancing {beta} cell viability and insulin secretion [Applied Biological Sciences]
Islet transplantation for type 1 diabetes treatment has been limited by the need for lifelong immunosuppression regimens. This challenge has prompted the development of macroencapsulation devices (MEDs) to immunoprotect the transplanted islets. While promising, conventional MEDs are faced with insufficient transport of oxygen, glucose, and insulin because of the reliance…
23h
Structural changes in bacteriophage T7 upon receptor-induced genome ejection [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Many tailed bacteriophages assemble ejection proteins and a portal–tail complex at a unique vertex of the capsid. The ejection proteins form a transenvelope channel extending the portal–tail channel for the delivery of genomic DNA in cell infection. Here, we report the structure of the mature bacteriophage T7, including the ejection…
23h
A second S4 movement opens hyperpolarization-activated HCN channels [Neuroscience]
Rhythmic activity in pacemaker cells, as in the sino-atrial node in the heart, depends on the activation of hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels. As in depolarization-activated K+ channels, the fourth transmembrane segment S4 functions as the voltage sensor in hyperpolarization-activated HCN channels. But how the inward movement of S4 in…
23h
The macrophage odorant receptor Olfr78 mediates the lactate-induced M2 phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages [Cell Biology]
Expression and function of odorant receptors (ORs), which account for more than 50% of G protein–coupled receptors, are being increasingly reported in nonolfactory sites. However, ORs that can be targeted by drugs to treat diseases remain poorly identified. Tumor-derived lactate plays a crucial role in multiple signaling pathways leading to…
23h
Localized blood-brain barrier opening in infiltrating gliomas with MRI-guided acoustic emissions-controlled focused ultrasound [Engineering]
Pharmacological treatment of gliomas and other brain-infiltrating tumors remains challenging due to limited delivery of most therapeutics across the blood–brain barrier (BBB). Transcranial MRI-guided focused ultrasound (FUS), an emerging technology for noninvasive brain treatments, enables transient opening of the BBB through acoustic activation of circulating microbubbles. Here, we evaluate the..
23h
Structural analysis of receptors and actin polarity in platelet protrusions [Cell Biology]
During activation the platelet cytoskeleton is reorganized, inducing adhesion to the extracellular matrix and cell spreading. These processes are critical for wound healing and clot formation. Initially, this task relies on the formation of strong cellular–extracellular matrix interactions, exposed in subendothelial lesions. Despite the medical relevance of these processes, there…
23h
Comparative genomics provides insights into the aquatic adaptations of mammals [Evolution]
The ancestors of marine mammals once roamed the land and independently committed to an aquatic lifestyle. These macroevolutionary transitions have intrigued scientists for centuries. Here, we generated high-quality genome assemblies of 17 marine mammals (11 cetaceans and six pinnipeds), including eight assemblies at the chromosome level. Incorporating previously published data,…
23h
Climate variability and density-dependent population dynamics: Lessons from a simple High Arctic ecosystem [Ecology]
Ecologists are still puzzled by the diverse population dynamics of herbivorous small mammals that range from high-amplitude, multiannual cycles to stable dynamics. Theory predicts that this diversity results from combinations of climatic seasonality, weather stochasticity, and density-dependent food web interactions. The almost ubiquitous 3- to 5-y cycles in boreal and…
23h
Eye contact marks the rise and fall of shared attention in conversation [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Conversation is the platform where minds meet: the venue where information is shared, ideas cocreated, cultural norms shaped, and social bonds forged. Its frequency and ease belie its complexity. Every conversation weaves a unique shared narrative from the contributions of independent minds, requiring partners to flexibly move into and out…
23h
Diffusion of a disordered protein on its folded ligand [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Intrinsically disordered proteins often form dynamic complexes with their ligands. Yet, the speed and amplitude of these motions are hidden in classical binding kinetics. Here, we directly measure the dynamics in an exceptionally mobile, high-affinity complex. We show that the disordered tail of the cell adhesion protein E-cadherin dynamically samples…
23h
Perturbations in plant energy homeostasis prime lateral root initiation via SnRK1-bZIP63-ARF19 signaling [Plant Biology]
Plants adjust their energy metabolism to continuous environmental fluctuations, resulting in a tremendous plasticity in their architecture. The regulatory circuits involved, however, remain largely unresolved. In Arabidopsis, moderate perturbations in photosynthetic activity, administered by short-term low light exposure or unexpected darkness, lead to increased lateral root (LR) initiation. Consi
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Probing solution structure of the pentameric ligand-gated ion channel GLIC by small-angle neutron scattering [Biophysics and Computational Biology]
Pentameric ligand-gated ion channels undergo subtle conformational cycling to control electrochemical signal transduction in many kingdoms of life. Several crystal structures have now been reported in this family, but the functional relevance of such models remains unclear. Here, we used small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) to probe ambient solution-phase properties of…
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Bacterial endosymbionts protect beneficial soil fungus from nematode attack [Microbiology]
Fungi of the genus Mortierella occur ubiquitously in soils where they play pivotal roles in carbon cycling, xenobiont degradation, and promoting plant growth. These important fungi are, however, threatened by micropredators such as fungivorous nematodes, and yet little is known about their protective tactics. We report that Mortierella verticillata NRRL…
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Engineering hydrogels with homogeneous mechanical properties for controlling stem cell lineage specification [Applied Physical Sciences]
The extracellular matrix (ECM) is mechanically inhomogeneous due to the presence of a wide spectrum of biomacromolecules and hierarchically assembled structures at the nanoscale. Mechanical inhomogeneity can be even more pronounced under pathological conditions due to injury, fibrogenesis, or tumorigenesis. Although considerable progress has been devoted to engineering synthetic hydrogels…
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Correction for Li et al., Structure of the Dietzia Mrp complex reveals molecular mechanism of this giant bacterial sodium proton pump [Corrections]
CELL BIOLOGY, CHEMISTRY Correction for "Structure of the Dietzia Mrp complex reveals molecular mechanism of this giant bacterial sodium proton pump," by Bin Li, Kaiduan Zhang, Yong Nie, Xianping Wang, Yan Zhao, Xuejun C. Zhang, and Xiao-Lei Wu, which was first published November 23, 2020; 10.1073/pnas.2006276117 (Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci….
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WHO Chief "Appalled" By Rich Countries Hoarding COVID Vaccines
World Health Organization director-general Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus has had it with the rich countries of the world hoarding and even starting to distribute booster shots of their COVID-19 vaccines. In remarks during a Wednesday briefing, Tedros said that he was "appalled" by the broken promises and hollow platitudes that world leaders offered in place of tangible action, according to Ars Techn
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Baby birds tune in from egg
Ever wondered why birds are born to peep, chirrup and sing? Surprisingly international avian experts have shown this to be true, literally, after finding fluctuations in bird species' heartbeat responses to their parents' calls — from inside the egg. Using non-invasive techniques, a study found evidence of prenatal auditory learning in embryos of three vocal learning species (Superb fairy-wren, r
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New research analyzes millions of Twitter posts during hurricanes to understand how people communicate in a disaster
In the face of a potentially disastrous storm like Hurricane Ida, people take to Twitter and other social media sites to communicate vital information. New research published in the journal Risk Analysis suggests that monitoring and analyzing this social media "chatter" during a natural disaster could help decision makers learn how to plan for and mitigate the impacts of severe weather events in t
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Who was king before Tyrannosaurus? Uzbek fossil reveals new top dino
A new dinosaur from the lower Upper Cretaceous of Uzbekistan, Ulughbegsaurus uzbekistanensis, was described from a single maxilla fossil. The research team estimated that this carcharodontosaurian weighed over 1000 kg and measured 7.5–8.0 meters in length, much larger than previously described predators from the same formation. The fossil's age, location, and co-occurrence with the smaller tyrann
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As U.S. football season kicks off, climate change threatens the game
For many in the United States, the first sign of fall is the start of football season. College students are back on campus and broadcasting networks are gearing up for the usual Thursday-to-Monday coverage. But the impacts of climate change have undeniably worsened in recent years, converging in a cluster of disasters each summer and fall —also known as prime football time.
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A new method to understand protein dynamics and the regulation of cellular processes
Cellular processes are regulated through the balance between protein shapes that confer active or inactive functions. In the complexity of cellular regulations, the preferred shape (or conformation) of a protein often depends on the binding of another molecule (called effector), thus implying that the same protein can exert distinct functions depending on the effector it binds to. At the molecular
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Rapidly Spinning "Dog Bone" Asteroid Near Mars Could Break Itself Apart
Fetch! A massive team of astronomers got a close look at a bizarre, bone-shaped asteroid orbiting our Sun between Mars and Jupiter. Astronomers first discovered the asteroid and named it Kleopatra two decades ago, according to Live Science . But new observations from the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope (VLT) granted scientists a much better look at the unusual space rock and,
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NASA's James Webb Space Telescope Will Finally Launch Soon
A render of Webb's final configuration. NASA and its partners have been developing the James Webb Space Telescope for an unfathomably long time, but we're almost there. NASA has announced a launch date for the $10 billion telescope, and although this is not the first one it's had, this one seems doable as the telescope itself is complete and almost ready to ship out to the launch site. If all goe
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Educated moms are more often having child outside marriage
College-educated women are much more likely than ever before to have a first child outside of marriage, research finds. Women with degrees are also more likely to be married at the time of their second birth, suggesting a historic shift among the educated away from starting families with marriage to starting them with a baby. Johns Hopkins University sociologist Andrew Cherlin reports the finding
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The World's Largest Direct Air Capture Plant Is Now Pulling CO2 From the Air in Iceland
A little over four years ago, the world's first commercial plant for sucking carbon dioxide out of the air opened near Zurich, Switzerland. The plant was powered by a waste heat recovery facility, with giant fans pushing air through a filtration system that trapped the carbon. The carbon was then separated and sold to buyers, such as a greenhouse that used it to help grow vegetables. The plant ra
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500-million-year-old fossil represents rare discovery of ancient animal in North America
Many scientists consider the 'Cambrian explosion' — which occurred about 530-540 million years ago — as the first major appearance of many of the world's animal groups in the fossil record. Like adding pieces to a giant jigsaw puzzle, each discovery dating from this time period has added another piece to the evolutionary map of modern animals. Now, researchers have found a rare, 500-million-year
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Pick your own exercise goals to make changes that last
When people set their own exercise goals and then pursue them immediately, it's more likely to result in positive lasting changes, according to a new study. The researchers made their findings among an underserved population at particularly high risk of having or developing heart conditions, making the work especially important. "Most behavior change programs involve goal-setting, but the best wa
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Flowing crystals for quick camouflage
Nature, Published online: 09 September 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02458-x A soft material can be guided to rapidly assume the same colour pattern as its background.
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HR diagram: how we learned that stars evolve
Just like you and me, stars change over time. By studying the characteristics of stars, like their temperature and luminosity, astrophysicists figured out how stars evolve over time. This amazing insight is the primary lesson of the Hertzsprung-Russell (HR) diagram. Human beings, as the species Homo sapiens , have been around for about 300,000 years. That turns out to be about 100 million nights
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New ceramics self-heal cracks at room temp
Researchers have discovered a class of ceramics called MAX phases that can self-heal cracks even at room temperature. They've shown that these engineered ceramics form natural faults or kink-bands during loading that can not only effectively stop cracks from growing, but can also close and heal them, thereby preventing catastrophic failure. "What's really exciting about MAX phases is that they re
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COVID vax works even without the side effects
Pfizer and Moderna mRNA vaccines yield a robust antibody response even when people don't develop significant side effect symptoms following vaccination, a new study shows. When the two messenger RNA vaccines for COVID-19 first became readily available, many people talked about side effects, everything from headaches to chills to feeling exhausted for a couple days. Yet plenty of others seemed to
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Elevated carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere negatively affects dung beetles size and survival
Climate change is a truth of the 21st century that is difficult to avoid. The burning of fossil fuels in industry, for transport, and other everyday life activities of Homo sapiens has resulted in elevated levels of CO2 in the Earth's atmosphere. Extreme weather conditions as seen in recent flood, drought and fire events worldwide are some of the most obvious ways in which increasing CO2 levels ar
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Cat adoption eases stress for felines and kids with autism
While researchers have found that adding a shelter cat to the family can help lower stress and anxiety for children with autism, a new study shows joining a family does wonders for the felines, too. "It's not only important to examine how families of children with autism may benefit from these wonderful companion animals, but also if the relationship is stressful or burdensome for the shelter cat
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Terrifying proto-whale hunted on land and in the sea
Before migrating to the sea, whales were terrestrial herbivores. As they transitioned to the ocean and became carnivores, at least one proto-whale was an eating machine — both on land and in the sea. This fearsome fossil was found in the Sahara desert, which used to be an ocean bottom. Whales are carnivorous , although gigantic baleen whales feed on such tiny prey that it is hard to believe that
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How SARS-CoV-2 infects cells with its spike protein
The spike protein responsible for COVID-19 infection is like a loaded spring, with a catch, according to new research. The findings, based on simulations of the process by which the spike reconfigures itself to attach to and infect cells, may help researchers find new ways to defeat the SARS-CoV-2 virus . "We're trying to identify all the relevant moving parts that we might be able to stop." The
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Surprisingly high emissions from fuel-powered auxiliary heaters in cars
Heaters, sold under such well-known brand names as Webasto and Eberspächer, among others, are used in both passenger cars and heavy-duty vehicles to preheat the engine and provide additional cabin heating while driving. Emissions from heaters are not regulated, although they are widely used in especially colder regions, such as Finland. Therefore, they can have a significant impact on local air qu
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Developing films with tunable elongation and fracture for various uses
Elastomers, or elastic polymers, materials with high elasticity, are widely used for applications in industries, such as automotive, manufacturing, and oil and gas. The degree of elasticity in these materials, denoted by a parameter known as "Young's modulus," depends on the extent of cross-linking between the constituent polymer layers such that higher cross-linking leads to higher rigidity, and,
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How climate change contributed to Madagascar's food crisis
The U.N. has announced that Madagascar is on the brink of experiencing the world's first "climate change famine". Tens of thousands of people are suffering "catastrophic" levels of hunger. Climate hazard scientist, Chris Funk, provides insights into the causes.
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How to improve teaching in programming
The way that schools currently teach programming is usually limited to various practical activities. The students get to experiment with programming, but they gain no general understanding of how technical devices in everyday life are controlled through programming. This is the conclusion of a new thesis that has also identified what needs to be done to improve the way programming is taught in tec
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Self-assembled optical cavities can reach a strong-coupling state that supports polariton formation
A team of researchers at Chalmers University of Technology has found a way to create self-assembling optical cavities that can reach a strong-coupling state that supports polariton formation. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the group describes how their optical cavities were made and possible uses for them. Johannes Feist with the Autonomous University of Madrid has published a New
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Worms and Snakes for Lunch | Naked and Afraid
Stream Naked and Afraid on discovery+ ► https://www.discoveryplus.com/show/naked-and-afraid About Naked and Afraid: What happens when you put two complete strangers – sans clothes – in some of the most extreme environments on Earth? Each male-female duo is left with no food, no water, no clothes, and only one survival item. #NakedAndAfraid #Discovery #Survival Subscribe to Discovery: http://bit.l
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Be Your Own Bank With This Next Generation Crypto Wallet
Many people believe that cryptocurrency has the potential to be a great equalizer in the global economy. However, when it comes to protecting your cryptocurrency, not all storage methods are created equal. That's why more and more crypto investors are opting for a handheld, mobile device, also known as a crypto wallet, to keep their crypto secure and accessible 24/7. And the Keevo Model 1 is the
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Report: Effects of climate change on Indigenous peoples, lands and culture
Researchers from the Institute of Tribal Environmental Professionals this week launched the State of Tribes and Climate Change (STACC) report, which examines the disproportionate effect climate change has on Indigenous lands and people and the added strain tribes experience as they respond to damaging climate events, which are increasing in frequency and severity.
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The trauma of war was passed on in Finnish families
The time of war left its mark on Finnish families. Many fathers and young men returning from the front were traumatized, had nightmares, drunk heavily and were violent against their family members. Often, their ability to work and provide was not the same as before. Many mothers who took sole care of the home and farm work, on the other hand, were exhausted.
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Enough moral relativism: some cultures are worse than others
Conventionalism is the idea that right and wrong depend entirely on the cultures and traditions to which we belong. What one culture calls immoral, another accepts as normal. But if we accept this reasoning, we are forced to conclude that any manner of atrocities — from ritual child sacrifice to female genital mutilation — are permissible. Without a universal standard of morality, it is difficult
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Enhancing revegetation of old fields in Western Australia
Wildflowers and native grasses are needed to boost revegetation in Western Australia's northern wheatbelt, according to new research from the Centre for Terrestrial Ecosystem Science and Sustainability at Murdoch University's Harry Butler Institute.
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First global study of wildfires reveals increase in mortality rate
The first study into the global impact of wildfire-related pollution and deaths comprehensively links short term exposure to wildfire-related fine particulate matters (PM2.5) in the air and all-cause, respiratory and cardiovascular mortalities across cities and regions around the globe.
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Detektion av mikrovågor på nanonivå kan ge bättre kvantdatorer
Lundaforskare har kommit på ett nytt sätt att detektera mikrovågsfotoner, ljuspartiklar med låg energi. Med hjälp av nanotrådar kan de omvandla dessa fotoner till en mätbar ström av elektroner, något som behövs för kommunikation mellan delarna i en kvantdator. Mikrovågor är ett samlingsnamn för elektromagnetisk strålning inom de högre radiofrekvensbanden och kan användas till allt ifrån att värma
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Electric Vehicles by the Numbers
I recently purchased a full electric vehicle (EV) and so far I'm very satisfied with the purchase. The functionality and performance is just superior, in my opinion, to similar internal combustion engine (ICE) vehicles. The up front cost is a little higher than for a similar ICE vehicle, but that difference is coming down, especially if you consider the reduced cost of operation from reduced fuel
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Elon Musk Says Tesla Full Self-Driving Is Almost Ready for Release
Unlike most companies, Tesla doesn't have a public relations team. It has founder and CEO Elon Musk, who drops news and memes on Twitter. Musk says the company is finally set to release the Full Self-Driving (FSD) update for compatible Tesla vehicles in the US, but this isn't the first time he's said that. If it's true this time, the software will begin rolling out at midnight on Sept. 10 to beta
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Are third vaccines and vaccine boosters the same thing? – podcast
The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation is recommending that a third jab be offered to people with weakened immune systems but the programme and rollout are different to the Covid vaccine boosters expected to be discussed by the JCVI later on Thursday. Shivani Dave speaks to Eleanor Riley, professor of immunology and infectious disease at the University of Edinburgh, and the Guardian
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Are third vaccines and vaccine boosters the same thing?
The Joint Committee on Vaccination and Immunisation is recommending that a third jab be offered to people with weakened immune systems but the programme and rollout are different to the Covid vaccine boosters expected to be discussed by the JCVI later on Thursday. Shivani Dave speaks to Eleanor Riley, professor of immunology and infectious disease at the University of Edinburgh, and the Guardian s
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Master A New Language With A Year of Busuu Premium Plus On Sale For 45% Off
Language is constantly evolving , and learning a new language is a great way to keep your mental skills sharp, expand your horizons, and have fun doing it. Yet it's also difficult to achieve the full immersion linguists recommend to speak, read, and write a new language. This 1-year subscription to Busuu Premium Plus puts language courses developed by those same linguists and native speakers righ
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Odlad svamp blir kugge i cirkulär matproduktion
Städernas matavfall kan bli odlingsbäddar för ostronskivling. Den köttiga koralltickan trivs på sågspån från svensk skog. Odlad svamp kan bli en nyckelspelare i så kallad cirkulär matproduktion, menar forskare vid SLU. Cirkulär livsmedelsproduktion handlar om att skapa ett system där avfall inte uppstår och resurser behålls i ett kretslopp. Och som dessutom kan ge vinster både för miljön och ekon
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Daily briefing: Made-up words communicate across cultures
Nature, Published online: 08 September 2021; doi:10.1038/d41586-021-02464-z Nonsense sounds can convey concepts to people around the world. Plus, Mars rover finally collects its first rock core and how science is supporting climate lawsuits.
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Variant PCGF1-PRC1 links PRC2 recruitment with differentiation-associated transcriptional inactivation at target genes
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-24894-z Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC1 and PRC2) repress genes that are crucial for development via epigenetic modifications; however, their role in differentiation is not well known. Here the authors reveal that a PCGF1-containing PRC1 variant facilitates exit from pluripotency by downregulating target genes
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Climate warming promotes pesticide resistance through expanding overwintering range of a global pest
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25505-7 Climate-driven range shifts may affect pesticide resistance. Here, the authors analyse experimentally parameterised and field-tested models to show that a cosmopolitan insect pest, the diamondback moth, is acquiring resistance against local pesticides through expanding overwintering range.
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Locus specific epigenetic modalities of random allelic expression imbalance
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25630-3 Some autosomal genes are expressed in a random monoallelic manner, but its extent and mechanisms have remained unclear. Here the authors show robust monoallelic expression in cell lines and mice, where the silent allele can be reexpressed using epidrugs. Further, they find these genes display various modali
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Structural basis for the tryptophan sensitivity of TnaC-mediated ribosome stalling
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25663-8 Bacteria adjust the expression of some of their metabolic enzymes through metabolite-sensing ribosome nascent chain complexes. Here the authors present a cryo-EM structure of an E. coli ribosome stalled during translation of the TnaC leader peptide and propose a model for L-Trp dependent ribosome stalling w
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A barbed end interference mechanism reveals how capping protein promotes nucleation in branched actin networks
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25682-5 The assembly of branched actin networks depends on the heterodimeric capping protein CP/CapZ. Combining cryoEM, in vitro reconstitution and cell biological assays, the authors show that CP not only prevents actin filament elongation but also selectively masks actin filament ends to promote nucleation.
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DnaJC7 binds natively folded structural elements in tau to inhibit amyloid formation
Nature Communications, Published online: 09 September 2021; doi:10.1038/s41467-021-25635-y Protein binding by the Hsp70/J-domain protein (JDP) chaperones prevents aggregation of the client protein. Here, the authors show that DnaJC7 binds preferentially to natively folded wild-type tau, via a β-turn element in tau that contains the known amyloid motif, while aggregation-prone tau mutants are reco
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Måttligt med fruktklämmisar ger ingen övervikt
Så kallade fruktklämmisar någon gång i veckan har inget samband med övervikt hos barn. Övervikt vid 18 månaders ålder hänger i stället främst ihop med mammans BMI, visar en studie från Umeå universitet. Studien visar också att amning ger ett visst skydd mot övervikt. – Det finns ingen anledning till överdriven oro över att 1,5-åringar i Västerbotten äter fruktklämmisar så ofta att de blir övervik
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