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Stiklingeformering af planter – øges under varme

Varme temperaturer øger kraftigt regenereringen af ​skud af gåsemad (​engelsk: thalekarse)- Dette har planteforskere ved RIKEN fundet. De har også afsløret den molekylære mekanisme bag denne effekt, som vil hjælpe med at optimere regenereringen af ​​plantestiklinger til både plantevidenskabelig forskning og havebrug.

Som enhver gartner ved, kan planter udover at formere sig seksuelt gennem bestøvning klones via stiklinger. Planteforskere har udnyttet denne evne i 100 år ved at pleje plantevæv på medier beriget med væksthormoner.

Forskning har undersøgt, hvordan faktorer som temperatur, lys og fugtighed påvirker hormon-induceret regenerering af stiklinger. Men det overordnede billede er forvirrende, da mange undersøgelser har set på flere faktorer samtidigt og ikke har forsøgt at relatere resultater til de underliggende   .

"Folk har prøvet alle mulige ting, såsom at ændre temperatur og fugtighed og lægge stiklinger i mørke eller i   ," siger Keiko Sugimoto fra RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science. "Men det har været ret tilfældigt – ligesom "lad os prøve det her og se, hvad der sker." Der har ikke været nogen forståelse af de involverede molekylære mekanismer."

Hendes team søger at bringe klarhed i dette kaos. "I løbet af det sidste årti har vi kortlagt en vigtig molekylær vej, der regulerer planteregenerering," forklarer Keiko Sugimoto. "Vi er nu i stand til at spørge, hvordan faktorer såsom temperatur påvirker denne regenerering."

Nu har Keiko Sugimoto og hendes medarbejdere, ved at sammenligne stiklinger dyrket ved 17, 22 og 27 grader Celsius, fundet ud af, at varm temperatur både fremmer dannelsen af ​​regenereringskompetent væv og efterfølgende skudregenerering i modelplanten gåsemad Arabidopsis thaliana. "Effekten af ​​temperatur var massiv," siger hun.

Holdet identificerede også    , der fik deres udtryk forstærket af   , hvilket førte til skudregenerering. "Man skulle tro, at der må være mange, mange gener, der påvirkes af   , men det viser sig, at kun få gener har betydning for skudregenerering," forklarer Keiko Sugimoto.

Denne indsigt i den molekylære mekanisme for regenerering kan nu gøre det muligt at opnå samme fordel uden at skrue op for varmen. "Varm temperatur gør mange ting, som ikke alle nødvendigvis er gode til skudregenerering," bemærker Keiko Sugimoto. "Men nu hvor vi kender den molekylære mekanisme, behøver vi ikke nødvendigvis at ændre temperaturen – vi kan bare justere den molekylære vej for at have den samme effekt."

Artiklen vises i tidsskriftet  Plant and Cell Physiology . Holdet har nu til hensigt at undersøge effekten af ​​temperatur på    i andre planter. De ønsker også at udforske faktorer som lys og luftfugtighed.


Læs: https://phys.org/news/2022-05-arabidopsis-thaliana-regenerate-balmy-conditions.html

ENGELSK: 

Warm temperatures strongly enhance the regeneration of thale cress shoots, plant scientists at RIKEN have found. They have also uncovered the molecular mechanism behind this effect, which will help optimize the regeneration of plant cuttings for both plant-science research and horticulture.

As any gardener knows, in addition to reproducing sexually through pollination, plants can be cloned via cuttings. Plant scientists have been exploiting this ability for nearly a century by nurturing clippings on media enriched with growth hormones.

Research has explored how factors such as temperature, light and humidity influence hormone-induced regeneration of clippings. But the overall picture is confusing since many studies have looked at multiple factors simultaneously and have not tried to relate findings to the underlying .

"People have tried all sort of things, like changing the temperature and humidity and putting clippings in the dark or in ," says Keiko Sugimoto of the RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science. "But it has been quite haphazard—just like 'let's try this and see what happens.' There hasn't been any understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved."

Her team is seeking to bring clarity to the chaos. "Over the last decade, we've mapped a key molecular pathway that regulates plant regeneration," explains Sugimoto. "We're now in a position to ask how factors like temperature affect this pathway."

Now, Sugimoto and her co-workers, by comparing clippings grown at 17, 22 and 27 degrees Celsius, have found that warm temperature both promotes the formation of regeneration-competent tissue and subsequent shoot regeneration in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. "The effect of temperature was massive," she says.

The team also identified  that had their expression enhanced by , leading to shoot regeneration. "You'd think there must be many, many genes affected by , but it turns out only a few genes matter for shoot regeneration," explains Sugimoto.

These insights into the molecular mechanism of regeneration may now enable the same benefit to be achieved without turning up the heat. "Warm temperature does lots of things, not all of which are necessarily good for shoot regeneration," notes Sugimoto. "But now that we know the molecular mechanism, we don't necessarily need to change the temperature—we can just tweak the molecular pathway to have the same effect."

The paper appears in the journal Plant and Cell Physiology. The team now intends to investigate the effect of temperature on shoot  in other plants. They also want to explore factors such as light and humidity.


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